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KELLY & WALSH, L'd, Yokohama, Shanghai, Hongkong 

Z. P. MARUYA Co., L'd., Tokyo 










KELLY & WALSH, L'd, Yokohama, Shanghai, Hongkong 

Z. P. MARUYA Co., L'd., Tokyo 



Subject and Structure .—The Heike Monogatari, one of the masterpieces of Japanese literature, 
and also one of the main sources of the history of the Gempei period, is a poetic narrative of the 
fall of the Heike from the position of supremacy it had gained under Taira Kiyomori to almost 
complete destruction. The Heike, like the Genji, was a warrior clan, but had quickly lost its hardy 
simplicity under the influence of life in the Capital, and identified itself almost entirely with the 
effeminate Fujiwara Courtiers whose power it had usurped, so that the struggle between it and 
the Genji was really more one between courtiers and soldiers, between literary officials and 
military leaders. Historically this period stands between the Heian era of soft elegance and the 
Kamakura age of undiluted militarism. The Heike were largely a clan of emasculated Bushi, and 
their leader Kiyomori, though he obtained his supremacy by force of arms, assumed the role of 
Court Noble and strove to rule the country by the same device of making himself grandfather to 
the Emperor as the Fujiwara family had previously done. Hence his rule bears more affinity to 
theirs than to that of Yoritomo, of the Genji, who made his headquarters in the Kwanto, well 
removed from Kyoto influence and enervation, and relied entirely on a purely military form of 
government by and for samurai. 

In its construction the book may be divided roughly into two parts according to Mr. Utsumi, the 
first half in which the greatness of the Heike is depicted and in which Kiyomori is the chief figure, 
and the second which describes their overthrow, in which Yoshitsune holds the centre of the 
stage. Mr. Yamada, however, thinks it falls naturally into three sections; the first, Bks. 1-5 ; the 
prosperity of the Heike with Kiyomori as the central figure. The second, Bks. 6-8 ; the wandering 
of the Heike, Kiso Yoshinaka being the principal character. The third 

[p. ii} 

section, Bks. 9-12 ; their destruction, the central figure being Kuro Hangwan Yoshitsune. 
Whichever division be adopted, the work has a regular dramatic form quite unlike that of the 
Gempei Seisuiki or Taiheiki which are simply historical chronicles. 

Of the Heike the two prominent characters are Kiyomori and his son Shigemori, the former rash 
and turbulent, yet a man of original ideas and at times sympathetic and sensitive, the latter law- 
abiding, calm and wise, considerate to his neighbours, and showing respect to religion and the 
Imperial House. The fall of the Heike is ascribed to the rash and impious folly of Kiyomori, but 
the writer introduces Shigernori into the narrative most skilfully as a means of exciting the 

sympathy and admiration of the reader for his conduct as well as his indignation at his father's 
violence, leading to satisfaction that retribution will at last overtake his clan. Shigemori seems to 
hold back this retributive destiny as long as he lives, but when he dies the clouds gather over his 
house. After his death the headship of the family falls to his brother Munemori, a rather timid 
and hesitating character in a crisis, though insolent and overbearing at other times, and apparently 
much inferior to his two younger brothers Tomomori and Shigehira. 

The first of the Genji ,to come on the scene is the veteran Yorimasa, whose premature revolt and 
gallant end after the fight at the Ujigawa form a memorable episode in Japanese history. Then 
Kiso Yoshinaka appears and for a while carries all before him. A vigorous and brilliant leader, he 
seems to have lacked wisdom and sagacity and soon fell a victim like Yukiie to the jealousy and 
guile of Yoritomo. The leadership of the Genji forces then devolves on Yoshitsune and the 
narrative goes on to relate his victories and final destruction of the Heike. Yoshitsune is the ideal 
type of attractive character in Japan. Youthful and dashing, cunning graceful and elegant, quite 
unlike the solid and worthy Shigemori with his placidity and rather narrow-minded piety, 
Yoshitsune might be put in the same category with Nelson or Coeur-de-Leon, with allowances 

[p. iii] 

for period and nationality, while Shigemori mightily suggests Aeneas. The whole drama is 
represented from a Buddhist standpoint as an example of cause and effect working itself out in 
action, the evanescence of all prosperity and dominion being strongly insisted on. 

Authorship and Date. —The authorship and date of the Heike Monogatari, as well as its 
relation to the other literature of the Kamakura period, have been the subject of much discussion 
among Japanese scholars of the present time, and no exact pronouncement can be made. Mr. 
Utsumi says in the 'Heike Monogatari Hyoshaku : ' " As to the various statements that it was the 
work of Shinano-no-Zenji Yukinaga, or Hamuro Tokinaga, or Minamoto Mitsuyuki, one cannot 
adopt any one of them with certainty, but the following conclusions have been reached by the 
Society for the Investigation of the National Literature, in their monograph on this work: (a), that 
the Heike Monogatari was originally composed in three volumes which were afterwards 
increased to six, and that these were again altered to twelve; (b), that it was composed sometime 
before the period Shokyu (1219) and enlarged during the time of the Fujiwara Shoguns (1219- 
1252) ; (c) that the Kancho volume was not originally separate from the rest of the work ; (d) that 
there was one original source of the work, but that as it circulated it became altered and added to, 
and that these additions and alterations are the work of different hands at different periods." 

The most explicit statement about the authorship is contained in the Tsurezure Gusa of Yoshida 
Kenko, (1281-1350) Section 226, which is considered by most scholars likely to be correct. It runs 
as follows : " In the time of the Retired Emperor Go-Toba, Shinano-no-Zenji Yukinaga was 
renowned for his knowledge of musical matters, so that he was once summoned to take part in a 
discussion about them, but forgetting two of the Shichi Toku no Mai, Dances of the Seven 
Virtues, lie was nicknamed ' Go Toku no Kwanja' or 'The Young Master of Five Virtues,' and 
this he took so much to heart that 

[p. iv] 

he forsook his studies and became a recluse ; but the priest Jichin, who would take in anyone, 

however low his rank, if he had any artistic gift, felt sympathy for him and provided him with 
what he needed. It was this lay priest Yukinaga who wrote the Heike Monogatari and taught a 
certain blind man named Jobutsu to recite it. He wrote especially well about the affairs of 
Hieizan, and his detailed knowledge of Kuro Hangwan (Yoshitsune) enabled him to describe him 
graphically. Of Kaba-no-Kwanja (Noriyori) he does not seem to have had so much information, 
for he omits much concerning him. For matters pertaining to the Bushi and their horses and arms, 
Jobutsu, who was a native of the East Country, was able to tell him what he had learned from 
asking the warriors themselves. And the Biwa-hoshi of the present time learn to imitate the 
natural voice of this Jobutsu." 

This Yukinaga appears to have been the son of the Yukitaka mentioned in this work (vol. 3. 
Yukitaka no Sata no Koto) who was steward to the Sessho Kanezane, whose younger brother the 
priest Jichin may have been. In this case he is to be identified with the Yukinaga, former 
Governor of Shimozuke, who is mentioned in the Gyokuyo Meigetsuki as having ability in 
literary affairs. The priest Jichin was the Tendai Zasshu Jien Dai-Sojo, afterwards known as Jichin 
Daishi Zasshu of Hieizan, which would account for the writer's accurate knowledge of that 

monastery. With regard to Jobutsu iEW , of whom nothing is otherwise known, the name is 

conjectured to be a mistaken reading for Shobutsu IE W , the religious name of Minamoto 

Suketoki. This Suketoki was born in the family of Ayakoji, which was noted for its musical 
traditions, and himself became the best musician of his tune, eventually retiring from the world 
and taking up his abode with the priest Jichin. This attribution of the authorship to Yukinaga 
certainly gains much force when we note that the chapter concerning Yukitaka is quite 
unconnected with the main story and would be very well explained as an incident related by the 
author about his father 


which he thought worth preserving as an example of the fickleness of fortune. 

Another statement is found in the Daigo Zassho to the effect that Mimbu-no-Shosho Tokinaga 
wrote the Heike Monogatari in twenty four volumes, and yet another that Suketsune wrote it in 
twelve volumes. The first may refer to a later redaction of the work of Yukinaga or be merely a 
mistaken reading of his name, whereas concerning the latter, it is not improbable that he may 
have been one of the redactors, for there is a chapter in the 12th vol., entitled Yoshida Dainagon 
no Sata, relating to his grandfather Tsunefusa, which also seems to be inserted without any special 
reason. Thus it is quite certain that the work as originally composed not long after the events of 
which it treats took place was not the same as that which is now current. The oldest known 
manuscript of it is one of the period Enkei, (1308-11), and while its contents are rather less than 
those of the Gempei Seisuiki, it is about twice as long as the ordinary current editions. By a 
critical comparison of this with other known MSS, the six books it contains may be divided fairly 
easily so as to give twelve volumes. 

As the Heike Monogatari was intended for recitation to the accompaniment of the biwa, it is not 
surprising that there should be in existence a large number of variant editions as used by the 
different schools of Biwahoshi, each of which had its own traditions and version, and therefore 
the work has been peculiarly liable to change and corruption of the text as well as addition to it 
at various periods. Among these variant versions there are two main sources, one known as the 

school of Ichikata from its originator Akashi Kenko Kyoichi, and the other as the Yasaka school 
from its founder Yasaka Kenko Kigen. The characteristic difference between them is that the 
former combines the incidents of the entry of Kenrei-mon-in into Ohara and the visit of the 
Emperor to the same place into a separate volume called the Kanjin Maki, whereas the other 
does not. 

One of the best MSS of the Heike Monogatari belongs to 


the school of Kyoichi and is a National Treasure kept at Koryo Jinja, a shrine in the province of 
Chikugo. It is dated O-an (1368) and is the oldest MS of the Ichihata school : it is taken as the 
basis of the edition of Yamada and Takagi. It does not contain the story of Giyo and Ginyo or the 
Saisho Minage. 

Buddhist Tendency of the Heike. —One of the most noticeable characteristics of the Heike 
Monogatari is its strong religious atmosphere, the continual moralizing on the events described 
from the standpoint of Buddhist philosophy, with its insistence on the vanity and impermanence 
of the things of this Shaba world, and the desirability of retiring from its turmoils to prepare for 
the blessed rebirth in the world to come. So much is the work pervaded by this tendency that 
many have maintained that it was written for the purposes of propaganda, and that the religious 
element in it is the main motive. 

This view, however, seems to be much too extreme, as there is no reason to suppose that the 
inclination to quote Buddhist sentiments is any greater than might be expected in an age when 
Buddhism was so potent an influence everywhere. The Gempei period was essentially the time 
when the emotional aspect of Buddhism was most marked, and when, under the pressure of 
affliction and wretchedness, of which a very vivid picture is given in the 'Hojoki' of Kamo 
Chomei, the former ritual and esoteric cults of Tendai and Shingon gave place to the simple and 
evangelical sects of Jodo and Shinshu, developed respectively by Honen and his disciple Shinran. 
Consequently we find the expressions 'raisei ojo,' 'saiho jodo,' and others used by these sects, of 
very frequent occurrence in this work and this fact has led some critics to describe it as a Jodo 
sermon, taking the Heike as its text. When we consider, however, that the writer does not by any 
means confine himself to such phrases, nor to the adoration of Amida Buddha, the special object 
of Jodo worship, but shows respect and reverence for many other Buddhas, beside the national 
Kami, and the deities of the great shrines, there seems no sufficient reason for such a view. It is 


quite natural that the tragic story of the sudden rise and fall of the Heike house should call forth 
reflections on the impermanence of worldly affairs, seeing that these ideas formed the 
background of the thought of the age, and that the author was a recluse in a Buddhist monastery, 
as were almost all the men of letters of the time. Moreover, no doubt Buddhist phrases were 
considered to lend dignity and sonority to the narrative, as well as being a mark of the author's 
learning and taste, just as the continual citation of instances from Chinese history with which the 
book abounds served to edify those acquainted with it. 

These details correspond to the religious phraseology and classical references to be found in an 

English medieval writer like Chaucer, whose age was not, perhaps, very dissimilar. Thus not the 
least interesting part of the Heike Monogatari for European readers is the detailed description of 
Japanese Buddhism at this, its most flourishing period, and not only of Buddhism but of the many 
other cults that the excessively superstitious Courtiers and Buke feared to leave unobserved. The 
Heike chiefs seem to have left nothing to chance in these matters, as may be especially noted in 
the elaborate consultations and ceremonies connected with the birth of the son of Ken-rei-mon- 
in. So far as can be noted all these things were merely ritual and ceremonial and did not 
necessarily produce any more effect on ordinary conduct than Christianity did on that of 
Benvenuto Cellini, but like it they gave occupation to many artists and craftsmen and afforded a 
solace in times of adversity, which might, in such a period, suddenly befall even those apparently 
most secure, and were not unknown to the Mikado himself. So the stately opening words of the 
first chapter seem most appropriate: 

" Gion Shoja no kane no koe, 
Shogyo mujo no hibiki ari ; 
Sharasoju no hana no iro, 
Shosha hissui no kotowari wo arawasu. 
Ogoreru mono hisashikarazu, 

[p. viii] 

Tada haru no yo no yume no gotoshi ; 
Takeki hito mo tsui ni wa horobinu, 
Hitoe ni kaze no mae no chiri ni onaji." 

The mighty are indeed put down from their seats, but those who are exalted are neither humble 
nor meek. 

The Heike Monogatari and Other Works of the Period.— There has been much discussion 
among scholars as to the connexion between the Heike Monogatari and the Gempei Seisuiki, 
some considering that the former work was composed first and the latter adapted from it, while 
others adopt the converse view, supposing that the Heike consists of such passages selected from 
the Seisuiki as are most suitable for recitation. Yamada Toshio in his edition of the Heike thinks 
however that the two books are simply different recensions of the same original and cannot be 
said to be really two different works. " The Gempei Seisuiki seems," he says, " to be a work to be 
contrasted, not with the Heike Monogatari, but with the version of the Yasaka school." Mr. 
Utsumi in his notes considers this is not quite in accordance with the facts, for the material, 
construction, and treatment of the subject is quite different in the two works, but agrees that the 
Gempei Seisuiki was probably taken from the other book and not vice-versa, thus assigning the 
priority to the Heike, and this view seems the prevalent one among the best modern critics. The 
late Dr. Fujioka however, in his 'Literature of the Kamakura and Muromachi periods', takes the 
opposite view and considers that as the Gempei Seisuiki is arranged according to chronological 
order and is principally concerned with the collection of facts, whereas the Heike represents 

rather an arrangement according to subject matter, having literary elegance as its main object, it 
follows that the former cannot be derived from the latter, but that the Heike must be the result 
of a digestion of the material of the Gempei Seisuiki. This argument is not however acquiesced in 
by most scholars, seeing that the Gempei Seisuiki is the most ornate and profuse of the two, and 
seems by no means likely to have been anterior in time. 

[p. ix] 

Moreover there appear to be many instances of mistakes in the Seisuiki which could only have 
arisen from a misunderstanding of words or expressions in the Heike. 

Another work of the same period having some relation to the Heike is the Hojoki of Kamo 
Chomei. In this little book of reflections are related the incidents of the Great Fire, (Heike, Vol. I. 
Nairi Yakiage no koto. Seisuiki Vol. 4.) ; The Great Typhoon, (Heike Vol. 3.) ; The Migration of 
the Court to Fukuhara ; The Great Earthquake, (Heike Vol. 12.) ; the description being very 
similar, while that of the cell of Kenreimon-in on Oharayama in the Kancho Maki or appendix to 
the Heike, and also in the Seisuiki, bears a strong resemblance to Chomei's hut on Hinosan. In 
this case also opinions differ as to which has borrowed from the other, but the Heike Monogatari 
Ko, published by the Kokugo Chushakai, states that the plagiarism is on the side of the Heike, 
and the Hojoki is the prior source. Now the Hojoki is dated the second year of Kenryaku, 1212 
A.D., so this, if correct, would give a terminus a quo for these parts at least. Dr. Fujioka, however, 
considers the Hojoki a compilation of later date and not the work of Kamo Chomei at all. 

Style of the Heike Monogatari.— A critic has said of the three works that have always been 
regarded as the finest representatives of the War Chronicle (Senki-bun) literature, namely, the 
Heike Monogatari, the Gempei Seisuiki, and the Taiheiki, that 'the style of the Heike is elegant 
and that of the Seisuiki is grand, but as that of the Taiheiki combines both qualities, it must be 
regarded as the perfect War Chronicle.' Mr. Utsumi, however, does not agree with this 
pronouncement, and considers that though it may be conceded that the Taiheiki is perhaps the 
most perfect type of this kind of literature, it certainly does not contain the characteristics of the 
other two. It may be true to some extent that elegance is a feature of the Heike, but this aspect 
has been rather over-emphasized by the critics, and he considers that it is more to be admired for 


soberness and restraint of the writing combined with the skilful construction of the narrative. 

He would consider the Heike as surpassing the other two works, first in its general construction 
and dramatic plan, secondly in the handling of the material, and again in the skill in word-painting, 
but especially so in its narrative style, in which the Taiheiki is its closest rival. This difference 
between them is rather to be explained as follows. The Gempei Seisuiki has many shortcomings 
in its narrative, but at the same time it occasionally rises to heights of eloquence that are 
unequalled by the other two. It may be compared to a .landscape composed of a dreary plain 
through which one plods on till one is suddenly confronted with a lofty mountain soaring up to 
the heavens or a vast extent of sea stretching out to the horizon, whereas the impression made by 
the Taiheiki and the Heike is rather that of a well watered and wooded series of hills and valleys, 
relieved by flowers and foliage of varied hues, from any point of which a pleasing outlook may be 

obtained, and which diverts the mind by its retrospect as well as by its promise of what is to 
come. Such fine writing as, for instance, the description of the advance at the Ujigawa or the 
Hiyodorigoe, is not to be found in the Heike, but on the whole this kind of description in the 
Seisuiki is of a somewhat theatrical nature, and the writer is apt to make mistakes owing to an 
inclination to appear learned and knowing in all things. The narrative of the Heike is written 
lightly and easily and depicts the condition of things both internally and externally with a few 
touches. Though lively and vivid, it avoids harshness. The Taiheiki, though using much detail and 
taking great pains to describe a scene with care and the proper sentiments, is a little heavy and 
lacking in taste by comparison. The special accomplishment of the latter work is its coining and 
use of Chinese expressions which are worked into the Japanese language with much skill and 
sonorous effect, though this is at times perhaps slightly overdone. Thus the excellencies of the 
Taiheiki rather lie open for anyone to see, whereas those of the 

[p. xi] 

Heike are not so obvious and require some literary taste for their appreciation. 

Again, though the material of these works consists mostly of details of war and strife, yet in the 
handling of this material the Heike Monogatari differs widely from the other two, in that, though 
not so pre-eminent in describing the actual clash of arms, 'the thunder of the captains and the 
shouting:,' it emphasises the underlying motives and incidental circumstances, pathetic or 
humorous or otherwise, in a manner that the others do not attempt. Beside being an age of strife 
it was, as for that matter all ages are, a period of transition, and thus we see portrayed the clash of 
ideas accompanying it, and the struggle between the views of the age that was passing away and 
of that which was taking its place. The writer seizes on the collision of the elegant and effeminate 
ideals and way of life of the Heian period with the comparatively rough and rude manners of the 
sterner Bushi who were henceforth to predominate in the administration of the country, as a 
means of touching the feelings of the reader by a recital of the pathetic stories of its victims. 
These victims were always young people, and especially young women, and the narrator 
evidently has much sympathy with their sad fate. Examples of this kind are the narratives 
entitled : Gio ; Twice an Empress; Aoi-no-Mae ; Kogo ; The Wife of Koremori; Kosaisho ; Dairi- 
Nyobo ; Senju ; Yokobue, etc., and especially delicately drawn is the scene entitled Moon-viewing, 
in the fifth volume. The same contrast is emphasized in the case of Kiyomori, the founder of the 
new era, and the younger nobles of his house who rather favour the elegant style of the former 

The texts used for this translation are those of Utsumi, Heike Monogatari Hyoshaku, and 
Umezawa, Heike Monogatari Hyoshaku. I wish to express my gratitude to Profs. Hara Sakae, 
Okano Gisaburo, and Shida Masahide for their kind assistance in archeological and Buddhist 




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The sound of the bell of Gionshoja [1] echoes the impermanence of all things. The hue of the flowers 
of the teak [2] tree declares that they who flourish must be brought low. Yea, the proud ones are but 
for a moment, like an evening dream in springtime. The mighty are destroyed at the last, they are 
but as the dust before the wind. 

If thou ask concerning the rulers of other countries far off; Choko [3] of Shin, Ono [4] of Kan, 
Shui [5] of Ryo, Rokuzan [6] of To, all these, not following in the paths of the government of all 
the King and Emperors who went before them, sought pleasure only ; not entering into council 
nor heeding the disorders of their Country, having no knowledge of the affliction of their people, 
they did not endure, but perished utterly. So also if thou enquire concerning our own 


country, Masakado [7] in the period Shohei, Sumitomo in Tenkyo, Gishin in Kowa, Shinrai in 
Heiji, all were arrogant and bold of heart in divers manners, yet if we consider what is told of the 
former Prime Minister Prince Taira no Ason Kiyomori, the Lay priest of Rokuhara, of a more 
recent time, neither in their words nor their intentions were they his equal. 

As to his ancestry he was the eldest son of Ason Tadamori chief of the department of justice ; 
grandson of Masamori Sanuki no Kami, who was descended in the ninth generation from 
Katsurabara Shinno, Prince of the first rank and chief of the department of Ceremonies, the fifth 
son of the Emperor Kwammu. This prince's son Takami no O had died without either office or 
rank and it was his son Takamimochi-no O who first received the surname of Taira, and before 
receiving the office of Kazusa-no-suke he suddenly gave up his royal rank and became a subject. 
His son Chinjufu Shogun Yoshimochi. afterwards changed his name to Kunika and from this 
Kunika to Masamori : these six generations, though always receiving government stipends, yet 
had not such rank as permitted them to appear at Court. 



Now Tadamori, while holding the office of Bizen no Kami, by the request of the retired Emperor 
Toba, had built the temple Toku-cho-juin and the Sa-ju-san-gen-do, or hall 33 ken long, within 
which were one thousand and one, Buddhas; its first festival being on the thirteenth day of the 
third month of the first year of Tensho. As a reward he was honoured by receiving the territory 
of the province of Tamba, which then happened to be unappropriated. Moreover the Emperor of 
his bounty graciously permitted him to attend the Court ; which Tadamori did for the first time 
at the age of thirty six. But 


the higher Courtiers were furious with jealousy and plotted to assassinate him on the evening of 
the festival of Go-Sechi [2] Toyo-no-akari-no-setchie, on the 23rd day of the eleventh month of 
the same year. Tadamori, who was not a civil official, being born of a line of warriors, on hearing 
of this was troubled in his heart for himself and his house at this unexpected shame that was 
come upon him, but finally, as he was in duty bound to serve his August Master under all 
conditions, he made his preparations beforehand. Before entering the Court he provided himself 
with a long dirk [1] which he girt on under his long court dress, and turning aside to a dimly lit 
place, slowly drew the blade, and passed it through the hair of his head so that it gleamed afar off 
with an icy sheen, causing all to stare open-eyed. Moreover a retainer of Tadamori, by birth of the 
same family, a grandson of Taira no Mokunosuke Sadamitsu and son of Shinno Saburodaiyu 
Iefusa, Sahyoe-no-jo Iesada by name, wearing a body armour laced with bright green under a light 
green "kariginu" [3] or loose overdress, and carrying under his arm a "tachi" [4] with a bowstring 
bag attached, was waiting in the "koniwa," the small court by the Seiryoden. 

Now the Kurando-no-to [5] or Chief of the Record Office and some underlings of his, thinking it 
strange that one wearing 


unsuitable costume should be within the balustrade of the steps of the Court near the bell-rope 
of the library, and wondering if he was not some disorderly fellow, an official of the sixth rank 
ordered him to depart quickly. But Iesada thus replied : 

"Because I have heard that to-night they will try to kill my Lord Bizen-no-kami dono have I come 
hither"; and he remained there and did not depart. And they saw that there was nothing more to 
be done ; and thus the attempt did not take place. 

But when Tadamori danced in the August presence of the Mikado at his Imperial wish, the 

others mocked at him, changing the words of the music and singing " Ise heiji wa sugame nari," 
("the winepot of Ise has turned into a vinegar jar.") In thus mentioning the vessels of his province 
they punned on his title of Ise-heishi; and since Tadamori had a squint in one eye (sugame) they 
also alluded to this in the lampoon. Tadamori. not being able to do anything, left the Presence 
before the entertainment had ended, and going behind the Shishinden, a place that could be seen 
by everyone, deposited the sword that he was carrying at his side in the hands of the Tonomo-no- 
tsukasa. Iesada, who was waiting for his lord, immediately asked him what had happened , but he, 
though greatly wishing to tell him, seeing in his face the expression of one who would even do 
violence in the Palace itself should he tell him the truth, merely answered that nothing out of the 
common had taken place. 

In the Go-setchie festival only such pleasing things as, for instance, white paper, Shuzenji paper, 
wrapped up writing 


brushes, or writing brushes having a " tomoe" on the stem, had been accustomed to be mentioned 
in the songs that accompanied the dance, but there was a certain Dazai Gon-no-sotsu Suenaka no 
Kyo who was of so dark a complexion that the people of his time called him "kuro-sotsu " (or " 
black sotsu,") and while he was holding the office of Kurando-no-to, when he danced before the 
August Presence, they changed the words to: 

"Oh what a black, black head ; someone must have painted him with lacquer." Also the former 
Prime Minister of Kwanzan-no-In, Prince Tadamasa, who was left an orphan when only ten years 
old owing to the death of his father Chunagon Tadamune no Kyo, was received as son-in-law by 
the To-Chunagon Kasei-no-Kyo in the time of Go Naka no Mikado, when he held the office of 
Harima no kami, and it was an exceedingly gorgeous bridal, so that at the Go-sechie of this time 
they japed at him with the refrain; "The rice of Harima, the scouring rush and the "muku" leaves, 
they polish up people's fine raiment." Though long ago such things had happened, nothing had 
been done, and now people said that what was to be done was doubtful. As he had expected 
after the conclusion of the festival, all the courtiers [9] and officials together appealed against him ; 
for coming to a Court entertainment wearing a sword and bringing military retainers within the 
Court Precincts were things strictly regulated according to rank : for this there was Imperial 
Order and ancient precedent, But Ason Tadamori had stationed a soldier wearing common dress, 
said to be a retainer of his family, in the small court of the Palace, and had coe to the Go-Sechie 
wearing a sword by his side, and both these counts were acts of disorder such as were seldom met 
with heretofore. Indeed it was one crime piled on another, a charge he would find it difficult to 
escape. All the Court Nobles together petitioned that his name should be erased front the list of 
Courtiers and that he herewith be deprived of rank and 


office. His Majesty the Mikado, greatly surprised, ordered Tadamori into his Presence to make 
examination into the affair. In his reply he stated that as to the presence of his retainer in the 
Palace, he certainly knew nothing about it : but if his retainers had heard of the designs that 
people were plotting against him lately, and in order to help him against such dishonour had 
come hither secretly without informing him, then he had no power to prevent it. "But if there be 
any blame, do I not yield my body herewith as for the matter of the sword, I deposited it in the 

Tonomotsukasa, and if it be brought out from thence, it may be seen if it be a real sword or not." 
As this seemed quite plausible, they hastened to bring forth the sword and exhibit it. Its outside 
was that of a dirk in a black lacquer sheath, but within was only a wooden blade covered with 
silver. Although he had displayed the appearance of a sword to avoid dishonour, his substitution 
of a wooden blade as a precaution against an after accusation was exceeding praiseworthy. A plan 
like this is very commendable in a warrior. That his retainer should have been in attendance in 
the court of the Palace this too is an example for retainers of the "bushi." So no fault was found in 
Tadamori, but, on the contrary, his conduct was greatly admired, and he was pronounced guiltless. 



Tadamori's children all had the title, of "Ei-no-suke," and when they attended at Court they were 
welcomed by everyone. On one occasion when Tadamori went up to the Capital from Bizen and 
the Retired Emperor Toba augustly deigned to to enquire of him about the scenery of Akashi, he 
answered thus: 


"Ariake no tsukimo, 

Akashi no urakaze ni; 

Nami bakari koso, 

Yoru to mieshi ka. 

"When the morning breaks o'er the wind swept sand of Akashi, 

Only the moon on high casts its faint beams on the waves. 

The ex Mikado was pleased to admire this verse and ordered it to be preserved in the collection 
entitled " Kinyo-shu/'M 

There was a fair lady-in-waiting in the Sendo Palace of the ex-Midado much beloved by 
Tadamori, whom he was wont to visit every evening. And it chanced that one night, after so 
doing he left in her room a fan painted with the rising moon; the other ladies seeing it were much 
amused, saying: " Oh how doubtful is the place where the moon has risen!" to which the lady 
replied : 

Kumoi yori tada mori JjQ 
Kuru tsuki nareba, 
Oboroge nite wa 
Iwaji to zo omou. 

If the moon indeed has drifted down from the heavens, 
Surely then the sky must be a little obscure. 

Thus showing that her wit was not at all shallow, This was the mother of Satsuma-no-kami 
Tadanori ; as people are drawn to each other by similar dispositions, Tadamori's taste was 
matched by her elegance. Then Tademori becoming Gyo-bu-kyo [3I afterwards died at the age of 

fifty eight on the fifteenth day of the first month of the third year of Ninpei. His eldest son 
Kiyomori followed in his footsteps. In the first year of Hogen, when the Sadaijin of Uji brought 
the realm into disorder, he put himself at the head of the Imperial party and 


was rewarded for his services. At first he had the office of Aki-no-kami, then he was promoted to 
be Harima-no-kami, and in the third year of the same era he became Dazai-no-dai-ni. In the 
twelfth month of the first year of Heiji, at the time of the rebellion of Nobuyori and Yoshitomo, 
he beat down the rebels in the Imperial cause, and the rewards bestowed on him for many 
meritorious deeds by the August kindness were very great. In the next year he received the 
Senior Third Rank, and succeeded to the titles of Saisho Eifu-no-kami, and Kebi-ishi-no-Betto 
one after the other, and passing over the ranks of Chunagon and Dainagon, took rank as a 
Minister of State. He did not even become Minister of the Left or Right, but rose straight from 
Naidaijin to be Dajodaijin of the Lower First Rank. Though not a commander of armies, he went, 
armed and surrounded by retainers, and by special permission of the Retired Emperor, entered 
and departed from the Court riding in state in ox-wagon or palanquin, acting as one who holds 
alone the whole power of administration. Since it was the function of the Dajodaijin to be a 
pattern and example of virtue to the whole country, to consider which was the right course in 
ruling, and to tranquillize the universe by his government, if such an one could not be found, the 
office was to be declared vacant, for except it were held by such an one, the office would surely 
be polluted. Now that this lay-monk of a Governor should hold the Heaven and the Four Seas in 
the hollow of his hand, verily there is no need for further speech. 

Now the reason for this great prosperity of the Heike was said to be the favour of Kumano 
Gongen. And this was the manner of it ; when Kiyomori was yet only styled Aki-no-kami, he 
went to worship at Kumano by ship from Anonotsu in Ise, 

and a large "Suzuki" fish sprang up into his vessel, as it is related in former times that a white fish 
leaped into the ship of Bu, king of Shu, and however it may have been he attributed it to the 
favour of the Gongen. As we have said, he was on religious pilgrimage, so that he was observing 
the ten prohibitions, abstaining from animal food and making purifications, yet departing from 
these, he cooked the fish himself and ate of it and gave also to his children who were with him. 
And afterwards nought but good fortune attended him and he at last became Dajodaijin. His 
posterity too attained high office more quickly than a dragon ascends the clouds, greatly excelling 
in happiness the nine generations of their ancestors. 



Now Prince Kiyomori, being overtaken by illness on the eleventh day of the eleventh month of 
Ninan, at the age of fifty one, retired from the world and took monk's vows to save his life, 
assuming the religious name of Jokai. As the result of this, his sickness departed and he was cured, 
fulfilling the decree of destiny. Yet after his retirement from the world he did not put an end to 
his luxurious living. People obeyed him as grass before the wind, and depended on him as the 
earth does on the rain that moistens it. If one speaks of the Princes of the house of Rokuhara 
dono, they were most noble and illustrious, and none might be considered equal to them. 
Moreover as for the brother of the Nyudo's wife, Taira Dainagon Tokitada Kyo, —all those who 
did not belong to his house were to be considered people of no position, so that everyone was 
wishing to make alliance with him. From the manner of wearing the " eboshi " to the style of the 
crest on clothes, everything must be in the fashion of Rokuhara ; so that everyone from one end 
of the land to the other studied it. 

Now however wisely a king or ruler may govern or in the 


case of the political actions of Regent or Prime Minister, (Sessho Kwampaku) it is a usual thing 
that certain worthless fellows will gather together to speak ill of him ; but against this lay-priest 
in his prosperity there was not even a casual breath of reviling. And for what reason? Even 
because, by the device of this monk-regent, about three hundred youths of from fourteen to 
sixteen years old, having purified themselves and polled their heads, wearing red robes, were 
everywhere patrolling the streets of the Capital. And if there was anyone who spoke evil against 
the Taira house, and one of these chanced to hear it, straightway summoning to him his fellows, 
they would violently enter that man's house, seize his treasures and household goods and bring 
him bound to Rokuhara. So that none were found to open their mouth about the things they saw 
or knew. At the very name of the Kamuro of Rokuhara everyone, both pedestrians and those 
who rode in carriages, made wide room and passed by on the other side. Even when entering or 
leaving the forbidden gate of the Palace, it was not necessary to declare their name, for the 
officials of the city looked with averted eyes where they were concerned. 



Not only did Kiyomori himself live in splendour and luxury, but all his house likewise shared his 
prosperity. His eldest son Shigemori was Naidaijin and Sadaisho, his second son Munemori was 
Chunagon and Udaisho, his third son Tomomori was Chujo of the third grade, his eldest grandson 
Koremori Shosho of the fourth grade ; sixteen of his house in all held offices of the higher grade 
(Kugyo), while thirty had right of entry to Court. The whole number of his family who drew 
revenues from the provinces as military officials were about sixty persons. All others appeared as 
of no account in the world. Since long ago in the era of Nara no Mikado the office 

[ P . 11] 

of Nakae-no-Taisho was first instituted in the fifth year of Shingi, and Nakae was changed to 
Konoe in the fourth year of Daido, only on three or four occasions have brothers occupied the 
offices of the Right and Left together. In the time of Montoku Tenno, on the Left was Yoshifusa 
as Sadaijin-no-Sadaisho, on the Right, Yoshisuke as Dainagon no Udaisho; they were the sons of 
Fuyutsugu, the retired Sadaijin. In the time of Shujo-in, Saneyori Ono no-miya dono was Minister 
of the Left and Morosuke Kujo dono of the Right ; they were sons of Teijin Ko. [2] In the time of 
Go-Rei-zei-in, Norimichi O-nijo dono was Minister of the Left and Yorimune Horikawa dono of 
the Right ; they were the sons of the Kwampaku Mido. In the time of Nijo-in, Motofusa Matsu 
dono was Minister of the Left, and Kanezane Tsuki-no-wa dono of the Right; they were the sons 
of Hoseiji dono. [3] All these were the sons of Regents. Among the sons of ordinary people there 
is no precedent. As for the grandson, of a man whose presence at Court was barely suffered, 
wearing the forbidden colours J4I and costume, going clothed in silk gauze and brocade and 
holding the offices of Daijin and Taisho, his sons being at the same tune Ministers of the Left and 
Right, it is indeed an extraordinary thing for future generations to hear of. Beside this he had eight 
daughters, all of whom severally achieved fortunes to be envied. One of them was to have 
become the wife of Shigemori no Kyo, Chunagon of the Emperor Sakurarnachi, and was 
betrothed to him at the age of eight, but after the revolt of Heiji the matter was altered and she 
became the wife of the Sadaijin of Kwazan-in, to whom she bore many princes. Now this 
Shigemori Kyo was called the Chunagon of Sakurarnachi for the following reason. Being a man of 
very delicate taste, he exceedingly loved the scenery of Mount Yoshino ; and planting 

[p. 12] 

there tiny cherry trees, he built a house in the midst of them and dwelt in it ; so that people who 
went there in the spring of every year to see them gave him the nickname of Sakurarnachi (cherry 
town) . Being very grieved that these cherry blossoms should fall within seven days after flowering, 
he prayed to Ten-sho-daijin and they remained on the tree for a period of three times seven days; 
the goddess displaying her august kindness owing to the great virtue of the Emperor, and the 
flowers also requiting his affection by living on for twenty days. 

To resume, another of Kiyomori's daughters became Consort of the Emperor, and bore a Prince 
at the age of twenty two. On this child attaining the rank of Crown Prince, she retired from the 
world and was known by the name of Ken-rei-coon-in. Concerning this daughter of the Lay- 
priest Chancellor, since she has risen to the rank of Mother of the Emperor, there is no need of 
further description. Another daughter became the wife of the Regent Rokujo. [5] She it was who, 
during the reign of the Retired Emperor Takakura, became Imperial Foster mother, and gained 
the title of Jun-san-go by Imperial Edict. She went by the name of Shirakawa den, and was a 
personage of exceeding importance. Yet another daughter had become the wife of Fugenji donom 
[6] ; another of Reizei-no-Dainagon Ryubo-no-Kyo, and another of Shichijo Shuri-no-Taiyu 
Nobutaka-no-Kyo. One daughter also he had by a lady-in-waiting of the shrine of Itsukushima in 
Aki, and she had the honour of becoming attendant on the Retired Emperor Go-Shirakawa. 
Beside her also a Palace-attendant at Kujo-no-in named Tokiwa bore him a daughter who became 
lady-in-waiting to Kawazan-no-in dono, and was styled Ro-no-on-kata (Unofficial Empress). Now 
Nippon Akitsushima has but sixty six provinces; and of these the domains of the Heike were 
thirty ; almost half the land. Beside these the manors, rice fields and gardens that they possessed 

[p- 13] 

were without number. In the multiplicity of their gorgeous costumes they were resplendent as 
the flowers of the field ; the noble and illustrious crowded before their, gates like a throng in the 
marketplace : the gold of Yoshu, the jewels of Keishu, the damask of Gokun, the brocade of 
Shiyyokko of the seven rarities and the myriad treasures not one was lacking. For poetry and 
music, fishing and riding, perchance even the Mikado's Palaces were not more renowned. 



Now not only did this priestly statesman hold the whole country in the hollow of his hand, but, 
neither ashamed at the censure of the world, nor regarding the derision of the people, he indulged 
in the most surprising conduct. For example, in the Capital there were two famous " Shirabyoshi 
" who were sisters, named Gio and Ginyo, both young girls and very skilled in their art. The elder, 
Gio, was beloved by Kiyomori, and her younger sister also was in high favour with everyone. So 
they were enabled to build a good house for their mother, who was granted a monthly income of 
a hundred koku of rice; and a hundred kwan in money by Kiyomori. Their family was 
consequently rich and honoured, fortunate beyond the lot of most people. Now the origin of 
Shirabyoshi in our country was in the reign of Toba-in when Shima-no-chisai and Waka-no-mae 
appeared as dancers. In the beginning the Shirabyoshi wore the " suikan " or silk court robe and " 
tateboshi " or black court headdress, with a white dirk in their belt, when they danced, and it was 
like the dancing of a man : but from the middle age the headdress and sword were disused, and 
they danced only in the white " suikan," hence they were called Shirabyoshi. 

[p- Ml 

But among the Shirabyoshi [i]_of the capital, when they heard of the good fortune of Gio, there 
were some who hated her and some who were envious. Those who envied her said: " Ah 1 how 
fortunate is Gio Gozen, if we do even as she does we too may become prosperous in like manner ; 
" so they added the syllable " Gi " to their names to see if they too might not obtain good luck. 
Some called themselves Giichi, Giji, Gifuku, or Gitoku. Those who hated her said " Surely it is 
not a matter of the name or character with which it is written, fortune is the result of disposition 
inherited from a previous existence ;" and so few of them took such a name. Now it came to pass 
that, three years afterwards, another skillful Shirabyoshi appeared ; and she was a maiden sixteen 
years of age, born in the province of Kaga, and her name was Hotoke. And when the people of 
the capital, both high and low, saw her, they said that although from of old times many 
Shirabyoshi had been seen there, one so dexterous as she had not been beheld ; and she too was in 
exceeding great favour with all. And in the course of time Hotoke Gozen said: " Though I have 
made sport for the whole Empire, yet this great Taira minister who now is the source of all 
fortune and prosperity has not yet deigned to summon me; after the manner of entertainers I will 
e'en go uninvited." So she forthwith proceeded to the Palace in Nishi-hachijo. On her arrival, a 
servant entered the presence of the minister and announced : " Hotoke Gozen, now 

[p- 15] 

so famous in this city is without." Then the lay-priest grew very angry and replied " How then! do 
not these players attend only when they arc called ? Why is it that she has come unbidden ? 
Whether she be called God or Buddha, (Hotoke) it is not suitable that she come here while Gio 
is present. Bid her depart at once." Hotoke Gozen was already retiring at these unkind words, 

when Gio said to the Minister " It is surely the usual custom that players should attend unbidden, 
and moreover it is because she is still young and innocent that she has thus intruded on you~so it 
will be most unkind to speak harshly and send her away—how greatly will she be shamed and 
distressed by it ; as I myself have trodden the same path, I cannot but remember these things. If 
you will not deign to allow her to dance or to sing, yield, I pray you, so far as to call her back and 
receive her in audience: if you then dismiss her, it will be a favour indeed worthy of her deep 
gratitude." To this the Priest Minister answered: " Since you wish it to be so, I will see her and 
then dismiss her: " and he sent a servant to call her. Hotoke Gozen, having been thus harshly 
treated, was even then entering her carriage to return when she was summoned and turned back 
again. The Minister met her and granted her an audience. Thus Hotoke, though it seemed 
unlikely that she would gain an audience, yet through the kindness of Gio, who thus importuned 
for her, was not only able to enter the Minister's presence, but further it happened that he, 
wishing to hear her voice, directed that she should sing a song of the kind called " Imayo: " [2I and 
thus she sang: 

" When I first enjoyed the sight of your bountiful presence, 
T'was like the evergreen pine, flourishing age after age. 
Like to the pond on whose rocks is basking the turtle thrice blessed, 
Numberless storks beside it happily preening their wings. " 

[ P . 16] 

And those who heard it were greatly wondering at her skill and her beauty, and pressed her to 
repeat it even to three times. The Lay-priest also was greatly diverted and said " Since you are so 
skilful at Imayo you must also be able to dance well; we wish to see one of your dances." Then 
the drums were ordered to be beaten and she danced forthwith. Now Hotoke Gozen was 
renounced for the beauty of her hair and features, and her voice was no less exquisite ; how then 
should she fail in the dance ? So when she put forth all her skill and charm in dancing, Kiyomori 
was enraptured and his heart turned wholly toward her. But when Hotoke Gozen said to him : 
"Did I not present myself uninvited, and when almost rejected was I not only brought back by 
the entreaty of Gio Gozen? I pray thee grant me leave that I may return quickly ;" the lay-monk 
by no means agreed to the proposal, and thinking that she was only embarrased because of the 
presence of Gio, proposed to send Gio away. 

But Hotoke Gozen answered 'How can this be? If we were to remain here both together, I 
should be most embarrassed, and if your Excellency send away Gio Gozen and keep me here 
alone, how ashamed will she not feel in her heart ? Indeed it will be most painful to her. If you 
deign to think of me again in the future, I am always able to come at your call. I beg that to-day I 
may be allowed to retire." 

Kiyomori, seeing how the matter lay, straightway ordered Gio to leave the Palace, and to that end 
sent a messenger three times. Although Gio had expected this thing from long before, she did not 
think that it would come to pass to-day or to-morrow. But as the Nyudo continually repeated 
this unreasonable demand, there was nothing for her but to sweep her room clean and to go. 
Even those who meet under the shade of the same tree, or who greet each other by the riverside, 
since it is owing to relations in a previous existence, ever feel pain at parting with each other ; 
how much more grievous a thing it is, when two have been together in affection for the 

[p. 17] 

space of three years. So in regret and grief she shed unavailing tears. Thus as it was a thing that 
must be, Gio went forth, but ere she went she wrote on the shoji this verse, thinking to bring 
perchance to remembrance the forgotten image of one who was gone. 

"The fresh or fading flowers of the same moor, 
In autumn meet with the same hapless fate. " 

Then riding in a carriage to the place where she lived, she cast hers if down within the shoji and 
wept unceasingly. Her mother and her younger sister, seeing these things, asked many questions, 
but Gio would by no means give any answer, and only by enquiring of her maid did they come to 
know what had happened. Moreover the hundred koku and hundred kwan of monthly allowance 
ceased ; it was now the turn of the relations of Hotoke Gozen to taste the enjoyment of this 
prosperity. Soon all the people of the capital heard of these matters, and wondered if it were true 
that Gio had been dismissed from the Nishi-hachijo palace. There were some who went to see 
her, some who sent letters, and some who sent their servants, but Gio, since she had no 
inclination to amuse anyone now, did not even receive their letters, neither did she treat in any 
way with the messengers. She became more and more melancholy and only shed unavailing tears. 
Thus the year ended and the next spring came. 

Then the Nyudo sent a messenger to Gio asking after her affairs and her health and saying that as 
Hotoke Gozen wished for someone to beguile her tedious hours, would she not come up to the 
palace to dance, or it might be sing Imayo, and thus cheer her, but Gio returned no answer, only 
she lay down and restrained her tears. Again the Nyudo sent to know why she did not go, and 
why at least she did not answer ; if she would not go, for what reason was it ? For Jokai himself 
wished to confer with her. When her mother heard this, weeping bitterly, she thus admonished 
her ; " Why at least do you not deign to 

[ P . 18] 

send an answer? and why do you not go when thus rebuked ? At which Gio said, restraining her 
tears: " If I thought I ought to go, I would answer, but since I shall by no means go, I know not 
what answer I can give. As I do not go when I am thus summoned, he has somewhat to discuss 
with me, he says ; and what may this be but perchance to drive me from the city, or it may be to 
take my life. Beyond these two things no worse is possible. Even though one go forth from 
Miyake, the way is not so sorrowful. Again if one is called away from life, would one grudge this 
body so much ? Once having known the bitterness of being disliked, shall I look on his face a 
second time ? " Now when she did not feel it necessary to reply, her mother again admonished 
her, weeping " Among those who dwell in this land, the commands of the Nyudo ought not to be 
disobeyed, and moreover the relation of man and woman is from a former existence, it does not 
begin in this life; even though the pledge be for a thousand or ten thousand years, there are many 
that soon are parted, and though some think that it will be but for a little while, yet it may 
endure unto the end of life. The thing that has no certainty in this life of ours is the relation 
between man and woman. If you do not go now when you are summoned, it is not likely that 

you will be put to death, but certainly we shall be driven from Miyako. Even if you must leave 
the capital, you are both still young, and whatever space there may be between the rock and the 
tree it is easy to pass over ; but I am old, and when weak and declining, to go and live in a strange 
place, is sad even to think of. Oh that I might be allowed to live and die in Miyako 1 " Thus 
considering her filial duty both in this life and the next, though Gio had determined that she 
would not go, not disobedient to her mother she stood ready to set out, bathed in tears ; indeed 
her feelings were very pitiable. As it would be lonely for her to go alone, her younger sister, 
Ginyo prepared to accompany her, with two other Shirabyoshi beside, making in all a company 
of four. In 

[p- 19] 

one carriage they rode together and carne to the Nishi-hachijo palace. 

On entering however, she was not called to take the seat she had formerly occupied, a place 
much lower down being provided for her. " Alas 1 " thought she, " how shall this be ? Although 
there is no fault in me, and although I have come hither, how am I distressed in being given a 
lower seat." And not knowing what to do, she said nothing to anyone, but her tears fell plentifully 
from beneath the sleeve she pressed to her face. When Hotoke Gozen saw this, she was greatly 
affected and said to Kiyomori, " It would have been better if you had not sent for her ; but now 
let her be called up hither, or if not, suffer me to be dismissed and go away." 

The Nyudo would not at all consider this and would not permit her to go away, but by and by he 
deigned to receive Gio and to greet her and enquire how she did, explaining that, as Hotoke 
Gozen was lonely, it would be very pleasant if Gio would comfort her by dancing and singing 
Imayo. Gio replied, with difficulty suppressing her tears, " Indeed I came wishing not to disobey 
your august command," and sang the following verse of Imayo— : 

"Even Buddha himself was once an ordinary person, 

I also at last like unto Buddha shall grow. 

Everything on this earth can partake of the nature of 


Only to be estranged, this is painful indeed. " 

Twice she sang it, weeping bitterly, and as she sang all the Princes and Courtiers of the Heike and 
the high officers and samurai shed tears of admiration and sympathy. Kiyomori also 
acknowledged the justice of her complaint and frankly confessed it before them all. 

So when the dance was finished he intimated that, as at present he had to attend to other matters, 
in future she should come without any especial summons to dance and sing and 

[p. 20] 

amuse Hotoke. But Gio, repressing her tears, went forth without returning any answer. 

Thus Gio, not having intended to go, but thinking it cruel to disobey her mother, a second time 

suffered ignominious treatment. How pitiable it was indeed 1 Then thinking that if she remained 
in this world, she was always liable to meet with such afflictions, she determined to put an end to 
her life. Her sister Ginyo, hearing this, also made up her mind to die with her. 

Then their mother, being aware of their resolve, again with tears more gravely admonished them. 
" If you have determined to do this, how greatly do I regret that I persuaded you to go ; for in 
truth your chagrin is the cause of this, and if you indeed take your own life and your sister follow 
you, you my two daughters thus dying first, what profit is it to me your mother, who am aged 
and declining, if I still live on ? I too with you will cast away my life. Now to cause one's mother, 
who has not yet attained the limit of her years to cast her life away, is it not even as one of the 
five great sins ?_[3lThis life is but a temporary abiding place, shame upon shame even, what is it 
to be accounted ? There is only sadness of heart in the long darkness of this world. If in this life 
we become attached to things, in the next life we must tread an evil way in sadness." Thus 
melted in tears she persuaded them. Gio, also weeping, admitted that she spoke truth; doubtless 
it was as one of the five great sins that, because of regret at being put to shame, she should 
determine to put an end to her life. So it was that she gave up her intention of dying by her own 
hand : but since if she should stay in Miyako she would still be liable to humiliation Gio, at the 
age of only one and twenty, deserted the capital and became a nun. In a mountain village in the 
recesses of Saga, building herself a but of brushwood, she continually murmured her invocations 
to Buddha. When her 

[ P . 21] 

sister Ginyo perceived that she did thus, having made compact to die with her, how much more 
when the world has become so hateful shall she not at least accompany her sister. So at the age of 
nineteen she changed her condition, and retiring from the world with her elder sister, devoted 
herself to prayers for their future happiness. Then their mother, seeing that she was left alone, 
aged, grey haired and feeble, since her two young daughters had forsaken the world, despairing of 
any future happiness, at the age of forty five shaved her head ; earnestly giving herself up to 
prayer to Buddha, with her two daughters she sought a happier birth in future. 

Thus the spring passed by and the summer grew late ; the first winds of autumn began to blow. 
Gazing at the Milky Way where the lover stars J4I meet in the heavens, when verses are 
accustomed to be traced on the leaves of the " kaji," watching the evening sun hide herself behind 
the ridge of the western hills, they likened the sun-set to the Pure Land of the West, [si wondering 
when they should be reborn in that blessed region and with all desire extinguished abide there for 
ever. Thus they continued to meditate on their sad condition, their tears alone being 
inexhaustible. But one evening when twilight was passing into darkness they had shut their 
latticed door of bamboo and lighted their dimly burning lamp, and mother and daughters 
together were repeating the " Nembutsu " when there came a knocking on the lattice. The three 
nuns were at once overcome by fear : " Ah 1 perchance it is some goblin who has come to disturb 
our prayers and make our Nembutsu of no avail. For what human being will approach such a 
brushwood but as this by night to which none comes even by day? Such 

[ P . 22] 

a slight bamboo gate as this, even if we shut it, is easy to break through, therefore let us open it 
without de'ay. If indeed it be a pitiless one who will deprive us of life, relying on the True Vow 

of Amida on whom we now we have called, if we ceaselessly repeat the Nembutsu, surely the 
Buddha and the attendant Bosatsu hearing our voice will comp and meet us, leading us safely to 
the Paradise of the West." Thus earnestly repeating the Nembutsu, admonishing each others' 
hearts and holding each the hand of the other, they opened wide the bamboo lattice. 

But behold it was no evil spirit but only Hotoke Gozen that stood outside. While Gio was 
enquiring how Hotoke Gozen had come to visit them, whether in a dream or in her actual person, 
Hotoke answered amid her tears. "It is a strange thing to speak of what has happened, but if I 
speak it not, perhaps I may not be remembered. So I will relate all things as they were from the 
beginning in detail. When first I came to the Court uninvited and was about to go away 
disappointed after being dismissed, it was at your request that I was called back again; but a 
woman is a person not to be relied on, so that, not obeying my own conscience, I allowed you to 
be sent away and even stayed myself in your stead. Now in consequence of this I am 
overwhelmed with shame and conscience stricken. When I saw you go away I felt it to be 
through my fault and could not feel at all happy. Moreover when I saw the lines written by your 
hand on the shoji, "In autumn meet with the same hapless fate," I thought it was indeed true. 
And then when you were once more summoned and when you recited the Imayo verse, the 
whole matter came to my mind again. But as I did not know where you were, I enquired and 
heard that you were together in a certain place absorbed in prayer and meditation. Then indeed I 
felt envious of you, and having zealously begged my freedom since the Nyudo has no further 
need of me, when I thought attentively about the matter, the glory of this Shaba-world is a dream 
of a 

[p- 2 3] 

dream—pleasure and prosperity, of what value are they? Very difficult it is to receive a body and 
obtain the mercy of the Buddha. If now I go down in sorrow to the underworld I am unable to 
obtain rebirth in another life ; yea how difficult will it be to rise up again. In a world of 
uncertainty for both old and young how can we rely on our youth ? The day when the breath 
enters our body or goes forth we cannot know ; our life is more fleeting than gossamer or a flash 
of lightning ; if we boast of the glory that endures for a moment, loss of happiness in the future 
life must be our portion. So this morning stealing out unperceived, I have come hither as you see, 
putting away my ordinary dress to become a recluse ; thus having changed any condition, I 
entreat that you will condescend to pardon my former trespass, that together repeating the 
Nembutsu we may sit on one lotus in Paradise together. But if I can not attain my desire, I will 
wander away whither I know not, falling down under some tree or on some mossy bank, and ever 
zealously repeating the Nembutsu, I will strive to attain rebirth in Paradise." 

So pressing her sleeve to her face she entreated them. Gio answered her, scarce withholding her 
tears: "Not even in a dream did I imagine that you would think thus, while I lived according to 
the custom of this fleeting world ; when I thought of the unhappiness of my condition, often I 
felt resentment at your conduct in spite of myself, thus suffering loss in this life and the next. But 
as now you have changed your condition, your former faults have passed away like the dew of 
morning. Now do I feel extreme happiness knowing that you will without doubt attain your 
desire and be reborn in bliss. If people may say that my having become a nun was a difficult thing, 
shall I too so consider it ? It was because I hated this world and wished to put an end to my life 
that I did this. But that you, having no resentment or sorrow, and being now but seventeen years 
old, should thus despise this world and so earnestly set your mind on the Pure Land, thinking only 

of the Noble 

[p- 24] 

Path, what a happy state of virtuous enlightenment is this indeed I 

So the four of them retired from the world together, morning and evening offering flowers and 
incense before Buddha's shrine, and with one mind fervently pouring out their petitions; each one 
sooner or later obtaining her desire for rebirth in bliss. And in the register of the temple Cho-ko- 
do built by the Ho-o Go-Shirakawa the Honourable spirits of the four are found enshrined. 
Indeed it is a very marvellous thing. 



From ancient times to the present day, since the families of Gen and Hei were both called in to 
assist in the government, if there were any who, making light of the constitution of the land, did 
not obey the Imperial laws, they were corrected by the other party, and thus any disorder was 
prevented. But after Tameyoshi was killed in Hogan and Yoshitomo in Heiji, some of the Genji 
went into exile and others lost their lives, so that now only the Heike were flourishing and no 
one else dare raise his head ; and it seemed as if this state of things would last for ever. But after 
the death of the Retired Emperor Toba wars ensued, and murders, banishments, vacant offices 
and suspensions were continually occurring, so that the whole country was disquieted and society 
was not able to rest in peace, Especially from the period Ei-ryaku and O-ho when some personal 
retainers of the Retired Emperor were punished by the Imperial Court and conversely some of 
those of the Imperial Court were chastised by the Retired Emperor ; so that high and low were 
afraid, and no one felt at ease, but all were as though looking into a deep pool or walking on thin 
ice. And the relations between the Emperor and the Retired Emperor, however estranged they 
night be, were remarkable for their extraordinary circumstances. According to the way of a 

[p- 25] 

degenerate age like this, people tried to anticipate each other in cunning. Though the Emperor 
was continually contradicting the orders of the Retired Emperor, yet one thing especially there 
was that caused great astonishment to all, and many found fault with his Majesty: it was as 
follows :— The Consort of the late Retired Emperor Konoe, who was entitled to be styled Taiko- 
tai-kogu or Grandmother of the Emperor, was the daughter of Prince Kinyoshi the Udaijin of Oi- 
no-mikado. After the former Emperor had pre-deceased her she moved to the detached palace of 
Konoe, called Kawahara, outside the Court precincts, and about the period Ei-ryaku, having come 
to the age of about two or three and twenty, she was a little past her prime. But as she still had 
the reputation of being the first beauty in the land, the Emperor fell deeply in love with her and 
secretly ordered several of the bravest of his retainers to go to the detached palace, and privately 
sent love letters to her. She however, did not presume to assent to his August suit. So straightway 
showing his affection openly, His Majesty deigned to intimate to the Udaijin's family that he 
wished to bring her into the Palace as official Empress. Now as this was a decree unprecedented 
in the country, the courtiers took counsel together about it, and all uttered different opinions. 
There is, it must be regretfully admitted, an example in a foreign country, in that of Soku-ten 
Kogo of China, the Consort of Taiso of To, and thus step mother of the Emperor Ko-so, who 
after the death of Taiso became the Consort of Koso. This having happened in a foreign country 
is a different matter, but in our country from the time of Jimmu Tenno, in all the seventy or 
more generations of mortal Emperors we have heard of no such thing as becoming Empress for 
the second time. The courtiers having expressed their decision unanimously, the Retired Emperor 
JVLdeclared to the Emperor that this thing must not be but His Majesty answered: " The Emperor 
has neither father 

[p. 26] 

nor mother ; we sit on the Jewel Throne by merit of the Ten Virtues. J2I Such a thing as this 
must be, entrusted to the Imperial Will." 

As the date of the official entry of the new Empress was soon communicated by Imperial 
Edict, .the Retired Emperor could do nothing more. When the lady heard it she was overcome by 
tears. " If " she said " I had not out-lived my former Lord, but at the beginning of the autumn of 
the period Kyu-ju I had terminated my dew-like existence with his, or if I had become a nun and 
retired from the world, I should not have had to hear such unhappy tidings." But the Minister her 
father spoke as follows : " One who resists the Emperor's will is no more than a madman;, already 
the Imperial. Edict has been published, so there is nothing more to be said ;. only you must go 
quickly. If a Prince should be born you will be styled " Kokubo, Mother of the country, and I too 
shall become the grandfather of an Emperor ; truly an auspicious thing. If thus you will help your 
father it. will be indeed an extremely filial act." To these, words the Empress Dowager made no 

Somehow or other in the course of her writing practise she had written this verse: 

" Better by far it had been to have died when in my 
bereavement ; _ 

Than to live on and hand down a name unexampled 
like this. " 

How this thing will be published in the world, a pitiful and sad case will people consider it] 
Soon the day for the State Entry into the Palace arrived. 

[p- 27] 

The Minister her father and the Courtiers attendant on the Emperor hastened on the ceremony 
of departure from the Palace with all speed, but as she was very reluctant, evening came on and 
she had not yet started. Thus it was past midnight when she entered her carriage. After making 
her State Entry into the Palace she was conducted into the Reikei-den, and then straightway 
assisted in the morning ceremony of government administration. In the Imperial apartments of 
the Shishin-den J3I were the shoji painted with the figures of the Chinese Sages I-in, Tei-ko-rin, 
Gu-sei-nan, Tai-ko-bo, Ro-ku-ri Sensei, Riseki and Shi-ba. There were also shoji with paintings of 
long-armed people, long-legged people, and horses. The Oni-no-ma, or Devil's Room, had shoji 
painted with a lifelike figure of the Chinese general Ri. There is reason to suppose that the shoji 
of the seven Sages were painted by Owari-no-kami Ono-no-Tofu. Moreover is it not among the 
paintings of the shoji of the Sei-ryo-den th. 

at there is to be seen one by Kanaoka of the moon at down on the distant hills? When the retired 
Emperor Konoe was a child, he had in the course of his play made some marks on the paper, and 
when his former consort looked, they were there all unchanged : and she thought fondly of his 

memory and made this verse: 

"Ah 1 , to think of the sorrows that note have fallen zip, oil me 
When I look at the moon, lining again I'll the Court. " 

And during this second intimacy with the Emperor her unspeakable sadness affected her so much 
that she fell, sick. 



Now about the spring of the first year of Ei-man, His Augustness the Mikado fell sick, and in the 
beginning of the 

[ P . 28] 

summer of the same year his disease became exceedingly severe. Now the daughter of the 
Minister of the Treasury, lki-no-Kanemori had a son by His Majesty who was two years old, and 
it was expected that he would be made Crown Prince; JjJ_ but on the twenty fifth of June scarcely 
had a decree been published appointing him Crown Prince than he was immediately that same 
night placed on the Throne : whereat everyone was much astonished. Those learned in such 
matters said that if investigation be made into the Imperial Line, Seiwa Tenno inherited the 
Throne of Montoku Tenno at the age of nine : at this time Chu jin Ko (Fujiwara Yoshifusa) 
assisted his young Lord in the government, just as in China Shu-kodan administered all the affairs 
of state in behalf of Sei-O, and this was the beginning of the office of Sessho (Regent). 

Toba-in came to the Throne at five and Konoe-in at three years of age, but even if these be 
quoted, the present Prince was only two years old : still even if without precedent, it is foolish to 
be disturbed about it. On the 27th, of July of the same year the Retired Emperor departed this life 
at the age of twenty two like the untimely falling of a flower in bud, and within the Jewel 
Curtain and the Brocade Vail all were choked with tears. That same night he was borne to Funa- 
oka Yama behind Rendai-no to the North East of the Temple of Ko-ryu-ji. After the August 
Obsequies, many priests from the En-ryaku-ji temple of Hiei-san and the Ko-fuku-ji at Nara 
came to blows about the question of putting up their tablets. 

It was the custom after the death of an Emperor that he should be borne to the place of burial 
attended by the monks of the South and North Capitals, (Nara and Kyoto,) and as they went in 
procession round the tomb, they put up the tablets of their repective temples. When there was 
no temple endowed 

[p- 29] 

by Shomu Tenno to dispute it, the tablet of To-dai-ji was put up, and next came that of Ko- 
fuku-ji founded by [2I Tan-kai-Ko. Of the Northern Capital, opposite to that of Kofuku-ji the 
tablet of En-ryaku-ji was to be put up, after that the tablet of En-jo-ji, the foundation of Tem-mu 
Tenno begun by Chisho Daishi. But on this occasion the priests of En-ryaku-ji, respecting what 
precedent I know not, fixed up the tablet of their temple after that of To-dai-ji and before that of 
Ko-fuku-ji, and while the priests of the South Capital were taking counsel with one another what 
they should do, there stood forth two very worthless priests of the Sai-kon-do of Ko-fuku-ji, 
called Kwannon-bo and Sei-shi-bo; Kwannon-bo was attired in a hara-maki, or body armour, 

corded with black silk, and held a white hilted naga-maki or short halberd, grasped in both hands ; 
Sei-shi-bo was in armour laced with green thread and carried a huge tachi in a black lacquered 
scabbard. Both of these ran up, and cutting down the tablet of En-ryaku-ji, broke it in pieces and 
threw them hither and thither. , 

Then, shouting out the words of a song, which run thus: 

" How gaily flows the water 
Hark to the sound of the waterfall, 
Even the sun in shining , 
By no means departs its rule. " 

they disappeared again among the monks of the South Capital. 



Now the faction of En-ryaku-ji, in the matter of resisting the violence that had been done, very 
carefully watched for an occasion, but said no word. After the decease of the Mikado everything, 
even the trees and flowers, was grief stricken and of sorrowful appearance, and after this 
undignified wrangle, all, high and low, dispersed to the four quarters crestfallen and 

[p- 30] 

abashed.. . On the same 29th, clay, at the hour of the Horse, hearing that a great company of the 
priests of En-ryaku-ji was going clown to Kyoto, Bushi and Kebi-ishi went out to Nishi Sakamoto 
to prevent them, but in spite of this they burst through, and a great tumult arose. Then the 
Retired Emperor Go-Shirakawa, how it happened is not certain, sent orders to the En-ryaku-ji 
faction, and, thinking that the Heike were to be attacked, sent soldiers to the Palace to strengthen 
all the guard houses for protection. The Heike all gathered together at Rokuhara, and the Retired 
Emperor also betook himself thither in haste. Kiyomori was at that time only Dainagon no 
Udaisho, and was in a very great state of agitation. Komatsu dono, wondering what all the mater 
was about, tried to pacify them, but there was much tumult and reviling among the soldiers. The 
monks of Hiei-san did not go to Rokuhara, but casually proceeded to press on to Kiyomizu, 
where they burned all the temple buildings and monastery. This was to revenge the insult they 
had received on the night of the Imperial Funeral ; since Kiyomizu was a branch temple of Ko- 
fuku-ji. The day after their burning Kiyomizu, they wrote the text: " By Kwannon's aid [1] the 
cave of fire will become a lake," and affixed it to the great gate, but the next day another tablet 
was substituted bearing the text " Her wondrous power is without equal for all ages." When the 
crowd returned, the Retired Emperor came back hurriedly from Rokuhara, and Shigemori Kyo 
alone went to meet him. 

The Chancellor his father did not go ; this was out of precaution. When Shigemori returned his 
father the Dainagon spoke thus to him : " I am rather afraid of this visit of the Retired Emperor; 
he has been thinking of doing something or other, and sometimes he has even expressed it, and 
for that reason be has come, so I cannot altogether rid my mind of suspicion." You 

[p. 3x] 

must not show any such suspicion either in word or deed," replied Shigemori, " it is not a good 
thing to reveal one's thoughts to people. . You must submit entirely to the will of the Ho-o: . If 
you show sympathy you may secure the protection of both 'Kami' and 'Hotoke.' If you do thus 
there will be no need to fear about your person." " Indeed Shigemori is most generous," said his 

When the Ho-o returned, those retainers who were most intimate with him remarked: " What a 

strange thing is .this that is said 1 The Ho-o has not the least idea of such a thing.." Now a man of 
influence in the Ho-o's Palace named Saiko Hoshi was there at this time, and he came forward 
and said: " Heaven alone cannot say anything, man must say it. The Heike have now exceeding 
great power and I think it is Heaven's will that someone should protest." But the others said one 
to another: "This is not a good thing to say. Walls have ears. Take care 1 " whispering in 
trepidation. Now as this year was a year of mourning, the ceremonies of 'Gokei' (purification of 
the new Emperor), and 'Daishoei' (presentation of new rice to the Imperial Ancestors) were not 

Now Ken-shun-mon-in, while yet she was called Higashino-Onkata, had conceived a son by the 
Ho-o, and this Prince was now five years old and there was a rumour that he was to be 
nominated Crown Prince. So it was that on the twenty-fourth day of the twelfth month he was 
suddenly given the title of Shinno. On the advent of the New Year the era was changed to Nin-an. 
On the eighth clay of the tenth month of the same year the Prince who had been raised to be 
Shinno the year before was proclaimed Crown Prince at Higashi Sanjo Palace. Thus the Crown 
Prince was an uncle of six years old, and the Emperor was his nephew three years old, their 
relation and age being quite abnormal and improper. Yet in the second year of Kwan-wa-Ichijo 
had become Emperor at the age of seven and Sanjo Crown Prince at eleven ; it was, therefore not 
without precedent. The Emperor (Rokujo) had come to the 


throne at two years old and was dethroned when barely five, becoming a priest on the 19th day of 
the second month and taking the title of Shin-in before he had attained the age of Genpuku. Both 
in China and in our own country this is the first time that such a thing has happened. On the 
twentieth day of the third month of the third year of Nin-an, the new Emperor was enthroned in 
the Daikyoku den. When this Emperor came to the throne the fortunes of the Heike family stood 
at their zenith, for his mother Kenshun-mon-in was the younger sister of Hachijono-Ni-i-Dono 
the wife of the Lay-priest Chancellor, while Taira Dainagon Tokitada was her elder brother and 
so the Imperial Uncle, so that he assume] the position of Regent in matters both within and 
without the Court, all appointments of officials both in spring and autumn being in his hands 
alone. His position was just like that of Yokoku-chu, while his younger sister Yokihi was the 
favourite of the [2] Emperor of China. How very enviable was his prosperity and popularity. As 
the Nyudo consulted him about all political matters both great and small, the people of the time 
called him Hei-Kwampaku. (i.e. K responsible to Kiyomori, not, as usual, to the Emperor.) 



On the sixteenth day of the seventh month of the first year of Ka-o the Retired Emperor Go- 
Shirakawa became a priest, but as, even after this, he continued to direct the administration as 
before, there was no difference between the Retired Emperor and the Reigning one : so that the 
Courtiers of the Retired Emperor and the Military Guards (Hokumen) of both upper and lower 
ranks received rank and emolument in abundance 

[p- 33] 

Still, as is the way of man's heart, they were not contented, but would say to their intimate 
friends when they met; 

" Ah, if that man loses his position then that demesne will be vacant;" or "if that fellow could be 
done away with, then I should get his office." The Ho-o himself murmured in secret; "From of 
old there have been many who have subdued the enemies of the country, but never before have 
they been so rewarded. When Sadamori defeated Masakado and when Yoriyoshi put down 
Sadato and Muneto, when Yoshihide conquered Takehira Yoshihide and Iehira a reward was 
given them, but it was nothing more than a demesne ; so that this arbitrary conduct in rewarding 
them is not according to reason. This is because the times are degenerate, and the principle of 
monarchic government is no longer observed." He could find no opportunity to utter any open 
reproof however. The Heike, on the other hand,, bore no special ill-will to the Imperial House. 

The primary cause of all the disturbance that was to follow was that on the sixteenth day of the 
tenth month of the second year of Ka-o, Shinsammi no Chujo Sukemori, second son of Komatsu 
dono, a young man of thirteen years old who was then Echizen-no-kami, wishing to see the 
beauties of the snow scenery at Karino, the snow having fallen in patches here and there, went 
out with a train of thirty youthful retainers on horseback to Rendaino, Murasakino and Ukon-no- 
baba, and Hew many hawks at the quails and skylarks from morning till evening, returning to 
Rokuhara about twilight. Now just at this time the Sessho Motofusa was proceeding from the 
Palace of the Ho-o at Higashi-no-do to the Imperial Palace, and going to enter at the Yuho gate, 
he went southward from Higashi-no-do, and turned to the East at Oi-no-Mikado, so that 
Sukemori met I him face to face between Oi-no-Mikado and I-no-kuma. Immediately the 
Minister's retainers shouted peremptorily," Who goes there? Dismount! Dismount ! It is His 
Excellency who passes! But Sukemori, being too proud and careless of his behaviour, his retainers 
too being all youths of under twenty 


who understood little of courtesy, spite of it being a Minister who passed, did not dismount 
according to custom, as etiquette demanded : on the contrary they threatened to break through 

his train. As it was dark perchance the Minister's retainers were not aware that it was Kiyomori's 
grandson, or if they were they made as if they were not, but anyhow they pulled Sukemori and all 
his retainers from off their horses and put them to exceeding shame. Sukemori could do nothing 
but make his way back to Rokullara and relate all these circumstances to his grandfather the Lay- 
priest Chancellor. The Nyudo was extremely wrath; " Even a Minister," he said, " must respect 
my family, and it is a most hateful thing that he should insult such a young man; for a thing like 
this our house maybe despised. Thus I cannot help letting the Minister know these things and 
indeed I hope to make him rue it." But Shigemori said ; " We are not affected by such a thing ; if 
we be mocked by men like Yorimasa or Matsumoto of the Genji, then we should indeed be put 
to shame, but it was exceedingly discourteous of my son. not to alight when he met the 
Minister." Then he called the samurai who had been in attendance during the incident and said ; " 
From henceforth take great care lest you should by mistake insult a Minister." But afterwards the 
Nyudo, without saying anything to Komatsu dono, collected about sixty men, led by Namba and 
Seno, all rustic samurai of exceeding bad manners who heeded nothing except the commands of 
the Nyudo, and bade them go and wait for the Minister when he went out on the twenty first 
day, and cut off the front hair of his outriders and retainers as a revenge for the insult to Sukemori. 
The samurai respectfully assented, and went forth. The Minister, never dreaming of such a thing, 
went out with more state than usual, owing to his having to stay in the apartments of the Sessho 
to fix the time for the Emperor's coming of age ceremonies, (Gempuku, Assuming the [2] 

[p. 35] 

and Reception of Officials) to be held next year. On this occasion he had to enter by the 
Taikenmon, and as he was going to the west of Naka-no-mikado, at Inokuma near Horikawa, he 
met about three hundred retainers of Rokuhara all armed to the teeth, who surrounded him on 
all sides with shouts of exultation : then, chasing his retainers and outriders this way and that, 
they treated them with contumely and cut off their front hair. Among his sixteen retainers, 
Takemoto, a retainer of the Udaijin also had his haircut off. When they cutoff the top knot of To 
Kurando-no-Taiyu Takanori they said; " You must not consider this as your own top knot but as 
though it were your master's." 

Then poking the ends of their bows into the car, they broke the curtains, cut the harness and 
trappings off the oxen and drove them hither and thither, finally returning to Rokuhara with 
shouts of glee, whereupon the Nyudo praised them for carrying out his orders so well. But the 
two retainers who rode next to the Minister's car, Inaba-no-Saizukai and Toba-no-Kunihisa-Maro, 
though of quite low rank were very shrewd fellows, and putting the car in order again they 
brought their master to the palace of Naka-no-Mikado. He, wiping away his tears with the 
sleeves of his dress of ceremony, returned home again in a truly pitiful state. It is not necessary to 
speak of Kamatari and Fuhito of the Fujiwara house, but since the time of Yoshifusa and 
Mototsune to this day no such insult as this outrage of the Heike has ever been known to befall a 
Sessho Kwampaku. 

When Komatsu dono heard of it he was greatly disturbed in his mind, and all the samurai who 
had taken part in it were dismissed from their posts. " However strange a thing the Nyudo 
ordered you to do, why did you tell me nothing of it," he said, " this is Sukemori's fault : the 
bJSendan is fragrant even from the time when it has but two leaves; so even a boy of twelve or 
thirteen years knows what courtesy is and ought to 

[p. 36] 

practise it. He is guilty of unfilial conduct in bringing the name of the Nyudo into disrepute by 
such ill manners and must bear he responsibility." So Shigemori removed him to Ise-no-kuni a 
discipline. He was indeed a leader to be admired both by lord and vassal. 



Owing to this incident the Emperor's Gempuku was postponed to the twenty fifth day of the 
same month, and was fixed take place at the Palace of the Retired Emperor, and as the Sessho's 
presence would be then required, he received an Imperial communication appointing him Dajo- 
daijin on the fourteenth day. Soon after, on the seventeenth day, he paid a visit of thanks to the 
Retired Emperor, but still the condition of things generally seemed unsettled. 

Thus this year ended and the third year of Ka-o began. In the fifth day of the first month the 
Gempuku of the Emperor took place, and on the thirteenth day he visited the Retired Emperor 
in state. The Ho-o and his Consort received him. His Majesty looked splendid indeed wearing the 
Kammuri for the first time. As Imperial Gonsort he received one of the daughters of the Lay 
priest Chancellor, and at the age of fifteen he was adopted as step son by the Ho-o. 

Now Myo on in den, (Fujiwara Moronaga) was still at this time Naidaijin-no-Sadaisho, and on his 
resigning this office, one Tokudaiji-no-Dainagon Jittei-no-Kyo aspired to it in his stead ; Kwazan- 
in-no-Chunagon Kanemasa-no-Kyo also wished for it; and [i]Shin-Dainagon Narichika-no-Kyo, 
the third son of the late Naka-no-Mikado To-Chunagon Kasei-no-Kyo also greatly desired it. This 
Dainagon, being high in favour with the Retired Emperor, began to offer many prayers for it. He 
stationed a 

[p. 37] 

hundred priests before the shrine of Hachiman to read the [ijDai-Hannya Kyo from beginning to 
end for seven days, and while this was taking place, three doves flew forth from Oto-koyama to 
the Tachibana tree which was before Koura Daimyojin and fought one another to the death. 
Now doves are the well known messengers of [3] Hachiman Dai-Bosatsu, and in a shrine or temple 
such a thing was an extraordinary portent. The [^Kengyo of that time, Kyosei-hoin by name, 
reported it to the Imperial Court. This was no ordinary matter, so the omens must be consulted, 
and a soothsayer among the Shinto priests, on being referred to spake thus ; " This is a portent of 
great weight, but it is not one that concerns the Emperor, but one of his subjects." Then the 
Dainagon, not at all perturbed thereat, since in the daytime people would see him, went out 
every night from his Palace at Naka-no-Mikado Karasu-Maru to the shrine of Kamo on foot seven 
nights in succession. On the last night of the seven, on his arriving home again tired out, he fell 
asleep for a short time and dreamed that he went to the shrine of Kamo and opened the door of 
the Holy of Holies, whereupon a very majestic voice sounded forth with these words; " O cherry 
flowers, do not hate the river breeze of Kanzo, for it will not stop the flowers falling." Then the 
Dainagon, not at all afraid, set up an altar in a hollow cedar tree behind the sanctuary of the 
Yashiro of Kamo and put there a saintly priest and had prayers offered according to the [5] Dakini 
rite for a hundred days. 'Then it happened that suddenly the sky clouded over and it thundered 
exceedingly, a thunderbolt striking the great cedar tree and setting fire to it so that the shrine 

seemed in danger. 

[p- 38] 

All the priests ran together to put it out, moreover they wished to drive out the holy priest who 
was praying there, but he said ; " I intend to stay praying in this shrine for a hundred days, and is 
now the seventy fifth day, so I cannot depart now," and he :d not move. This was reported by the 
Shrine to the Imperial Palace, but the Emperor bade them do nothing that was not in accordance 
with the law. Then the priests took white rods in their hands and struck the holy priest on the 
neck so that at last they drove him out from the street Ichijo to the southward. The gods do not 
accept discourtesy, and this Dainagon had fished to become Taisho, a thing quite unsuitable to his 
rank, hence this strange happening. Now at this time the appointment of officials was not in 
accordance with the will of the Ho-o, nor, with that of the Sessho-Kwampaku, but lay solely in 
the power the Heike. Even Tokudaiji Kwazan-in did not get this nice, but Komatsu Dono 
Shigemori, the eldest son of the Nyudo, who was then Dainagon-no-Udaisho, changed over to 
"Sadaisho, while the second son Munemori, who was Chunagon, passing over the heads of others 
his superiors, became Udaisho his stead. It is quite needless to say that Tokudaiji Dono, who was 
a Dainagon of high lineage and of distinguished literary attainments and moreover head of his 
family, felt great chagrin at being thus passed over in favour of Munemori, who :, as only second 
son of the Heike family. 

Although it was at first rumoured that he would become a priest, Tokudaiji Dono, wishing to see 
how affairs would turn it, merely resigned his office of Dainagon and went into retirement. Now 
the Shin Dainagon Narichika-no-Kyo would naturally come after Tokudaiji Kwazan-in, but how 
great was his wrath at the elevation of such a person as Munemori, second on of the Heike family. 
So he went to the length of saying that would attain his long sought goal through the destruction 
of the Heike. His father had only been Chunagon when he was his age, but his youngest son had 
become Dainagon of the upper second rank, and had received a great province as his fief, while 

[p- 39] 

his sons and retainers also basked in the Imperial favour. What then was lacking to him that he 
should plan such a thing ? It seems like the action of a demon. In the period of Heiji, when he 
was Echigo-no-Chujo, he had taken the part of Nobuyori and ought properly to have lost his 
head then, but his neck was saved by the intercession of Komatsu Dono. Now however, 
forgetting all gratitude for this, even when no one was his enemy, he was spending all his time in 
preparing weapons and collecting soldiers and practising military activities to the exclusion of all 
else. Now Shishi-no-tani on Higashi-yama, having Miidera behind it was a very fine strategic 
position, and there was the mountain seat of Shunkwan Sozu, so he was always repairing thither 
to plot the overthrow of the Heike. One evening the Ho-o went also and with him went Joken- 
Hoin the son of the late Shonagon Nyudo Shinsai. During the evening banquet they talked about 
this matter, and Hoin said; " What a foolish thing ; many people may overhear it and it will soon 
leak out and a crisis will ensue in the country." Then the Dainagon, changing his countenance, 
stood up suddenly, and knocked over with the sleeve of his ' Kariginu ' a jar (heiji) that stood 
before the Ho-o. His Majesty asked what he meant by it. The Dainagon returning to his seat 
replied; " The overthrow of the Heishi." The Ho-o thereupon smiled with satisfaction and said, " 
Let someone advance and dance the Sarugaku." Hei Hangwan Yasuyori came forth and said; " 
There are too many jars (heiji) here and so we are all intoxicated." Shunkwan Sozu replied, " 

Then what shall we do with them ? " " It is best to take off their necks," interjected Saiko Hoshi, 
as he took of the necks of the jars. [6] Hoin, considering this all great folly, said little. However we 
consider it, it was a terrible thing. Now who are those who were in favour of it? Omi-no-Chujo 
Reiyo, commonly called Narimasa, Hosshoji-no-Shugyo Shunkwan Sozu , Yamashiro-no-kami 
Motokane, Shikibu-no-taiho Masatsuna, Hei 

[p. 40] 

Hangwan Yasuyori, So Hangwan Nobufusa, Shin Hei Hangwan Sukeyuki. Among the retainers 
Tada-no-Kurando Yukitsuna was the foremost : among the Court Guards (Hokumen) also many 
were affected. 



Now this Hosshoji-no-Shugyo[i] Shunkwan Sozu was the grandson of Kyogoku-no-Gen- 
Dainagon Gashun-no-Kyo and the son of Kidera Hoin Kwanga. The house of his grandfather the 
Dainagon was not a military one, but he, being a man of violent nature, did not easily let anyone 
pass before his house near the Sanjobo Gate in Kyogoku, but usually would stand at the middle 
gate grinding his teeth in a menacing manner. Being therefore the grandson of such a formidable 
person, this Shunkwan also, though a priest, had a pugnacious and proud nature so that he was 
just the person to take part in such an unreasonable rebellion. Shin-Dainagon Narichika-no-Kyo, 
calling Tada-no-Kurando Yukitsuna, appointed him leader of one of the forces saying; " If you 
accomplish this affair successfully, you shall have as much as you wish of fief and domain." And 
he gave him fifty 'tan' of white silk for bow bags as a gratuity. 

On the fifth day of the third month of the third year of An-gen Myo-in-den became Dajodaijin, 
and Komatsu Dono, passing over Gen-Dainagon Sadafusa-no-Kyo, became Naidaijin, , so that 
soon after there was a great banquet to congratulate him on becoming both Daijin and Taisho. 
The guest of honour was Oi-no-Mikado Udaijin Tsunemune Ko. The Sadaijin ought to have 
taken the upper seat, but as his father was Uji-no-Akusafu (Fujiwara Yorinaga), there was some 
fear about such a precedent. 

There were no [2]Hoku-men (Imperial Guards) in ancient rimes, but they were first established 
from the time of Shirakawa- 


in, and many of the Eifu obtained these posts. Tameyoshi and Morishige, who were in their youth 
pages called Inumaru and Senshumaru, and many other unimportant people also became Hoku- 
men. During the time of Toba-in, Sueyori and Suenori, father and son, were both serving in the 
Court, and though sometimes acting as Courier from the Ho-o to the Imperial Court, always 
behaved in a manner suitable to their rank, but the Hoku-men of this time had too much power 
and did not respect Kugyo and Denjobito at all. Passing from lower Hoku-men to upper, from 
that many were allowed to enter the Court, and as they could achieve this they became puffed 
up and even went so far as to join in this foolish rebellion. Among these were Moromitsu and 
Narikage, who served the late Shonagon Nyudo Shinsai. Moromitsu was in the government office 
in Awa and Narikage was a man of the capital: he was born in a very low station, being a ' 
Kondei-warawa,' or foot-soldier or perhaps a kind of table page. As he was sagacious he came to 
be employed by the Ho-o. Moromitsu became Saemon-no-jo and Narikage Uemon-no-jo, then 
both of them became Yukie-no-jo. Once when, something happened to Shinsai they both 
became priests, taking the titles of Saemon-no-Nyodo Saiko and Uemon-no-jo Saikei ; but still 
after this they continued to hold the office of Master of the storehouses to the Ho-o. This Saiko 
had a son Morotaka, who also became powerful and rose to be Keb i-ish Go-i-no-jo. Furthermore 

on the nineteenth day of the twelfth month of the first year of An-gen, at the appointment of 
officials at Tsuina, (year end ceremony) he became Kaga-no-kami. 

While he was on duty in his province of Kaga he behaved in a lawless and barbarous manner, 
seizing the domains of shrines and temples and influential families, and doing always what was 
disorderly in everything. Now even if there is no virtuous governor, peaceful government may 
still continue, but among his arbitrary actions, during the summer of the second year of the same 
era, this Governor Morotaka brought his younger brother Kondo Hangwan Morotsune to act as 
Mokudai (Deputy). 

[p- 42] 

Now there was a certain mountain temple called Ugawa near the official residence of the 
Governor, and just as the Mokudai arrived from the capital, the priests happened to be bathing, 
whereupon he broke in among them, drove them off and bathed in their stead, driving away 
those of lower rank who were bathing near them so that his horse might be washed in their place. 
Thereupon the priests became very angry and cried out; " From of old this temple has been a 
sacred place where officials cannot enter, so let us defend our privilege and stop this invasion." 
Then the Mokudai replied angrily, " The former Mokudai were all fools, so the present one has 
no reason to follow their example : Obey the law 1 " But while he was speaking the priests began 
to drive out his men, and they on their part tried to force their way in, so that one of the legs of 
the favourite horse of the Mokudai Morotsune got broken in the struggle. Then with their 
weapons they shot and hacked at each other for several hours. 

At length when night began to fall, the Mokudai, seeing that he could not overcome them, 
discreetly drew off his men. Afterwards the officials of the province, gathering together about a 
thousand men, came out to Ugawa and burnt down all the buildings of the monastery. Now 
Ugawa was a branch temple of Hakuzan and thither the chief priests went to appeal for help, 
namely Chishaku, Gakumyo, Hodaibo, Shochi, Gakuon, and Tosa-no-jari. Hakuzan consisted of 
three shrines and eight temples, and all of these came out together, a great multitude about two 
thousand men. On the ninth day of the seventh month of the same year in the evening they made 
for the official residence of the Mokudai Morotsune. " Today is already past; tomorrow we will 
fight," they said and only went thus far that day. The dew-laden wind of autumn blew out the 
tough sleeves of their bow bands; the lightning flashing in the sky gleamed on the stars of their 
helmets. The Mokudai, fearing that he could not hold his own, fled by night to Kyoto. At the 
hour of the Hare (6. a.m.), the enemy rushed to the assault, 

[p- 43] 

fiercely shouting their war cry. From within the castle there is no sound. When they send men to 
explore, they report that all have vanished. Then the multitude, seeing that attack is needless, 
draw off their forces, and, carrying with them the sacred emblem of the middle shrine of 
Hakuzan, go off to appeal to Hieizan. At the hour of the Horse (12. noon), they brought it to 
Higashi Sakamoto on Hieizan : from the northern provinces the thunder rolled ceaselessly toward 
the capital ; snow fell and covered the land on the mountain and in the city: all was white even to 
the twigs of the evergreens on the mountains when they brought the sacred emblem to the shrine 
of Marodo. This shrine was the Myori Gongen of Hakuzan, the relation of the two gods being 
that of father and child. Though it was uncertain whether there would be any response from the 

deity, it was a great pleasure to the two gods to meet thus ; greater even than that of blUrashima, 
when he met his descendant of the seventh generation, or than that of the [4] son of Buddha at 
meeting his yet unknown father at Ryosen. So this multitude of three thousand priests from 
seven shrines each following close on the heel of the other, sleeve by sleeve continually chanted 
the holy Sutras ; it was indeed a sight that defied description. Then the priests of Hieizan 
appealed to the Emperor for the banishment of the Kokushi Kaga-no-kami Morotaka and the 
imprisonment of the Mokudai Kondo Hangwan Morotsune, but no answer was made to the 
appeal. Seeing this some of the influential nobles of the Court complained to one another: " Alas] 
Why does not the Emperor decide the affair quickly? From old times appeals from Hieizan have 
been different from all others. Okura-no-Kyo Tamefusa and Dazai Gon-no-Sotsu Suenaka-no- 
Kyo were very important Court 


Officials but they were banished by appeal of Hieizan, how much more Morotaka who is a man 
of little account; the thing ought to be done properly." But, as the Chinese saying goes: " The high 
officials fear for their emoluments and do not advise the Throne, while the lower ones fear to 
make a mistake and so keep silent." So in this case everyone kept his mouth shut in council. 

" The waters of Kamogawa, the dice of Sugoroku [5] and the monks of Hieizan are things quite 
beyond my control," quoth the Ho-o Go-Shirakawa. In the time of Toba-in too the gift of the 
monastery of Heizenji in Echizen to Hieizan showed no small confidence in that temple; for 
when Hieizan had pressed the Emperor to give it to them he had answered that it was doing evil 
that good might come, whereupon they appealed to the Ho-o, and Go-no-Sotsu [6] Kyobo-no- 
Kyo enquired, " If the monks of Hieizan bring down the sacred emblem [7] of Hiyoshi and make 
an appeal, what had better be done ? " to which the Ho o replied: "How difficult it is to resist the 
appeals of Hieizan," and complied. 



Formerly, on the second day of the third month of the second year of Ka-ho, Mino-no-kami 
Minamoto Yoshitsune Ason had slain En-o, a veteran priest of Hiei, for depriving him of his 
newly obtained fief, whereupon the chief priest of Hiyoshi and the heads of Enryakuji, about 
thirty in all, came down with a crowd of retainers and presented a petition demanding satisfaction. 
On account of this, the Kwampaku of Go-Nijo (Fujiwara Moromichi) ordered Yamato Genii 
Nakatsukasa Gon-no-Sho Yoriharu to take measures of defence, with the result that his retainers 

[p- 45] 

shot arrows at the monks, killing eight of them on the spot and wounding more than ten, so that 
the chief priest and the rest fled in all directions. Then the superior priests of Hieizan flocked 
down in great numbers to report the matter to the Emperor, but were met at Nishi-Sakamoto by 
samurai and Kebiishi and driven back again: therefore, while the Emperor was hesitating about 
his decision, they brought the sacred emblem of Hiyoshi to the Komponchudo and chanted 
through the six hundred volumes of the Dai-Hannya Sutra before it to lay a curse on the 
Kwampaku of Go-Nijo. And the manner of the petition was this; Chu-in Ho-in, who presided, 
(at that time he was only Chu-in Gubu) [1], taking the upper seat, rung the bell and with 
reverence addressed the god thus, praying with a loud voice; " O thou Gongen [5] of Hachioji, who 
hast nurtured us and cared for us from our youth up, do thou, we beseech thee, shoot a whizzing 
arrow at the Kwampaku of Go-Nijo." Thereupon ensued a strange portent ; someone dreamed 
that the whirring sound of a Kaburaya [ijwas heard to proceed from the shrine of Hachioji and go 
over toward Kyoto, and the next day, when they opened the lattices of the mansion of the 
Kwampaku they saw a branch of 'Shikimi' bjwet with dew as if it had just come from the 
mountain, and that night the Kwampaku was stricken with a sore disease because of the anger of 
the deity and took to his bed. His mother O-Dono-no-Kita-no-Mandokoro [/Jin great grief went 
to the shrine of Hiyoshi, clothed scantily like a very low menial, and prayed for seven days and 
nights, offering for the success of her petition these gifts to be dedicated to the god; a hundred 
performances of the dance 

[ P . 46] 

called Shiba Dengaku, a hundred horse races, a hundred courses of equestrian archery, a hundred 
bouts of wrestling, a hundred priests to chant the Nio Sutra, the same number to chant the Sutra 
of Yakushi, [6] a hundred statues of Yakushi half a hand high, one life size figure of the same 
deity together with similar statues of Shaka and Amida. Beside this she had in her heart three 
other vows and, though there was no reason for anyone to know what was in the depth of her 
mind, yet wonderful to relate, at the close of the seventh night at the shrine, it happened that a 
boy-priest, who had come with many others from the remote province of Mutsu, died suddenly 
at midnight. When they carried him out from the shrine and offered prayers, to the amazement 

of the onlookers he stood up and danced, and after dancing for the space of about half an hour, 
the god entered into him and uttered this awe inspiring oracle: "Give ear O ye people : for seven 
days of this month the mother of the Kwampaku has prayed in retirement before me : in her 
heart are three vows. She asks that the life of her son may be spared : if this be granted, first she 
will serve the shrine among the lowest mendicants for a thousand days. I am moved with 
compassion that the mother of the Kwampaku, who is so great that she regards all the world as of 
no account, is so affected by her care for her son that, forgetting the squalor of these people, she 
deigns to serve the shrine among the lowest menials for a thousand days. Secondly she will build a 
corridor from the Hashidono of the main shrine to the shrine of Hachioji. How blessed a thing it 
is that such a corridor should be built, for I feel pity for the three thousand priests who must go 
across to the shrine whether it rain or shrine. In the third place she will endow a Hokke 
Mondoko [7] to be held in perpetuity every day. All these vows are by no means foolish, for 
though the first two might perhaps be foregone, the Hokke Mondoko is most desirable. Now the 

[p- 47] 

appeal that the priests made to the Emperor was very proper, but no answer was given, only they 
were shot at and killed; wherefore they came and called on me with tears so that I was moved to 
compassion and felt that it was a thing I could never forget; moreover the arrows that were shot 
at them injured my body in its Buddha manifestation. See here whether I speak truth or falsehood; 
" and the medium, doffing his clothing, displayed under his left armpit a hollow like the mouth of 
a cup. Then he continued : " indeed this is so grievous to me that however much she vows I 
cannot prolong his life to the natural span, but if the Hokke Mondoko be endowed I will allow 
him to live for three years longer. If this be thought too little, I can do no more." With this the 
god ceased and withdrew himself. 

Now the mother of the Kwampaku had not said anything to anyone about her vow so that it 
never entered her mind that it could be known, and she was deeply impressed that the secret 
thoughts of her heart should thus become the subject of an oracle ; and especially was she 
thankful that the life of her son should be prolonged for a day or even for half an hour, how 
much more that three years should be granted him. Thus, restraining her tears, she departed 
homeward. Afterwards she presented her son's domain of Tanaka-no-Sho in the province of Ki-i 
to the shrine of Hachioji for ever, and so it is that we hear that to the present day the Hokke 
Mondoko is held every day without ceasing at the shrine of Hachioji. 

Thus the sickness of the Kwampaku of Go-Nijo was healed and he was restored whole as before 
to the great joy of his family, but alas, the three years flew by like a dream, and in the twenty-first 
day of the sixth month of the second year of Ei-cho a boil broke out at the edge of his hair, so 
that he took to his bed, and on the twenty seventh day of the same month he passed away at the 
age of thirty-eight. Though he was brave, strong-minded and valiant in his actions, when his 
illness became critical he could not bear to die. Indeed it was a sad case, and sadder too that he 
should die before his father before reaching 

[ P . 48] 

the age of forty. There is no reason why a father should die before his children, but even Buddha 
the perfection of virtue, or the most enlightened Bosatsu have no power to change the decrees of 
life and death. A god who is really just and merciful cannot fail to punish for the good of mankind. 



Thus, though the priests of Hieizan had many times petitioned the Emperor for the banishment 
of the Kokushi Kaga-no-kami Morotaka and the imprisonment of the Mokudai Kondo Hangwan 
Morotsune, yet no answer was given them, so, without celebrating the festival of Hiyoshi, on the 
thirteenth day of the fourth month of the third year of An-gen at the first hour of the Dragon, (8. 
p.m.) they set out with the Mikoshi or sacred cars of the three shrines of Juzenji, Marodo, and 
Hachioji at their head, while with them went the priests of the gods and Buddhas from 
Sagarematsu, Kiretsuzumi, Kamo-no-kawara, Tadasu, Umetada, Yanagihara, Tohoku-in, and 
others with their monks and followers, an innumerable host. As they entered Ichijo from the 
western side, people wondered if the sun and moon had not fallen from heaven. Thereupon the 
Emperor ordered the generals of the houses of Gen and Hei to secure the four quarters of the 
Palace enclosure and to protect the city against the priestly multitude. Then Komatsu Naidaijin 
Sadaisho Shigemori with about three thousand horsemen secured the three gates of the Palace 
called Yomei, Taiken, and Yubo, while his younger brothers Munemori, Tomomori and Shigehira, 
with his uncles Yorimori and Tsunemori held the south western gates. Of the Genji, Gensammi 
Minamoto Yorimasa the Warden of the Palace with his retainers the Watanabe father and son, 
and about three hundred horsemen held the Nuidono Palace at the north gate. This position 
being an extensive one and the troops few, they presented a very scattered appearance, so that 

[p- 49] 

the priests, perceiving this to be the weakest point in the defences, determined to try and bring in 
their sacred emblem by the north gate. Then Yorimasa quickly leapt from his horse, and taking 
off his helmet and rinsing his mouth with water, made humble obeisance before the sacred 
emblem, all his three hundred retainers likewise following his example, after which he sent 
Watanabe Choshichi Tonau as an envoy to the priests. He was attired that day in a ' 'hitatare' of 
light green, and body armour ornamented with cherry blossoms on a yellow ground, and wore a 
sword with mounts of red copper; in his quiver he carried twenty four arrows feathered with 
white and under his arm was a bow lacquered in black and bound with red bands. Taking off his 
helmet he slung it over his shoulder by the thong, and standing reverently before the sacred car, 
spoke thus : " Be silent a while, I pray you, and hear my message from Gensammi Dono. The 
appeal of Hieizan to the Throne was certainly justified, and we also regret the slowness of the 
decision, so that not without reason do you bring hither your sacred car: Yorimasa however has 
but few men wherewith to hold this gate, and if you decide to force your way in at such an 
unguarded place you will he a laughing stock to the children of the city and it will be 
remembered to your shame in days to come. If we open the gate to you we shall be disobedient 
to the Imperial Order and if we try to defend it, I, who have always revered the god of Iozan, can 
no longer follow the way of the warrior. Truly either path is beset with difficulty. The eastern 
side is held in strong force by Komatsu Dono, so it is there that you ought to try and enter." 

On hearing this the priests hesitated and were undecided as to what to do, when some youthful 
and worthless ones among them cried out : " Wherefore do ye thus delay ; push on through the 
gate." As many took up this cry, an aged priest called Setsu-no-Rissha Ko-un, the wisest of all in 
the three halls, stood forth and said: " This request is very reasonable. If we break through the 
strongest place with our sacred car it will be greatly to our credit in time to come ; and moreover 
this Yorimasa is 

[p- 50] 

of the purest line of the Genji, descended from the sixth Imperial Grandson, having no equal in 
martial arts, and renowned not only as a warrior but also as a poet; for while Konoe-in was on the 
Throne, it happened that a verse-party was proposed at which the subject suggested for 
composition was, " Flowers in the recesses of the mountains; " and this theme embarrassed the 
verse-makers very much, but Yorimasa won great admiration from the Emperor by his famous 
improvisation ; 

" Cherry boughs do not show 'mid the trees in the depths of the mountains ; 
But at the time of bloom, beauteous the flowers appear. " 

Do not then let us put to shame one who has merited the Imperial admiration on an occasion like 
this. Let us carry in the sacred car elsewhere." Moved by this advice, thousands of the monks 
from front to rear shouted assent, and, forthwith carrying the sacred car round to the eastern side, 
made to enter the Palace through the Taiken gate. Here a struggle ensued, for the samurai drew 
their bows and shot at them so that many arrows struck the sacred car of Juzenji and some of the 
priests were killed, many of their followers being wounded, the noise of the shouts and groans 
ascending even to the Bonten Paradise, [il while Kenro-Chijin, the mighty Earth deity, was struck 
with consternation. Then the priestly bands, leaving their sacred cars behind at the gate, fled back 
lamenting to their temples. 



That night the Retired Emperor gave orders to Kurodo-no-Sashoben Kanemitsu that a council of 
the Courtiers should be held immediately. At the time that they brought down the sacred cars 
before in the fourth month of the fourth year of Ho-an, the Emperor had ordered the Zasshu to 
take it into the 

[p- 5i] 

shrine of Sekizan : also in the seventh month of the fourth year of Ho-en, he had ordered the 
Betto of Gion to bring it into the shrine of Gion ; now, according to the precedent of Ho-en, he 
ordered Gondai Sozu Choken, Betto of Gion, to bring it again to that shrine at nightfall, and this 
being done the arrows that stuck in it were pulled out by the priests. From of old, reckoning from 
the period of Ei-kyu, until now the priests of Hieizan have brought down their sacred car six 
times, but, though every time the samurai were ordered to restrain them, arrows had never been 
shot until this occasion. The people of the capital were greatly terrified, fearing that the anger of 
the god would bring calamity on the city. 

On the fourteenth day at midnight the monks of Hieizan again flocked down into the city, so the 
Emperor, ordering his palanquin in the middle of the night, went to the Retired Emperor's Palace 
at Hojuji-den, while the Imperial Consort and the other Ladies of the Palace went in their cars to 
some other palace, the Kwampaku and Dajo-daijin and other inferior Courtiers precipitately 
following them in a panic. The Naidaijin Komatsu Dono attended them wearing ordinary dress 
with a quiver of arrows on his back, his heir Gon-no-suke Koremori going with him in 
ceremonial costume carrying a flat quiver. Both in the Palace and in the city, high and low, rich 
and poor, all were in a state of confusion and tumult. 

Now at Hieizan three thousand priests met in council, clamouring that as their sacred car had 
been shot at and many of their company killed and wounded, they must burn all the temples 
from Omiya and Ninomiya to Kodo and Chudo as a protest against the indignity, and go forth 
and take up their abode on the mountain and moor. At this point it appeared that the Ho-o 
wished to propose something with regard to the matter, and the senior priests of Hieizan in 
Kyoto went to ascend the mountain to inform the others, but these came down in great numbers 
as far as Nishi-Sakamoto and drove them back again. Now Taira Dainagon Tokitada-no-Kyo, who 
at this time held 

[p- 52] 

the office of Saemon-no-kami, had been appointed one of the siding ministers (Jokei), and he was 
sent as an envoy to the monks ; these however assembled in the courtyard of the Daikodo and 
cried out; " let us seize Tokitada, pull off his 'Kammuri' and then bind him and throw him into 

the lake." On seeing this, Tokitada begged them to listen quietly to what he had to say, and taking 
a small ink-stone and paper from his bosom, he wrote a few words and gave it to them. What 
they read was this ; " The lawless violence of the priests is the work of a devil: a righteous 
monarch restrains it by virtue of his enlightened birth." Abashed by this reproof the monks 
forbore to lay hands on him, but admitting the truth of his statement with one accord, they all 
dispersed in silence to their cells and valleys. Thus did Tokitada-no-Kyo win the admiration of 
everyone by calming the wrath of the three thousand priests of the Three Halls by writing a few 
words on a piece of paper, and thus averting insult from the Emperor and himself. The monks 
too, who had hitherto been regarded as only wishing to stir up disorder, were now respected for 
their reasonable conduct. 

On the twentieth day an Imperial Mandate was issued through Kwazan-in-Gon Chunagon 
Tadachika-no-Kyo the Jokei that the Kokushi Kaga-no-kami Morotaka should be dismissed and 
banished to Idota in Owari and that his Brother Kondo Hangwan Morotsune should be 
imprisoned : also on the thirteenth day six samurai who had shot at the sacred car were also 
imprisoned ; they were all retainers of Komatsu Dono. 

On the evening of the twentieth day at the hour of the Dog (8. p.m.), a fire broke out at Higuchi 
Tomi-no-koji and a great part of Kyoto was burned. A south-east wind was blowing strongly at 
the time and the flames swept across the city diagonally like a great wheel and burned through to 
the south-west, the distance of from three to five cho : a very terrible sight deed. Guhei Shinno's 
palace at Chigusa, the Kobai palace at Kitano Tenjin, Ritsu Issei's palace at Haematsu, the Oni 
palace, the Takamatsu palace, the Kamoi palace, the Kanin palace of 

[p- 53] 

Higashi Sanjo Fuyutsugu-no-Otodo, the Horikawa palace of Fujiwara Mototsune, beside thirty 
other palaces famous from ancient days. Sixteen palaces belonging to Court Nobles of the highest 
rank were burned, beside those of other Courtiers and high officials without number. At last the 
fire reached the Imperial Palace, and starting from the Shujaku gate, the Oten gate, the Kaisho 
gate, the Daikoku-den, the Buraku-in, the eight offices [1] of the Palace administration and the 
Office of Records were all reduced to ashes in a moment ; the annals of families and the 
documents of many generations beside many treasures of great worth were all burnt to cinders. 
No one could estimate the damage. Several hundred people were burnt to death and cattle 
without number. Moreover it was no ordinary event that there were some who dreamed of two 
or three thousand great monkeys coming down from Hieizan with torches to set fire to the city 
as a punishment from the god of that place. 

The Daikyokuden was burned for the first time in the age of Seiwa Tenno in the eighteenth year 
of Jokan, and on the third day of the first month of the nineteenth year the Coronation 
Ceremony of the Emperor Yosei took place in the Buraku-in. On the ninth day of the fourth 
month of the first year of Gwankyo they began to rebuild it, and it was finished on the eighth day 
of the tenth month of the second year. In the reign of Go-Reizei-in, on the twenty sixth day of 
the second month of the fifth year of Tenki it was again burned and on the fourteenth day of the 
eighth month of the fourth year of Jiryaku they again began to rebuild it, but the Emperor Go- 
Reizei died before it was finished. In the reign of Go-Sanjo-in on the fifteenth day of the fourth 
month of the fourth year of Enkyu it was finished, and the Imperial Court removed to it, the 

literary men dedicating many compositions and the musicians making melody. As the present age 
was a degenerate one and the strength of the country was exhausted, it has not yet been rebuilt. 


[1] Gion Shoja. ** &i™ «Sk. Djetavana Vihara. The monastery of Djeta, situated in a park, 

bought and presented to S'akya Muni by Anartha pindaka, in which many of his sermons were 


[2] Teak tree. Shorea Robusta, a large tree under which S'akya Mani entered Nirvana. Sk. Sala. Jap. 

Sharasoju SMKffl. 

[3] Choko. *& (sJ Prime Minister of Shin during the reigns of the first two Emperors, throw the 
country into confusion and was put to death while the third was a child. 

[/(JOno. ->Syp Father of the Empress of Sei Tei ™™, seized the administration as Regent but 
was put to death by the nobles shortly afterward. 

[5] Shui. >'" "perhaps a mistake for SB -^Minister of Bu Tei &*^ who was the cause of his 
country's ruin. 

[6] Rokuzan, the famous An-Rokuzan "St 1 ™' ', Minister of Genso -^-'1* who also ruined his 


[7] Masakado etc, famous Japanese rebels. 

[1] dirk, 'sayamaki' a short sword without a guard, perhaps so called because the scabbard was 

bound round like a bow. Cf. illus. in Jo'y and Inada, Sword and Same, P. 37. 

[2] Go-Sec/ii.EjIP So called became Five Princesses danced at it. The banquet was given on the 

day after Nii namesai or the offering of the new rice harvest to the gods. 

[3] Kariginu. For this and other Court dress cf, Sansom, translation of Tsurezure Gusa T.A.SJ. vol. 

39. P. 117. 

[4] Tachi The slung sword of curved shape always worn by warriors and also by Courtiers up to 

Ashikaga times after which it was only worn by commanding officers and Courtiers who still 

wear it when in Japanese dress of ceremony. That of Bushi differed in shape from that of civil 

officials. Cf, Joly and Inada as above, P. 312. 

[5] Kurando. The office in the Court that had charge of certain state documents and had authority 

to decide matters of litigation. 

[6] he Heishi. Cf. Sansom. Tsurezure Gusa, p. 66, where another pun on the same name is 

explained. Heishi W" ft and Heishi JS s wine bottle, 

saga-me zUffl, squint-eyed , and su-game If JS vinegar-bottle, or 2&.M, unglazed bottle as some 

MSS read. 

[7] Tonomo. The department of the Palace that had charge of the Imperial carriages, bath, torches, 

and cleaning of the Palace courts. 

[8] White paper etc. intended to suggest metaphorically the dances of women. 

[9] Courtiers. Kugyo Denjobito. Kugyo were the Sessho Kwampaku and the great Ministers (Ku), 

and the Danagon and Chunagon of above the third Runk:. Denjobito were all who had, the right 

of attending the Court. Kyo is a title meaning Lord, Court Noble 

[1] Ei- no-Suke. Officer of one of the Imperial Guards, the Konoe-fu or Saeimon or Ueimon. 

[2] Tadamori. pun on his name read s\ 'only,' and vE 'leak,' for J&ff£o 

[3] Kinyoshu A Collection of poems made in the time of Sutoku Tenno. 
[4] Gyobukyo. Chief of the Department of justice, (Gyobasho) 

[5] Eifu-no-Kami Captain of the Imperial Guard. 

[6] Kebiishi-no-Betto. Chief of the Police. Betto, High Steward, also of Shinto Shrine, e. ;. Kumano- 

no-Betto ; now fallen to be used only with tic meaning 'groom.' Cf. Eng. Constable, Comes 

Stabuli (Jap. Samano-kami) formerly Commander of an Army, now only of Police Constable. 

[1] Mido dono. The Kwampaku Fujiwara Michinaga. 

[2] Taijin Ko Fujiwara Tadahira. 

[3] Hoseiji dono. Fujiwara Tadamichi. 

[4] Forbidden Colours. Purple and Vermilion were only allowed by special permission, as were the 

material damask and brocade. 

[5] The Regent Rokujo. Fujiwara Motozane. 

[6] Fugenji Dono. Fujiwara Motomichi. 

[1] Shirabyoshi. Cf, Sansom, note on Tsurezuregusa. p. 128. and for illus. of Suikan, p. 127. Yoshida 

Kenko says here; ' O no Hisasuke says that Michinori no Nyudo selected certain dances that were 

amusing, and taught a woman named Ise-no Zenji to dance them. She wore a white robe, with a 

sword, and an eboshi, and thus they were called Otoko-mae, or men's dances. Zenji's daughter, 

who was called Shizuka, followed her in this profession. This is the origin of Shirabyoshi. They 

sang the songs of Gods and Buddhas. Later Minamoto-no-Mitsuyuki composed a great number of 

others, and there are also some that are the work of the Emperor Go Toba, which His Majesty 

was pleased to teach to Kamegika. Sansom's trans. 

[2] Imayo. A verse of eight or twelve lines of seven and five syllables alternating, fashionable from 

the middle ages. 

'Kimi wo hajimete, miru toki wa, 

Chiyo mo henubeshi hime komatsu, 

Mimae no ike naru kame oka ni 

Tsuru koso mure ite asobu mere.' 

[3] Five great sins. Sk. Pantchanantarya. i.e. five rebellions. Matricide, parricide, killing an Arhat, 

causing divisions among the priesthood, shedding the blood of a Buddha. 

[4] Lover Stars. Orihime, or the Star Vega who is supposed to meet her lover Hikoboshi on the 

Festival of Tanabata, the seventh day of the seventh month. Of Lafcadio Hearn, The Milky Way. 

[5] Pure Land of the West. Saiho Jodo. The paradise of Amida in the West, from which the Jodo- 

shu or Pure Land sect derives its name. Sk Sukhavati. 

[1] Retired Emperior. Go-Shirakawa Ho-o. The Emperor at this time was Nijo Tenno. 

[2] Ten Virtues. In Buddhism, not committing the ten wicked deeds, i.e. killing, theft,, adultery, 

lying, exaggeration, abuse, ambiguous talk, covetousness, malice and unbelief. The expression 

'Emperor of Ten Virtues' is to be explained by the saying that one who accumulated merit by 

practising the ten virtues may be reborn as an Emperor in his future existence. The Emperor is 

unique and has not the limitations of ordinary people. 

[3] Shishinden. The hall in the Palace where ceremonies were performed. On its sliding panels 

were painted the portraits of thirty two Chinese sages. 

[1] Crown Prince. It was the custom to proclaim the succession of the Crown Prince immediately 

the Emperor died (Senso), and the proper ceremony of accession (Sokui) was performed some 

time afterwards. This Child Emperor was Rokujo Tenno. 

[2] Tankai-Ko. Fujiwara Fuhito. 

[1] By Kwannon's aid. This teat as well as the reply is a quotation from the Hokke-Kyo. By faith in 

Kwannon even the most difficult things can be accomplished. Here it is cited as an ironical taunt.. 

[2] New Emperor. Takakura Tenno. 

[1] Yokihi. The favourite consort of Genso Emperor of To. Proverbial in Chinese and Japanese 

literature as the fascination that destroys kings. 

[2] Kammuri. Ceremonial head dress worn by Emperor and Nobles. 

[3] Sendan. S. Tchindana. Sandal Wood. 

[1] Shin Dainagon. Newly created Dainagon, of whom there were many at this time. 

[2] Dai-Hannya Kyo. Sk. Maha-prajna-paramita Sutra, or the Sutra of Intelligence by which 

Nirvana may be reached. It is the great text of Mahayana and is in six hundred volumes. 

[3] Hachiman Daibosatsu. Hachiman, the deified Ojin Tenno, is a Shinto deity, but regarded as an 

avatar of Buddhism and so worshipped with Buddhist rites. 

[4] Kengyo. XX the superintendant of a temple. 

[5] Dakini. A mystic rite of the Shingon sect. 

[6] Jars. Here main the pan or; Heishi referring to the Heike family is introduced. 

[1] Shugyo. or Shitsuji, Chief Steward or Administrator of the temple. 

[2] Hoku-men. Guards at the Court of the Retired Emperor. 

[3] Urashima. The tradition is that Urashima went to the Horai or Palace of the Dragon Sea god in 

the twenty second year of the Mikado Yuriaku, the twenty first Emperor, and came back to the 

coast of Tamba in the second year of Tencho, during the age of the Emperor Junwa. 

[4] Son of Buddha. Rahula, (Jap. Ragora son) son of Siddhartha and Yas'odhara, who only met his 

father after the latter had become a recluse. 

[5] Sugoroku. A game played with dice, backgammon, 

[6] Go no Sotsu. Oe Masafusa. 

[7] Sacred Emblem. The car or Mikoshi in which is the emblem of the deity, the Japanese 'ark of 

the covenant.' 

[1] Gubu. Priest attendant on the Mikoshi. 

[2] Kaburaya. Turnip headed arrow, having a bulb like a turnip, preforated with holes and making 

a whizzing sound as it flew. 

[3] Shikimi. Illicium religiosum. A sacred tree. 

[4] O Dono. Fujiwara Morozane. Kita-no-Mandokoro. Title of the wife of Kwampaku or of a 

noble of one of the five families from which this dignitary was chosen, (Go-Sekke). 

[5] Gongen. a Buddha Incarnate, a Shinto deity who is so regarded. 

[6] Yakushi. Buddha the Healer. Sk. Bhechadjya. 

[7] Hokke Mondoko. A Catechism of the Hokke-kyo or Saddharma pundarika Sutra. 

[1] Bonten Paradise. Sk. Brahmaloka. The Heavens of Brahma. Here perhaps means the third of 

the Three Worlds, (Sankai) which consist of the Worlds of Desire (Yokukai) The Worlds of 

Form (Shikikai), and the Worlds of No Form (Mushikikai) after which comes Nirvana. Sk. 

Kamadhatu, Rupadhatu and Arupadhatu. 

[1] The eight offices, i.e. Nakatsukasa, Shikibu, Jibusho, Mimbusho, Hyobusho, Gyobushio, 


[p- 54] 



On the fifth day of the fifth month of the first year of Jisho the Tendai Zasshu Mei-un Dai Sojo 
was prohibited from attending Court, and the [i]Nyo-i-rin Honzon, the tutelary Buddha of the 
Court, being brought back by an official of the Kurodo-dokoro, he was also deprived of his office 
of Chaplain-in- waiting. This was because the Kebiishicho had been ordered to hand over the 
ringleader of the bands of priests who had lately brought down the sacred car to the Palace. Now 
the Ho-o had heard a slanderous tale from Saiko-hoshi and his son to the effect that the Zasshu 
had some fiefs in Kaga and that when the Kokushi Morotaka confiscated them, in his resentment 
at it he had got the priests to make their petition so that it might trouble the Court, and this 
made His Majesty exceedingly angry so that he ordered him to be punished severely. So, as the 
Ho-o was thus ill-disposed to him, Mei-un relinquished his seal of office and resigned his position. 
On the eleventh day of the same month Kakukai-ho Shinno, the seventh son of Toba-in, was 
made [ijTendai Zasshu : he was the pupil of Gyo-ken the Dai-Sojo of Shoren-in. On the twelfth 
day, in addition to depriving him of office and emoluments, two officers of the Kebiishi-cho were 
about to apply the examination by fire and water, putting "a cover on the well and throwing 
water on the fire; whereupon, 

[p- 55] 

fearing that the priests would again descend on them, the people of the city made a great outcry. 

On the eighteenth day thirteen Courtiers below the Dajodaijin assembled in council to 
pronounce sentence on the ex-Zasshu. Then Hachijo-no-Chunagon Nagakata-no-Kyo, who was 
then only Sadaiben-no-Saisho and took the lowest seat, arose and said ; "Though according to the 
advice of the lawyers we ought to abate the death penalty one degree and pass sentence of exile, 
yet, seeing that the ex-Zasshu Mei-un Dai-Sojo is not only learned in both the Tendai and 
Shingon doctrine, but is a man of pure and holy life who has taught the Mahayana Sutras to the 
Courtiers and instructed the Ho-o in the Buddhist commandments, it is indeed difficult to pass a 
severe sentence on such a teacher of the Sutras and the Law : it were better if we mitigate the 
sentence of exile." When he had thus spoken his opinion unreservedly, all the other Courtiers 
agreed to his suggestion, but as the resentment of the Ho-o was so deep, in the end they passed 
the sentence of exile. Kiyomori Nyudo also, when he heard of it, proceeded to visit the Ho-o to 
persuade him to remit the sentence, but the Ho-o being indisposed with a cold and unable to see 
anyone, he had to return without effecting anything. In the case of a priest committing a crime it 
is the custom that he should render up his orders and become a layman, and in accordance with 
this rule the ex-Zasshu took the civil title of Dainagon-no-aiyu Fujii Matsueda. This Mei-un, we 

speak it with all reverence, was the son of Kuga-no-Dainagon Akimichi-no-Kyo, a descendant in 
the sixth generation of Guhei Shinno seventh son of Murakami Tenno, and the most revered and 
virtuous ecclesiastic in the land, respected by both Emperor and subject : he was also the Betto of 
Rokushoji, one of temples of Tennoji. Now the chief of the Court Diviners, Onyo-no-kami Abe- 
no-Yasuchika, had said of him ; " It is incomprehensible to me that such a wise man as this 
should take the name of 

[p. 56] 

[3]Mei-un, for thought the sun and moon are shining (MefJ above, yet unfortunately clouds (un) 
are below." He became Zasshu on the twentieth day of the second month of the first year of Nin- 
an, and was deposed on the fifteenth day of the third month of the same year. 

It is related that, on opening the treasury of the Chudo as the custom was, among various other 
treasures there was a box about a foot long wrapped in white linen, and when this faultless 
Zasshu opened it and looked therein he found a roll of yellow paper on which Dengyo Daishi had 
written the names of all the Zasshu who should be in time to come, and he read as far as his own 
name, but after that, reading no more, he rolled up the scroll again and put it back as it was 
before. It was very sacs that even such a venerable priest as he could not escape the results of the 
karma of his previous existence. On the twenty first day it was decided that he should be exiled 
to Izu. Many people said different things about the cause of it, but really it was owing to the 
slander of Saiko hoshi and his son that this thing was done. As he was to be expelled from the 
capital immediately, the officials who were entrusted with this duty went to his residence at 
Shirakawa : the Zasshu left his residence weeping and went to a place where the holy Sutras were 
kept near Awataguchi. At Hieizan they came to the conclusion that their opponents were none 
other than Saiko-hoshi and his son, and writing their names on a paper they put it under the left 
foot of [4]Kompira Taisho, the first of the twelve Shinsho, in the Kompon-chudo and cried aloud 
with many imprecations on the twelve Shinsho and the seven hundred Yasha to take away the 
life of Saiko-hoshi and his son without delay. Only to hear them was a terrible thing. On the 
twenty third day the Zasshu went out from the Hall of the Sutras to his place of exile. How 
pitiful to behold one of the high rank of Dai Sojo, being expelled by 

[p. 57] 

these officials, about to cross the eastern boundary on this his last day in the capital] When he 
came to the shore of Uchide near Otsu and saw the white eaves of the Monju-ro shining in the 
sun, without taking a second glance, burying his face in his sleeve, he was choked with tears. 
There were many aged and virtuous priests at Hieizan but among them Choken-hoin, who was 
only Sozu at that time, was the most renowned, and he felt so much regret that he went as far as 
Awazu to see him on his way. On taking leave of him there the Zasshu, out of gratitude taught 
him the theory of concentration and the [5] three contemplations, a doctrine that he had kept 
stored up in his mind for many years and that was originally possessed by Shaka himself and 
handed down through [6]Memyo the Bikkhu of Benares and IjjRyuju Bosatsu of southern India. It 
is most praiseworthy that though our country is on the confines of the world, small and scattered 
like grains of millet, and was at this time most degenerate, yet Choken, on possessing this doctrine, 
wept for joy as he returned to the capital. Then at Hieizan the priests again assembled and took 
counsel together saying;" Since the time of Gishin Osho who first held the office of Tendai 
Zasshu, for fifty five generations until now no Zasshu has ever been sent into exile; and when we 

consider that, since the period En ryaku when the Emperor founded the Imperial Capital, and 
Dengyo Daishi ascended this mountain, where woman who possesses the [8] Five Defects has 
never set foot and taught us according to the Doctrine of the Four Enlightenments, three 
thousand holy 

[p- 58] 

priests have taken up their abode on this peak, where the Hokke-Kyo is chanted continuously, 
while at its foot the Spirit of the god is daily revealed to men ; and that just as [g]Ryozen the 
sacred mountain of [io]Gesshi, where is the sacred cave of Shaka, is situated on the north east of 
the Imperial city, so is this mountain of Hieizan also placed at the north east of Kyoto, as a sacred 
site to protect the land : seeing that generations of revered sovereigns and wise ministers have 
elected to worship therein, why, even in a degenerate age like this, do they dare to offer us so 
great an insult ? " So all the priests of the mountain with their followers again came down to 
Higashi Sakamoto and held a council before Juzenji Gongen saying : "Let us go to Awazu and 
bring back our chief, but as he is guarded by the officials who have expelled him, it will not be so 
easy to take him away: thus we have no other refuge but the deities of our mountain. If we are to 
rescue him without any untoward event let us first obtain a favourable omen." To this end the 
elder priests betook themselves vigorously to prayer. 

Now there was a youth of eighteen named Tsuru-maru, a servant of Yo-en Risshi a priest of 
Mudoji, who suddenly fell into a trance, both body and mind being in travail, so that the sweat 
ran from his limbs, for the Juzenji Gongen had entered into him, and he spoke saying : " Even 
though this is a degenerate age, how do they dare to send my priest into exile to a far country ? 
My heart is cast down, therefore there is no reason why I should stop at the foot of this mountain 
from henceforth : " and he pressed his sleeves to his eyes and wept. Astonished at this portent the 
priestly multitude exclaimed. " If this be indeed the' oracle of Juzenji Gongen, let this be a sign ; 
restore each of these to its rightful owner : " and four or five hundred of the elder priests threw 
down the rosaries which they held in their 

[p- 59] 

hands on to the verandah of the shrine of Juzenji Gongen. Then the possessed youth, running 
round and gathering them up, without an error distributed them each to the one who owned it. 
Then all the priests wrung their hands and wept for joy at this miracle that the deity had 
manifested anew. " Let us go and take him from them ; " they shouted as they rose up and swept 
on like a great cloud, while on the shore road toward Shiga and Karasaki another multitude came 
trooping, and yet another took ship on the lake toward Yamada and Yabase. 

When they saw this the officers who were charged with the expulsion of the Zasshu scattered 
and fled in all directions. The multitude them came on to Kokubunji, whereat the ex-Zasshu was 
greatly astonished and exclaimed: " I have heard that one who is exiled by the Emperor cannot 
see the shining of the sun and moon, how much less can I, whom the Retired Emperor has 
ordered to depart immediately, remain in this place: return I beseech you to your temples." Then 
advancing to the edge of the temple verandah, he addressed them thus "Since I left the princely 
mansion of my father and entered the school of the Tendai sect, I have studied widely the 
ordinances thereof, learning the doctrines of both Tendai and Shingon, being only concerned for 
the prosperity of Hieizan, not neglecting to pray for the welfare of the nation and deeply 

considering the education of the monks: to this the deities of both Koya and Hieizan will testify. 
There is no fault on my part, but innocent of any crime I have received this heavy sentence of 
exile. I have no enmity toward either the world or man or gods or Buddhas; indeed for your good 
intention in coming thus far to see me my gratitude is past expressing; " and he wrung the sleeves 
of his garment wet with tears. The priests also wept into the sleeves of their armour, but on their 
bringing up the palanquin and urging him to enter it, the ex-Zasshu refused and continued ; 
"Formerly I was the chief of three thousand priests, but now I have become a mere exile, how 
shall I be carried on the shoulders of such noble disciples and deeply learned monks ? 

[ P . 60] 

Even if I come back again I ought to walk shod in straw sandals like any common priest." Now 
there was a certain disorderly priest of the Saito Hall named Kaijo-bo-no-Ajari Yukei, a huge 
fellow who stood seven feet high, dressed in armour of black leather and metal loosely laced, 
with very long thigh pieces ; removing his helmet he gave it to one of his fellow priests, and 
leaning on the white handle of his halberd and pushing aside the crowd on either side, he stood 
before the ex-Zasshu. Glaring at him with wide open eyes for a while, he said peremptorily : " It 
is because you are of such a mind that this misfortune has befallen you. Now get in immediately!" 
Then the Zasshu in fear of him straightway entered the palanquin. 

In their joy at recovering him only the noblest of the priests his disciples and none of those of low 
rank took turns in carrying his chair, but Yukei continued without being relieved, going on in 
front gripping both the pole of the palanquin and the handle of his halberd with such vigour that 
it seemed they would break asunder. Thus they traversed the eastern slope of the mountain as 
though they marching over level ground. Putting down the chair in the court of Daikodo, they 
once more held a confabulation, debating thus; "Now we have gone even to Awazu and brought 
back our Zasshu, but how can we appoint as our head one who is under sentence of exile by the 
Emperor ?" Then Kaijobo Ajari Yukei again came forward and said; " This our mountain is a holy 
place unequalled in Nippon, a place of holy doctrine that protects our nation, the power of 
whose gods is very mighty. Buddha is equal in authority to the Emperor, so that men do not hold 
in light esteem the opinion of even the lowest priest; how much more then that of the most 
noble chief of three thousand priests, the holy and virtuous head of our whole mountain. That he 
should be punished without fault, does it not call for the wrath both of Hieizan and the capital 
that we should thus be made a derision to Kofukuji and Onjoji ? How sad to lose the greatest 

[ P . 61] 

of the law of Tendai and Shingon, and 'that our students should for long have to neglect their 
studies. Make me the leader of your hosts and though I be imprisoned or exiled or lose my head, 
it will be a good memorial in this world and the next." Thus he spoke, weeping vehemently, and 
the assembled thousands assented to his words. Since this time Yukei was called Tka-me-bo' (the 
wrathful priest) and his pupil Eikei Risshi the people also nicknamed Ko-Ikame-bo, (the lesser 
wrathful priest). 


Now the priests brought their ex-Zasshu to Myo-ko-in which is in the southern valley of the 
To to or eastern pagoda. Perchance even a Gonge (manifestation of Buddha) cannot avoid a 
chance misfortune like his. 

Of old time in China, Ikko Ajari, Court Chaplain to the Emperor Genso of the To dynasty, was 
raised to favour and confidence by the Empress Yo-ki-hi, and as both then and now in great and 
small countries people will babble, he fell under suspicion, and even though it was groundless he 
was exiled to the land of Kara. To this land there were three roads ; that called Rinchi-do, the 
Imperial Road, that called Yuchi-do by which the common people travelled, and that called 
Anketsu-do (dark cave way) by which criminals travelled; so this Ikko Ajari, having committed a 
great crime, had to go by the Anketsu-do, and for seven days and nights without seeing the sun or 
moon he travelled on it. As it was thus dark and there was no inhabitant, he lost his way, 
wandering on the shore of a lake and going through a deeply wooded mountain, while only the 
voice of a bird was heard in a watery ravine. While he was weeping there so that his garments 
were wet as moss, a god took pity on him, exiled without cause, and delivered him by showing 
nine luminaries in the sky. Then Ikko, biting a finger of his left hand, drew the nine luminaries on 
his left sleeve with the 

[p. 62] 

blood. So it is that in both China and Japan the [n]mandara of nine luminaries is the chief object 
of worship of the Shingon-shu. 


When the Ho-o learned that the priests of Hieizan had prevented the Zasshu from being exiled, 
he was much perturbed 

then Saiko-hoshi said ; " From of old the monks of Hieizan have been in the habit of making 
these disorderly uprisings; this is not the first time, but this time they have gone too far, and if 
you do not punish them in an exemplary manner from henceforth the government will always be 
unstable." Thus he spoke, unaware of the prayers for his own destruction, or of the appearance of 
the god of the mountain, and confusing the mind of the Emperor. " A subject who advises the 
Emperor falsely stirs up confusion in the country." This is a true saying ; even though one tries to 
grow many orchids, the wind of autumn will destroy them, and even when rulers desire to be 
clear in their minds a lying minister will speak thus to darken their counsel. 

Soon it was rumoured that the Ho-o had ordered ShinDainagon Narichika-no-Kyo to assemble 
his retainers and attack Hieizan, and that some of the priests of that mountain thought that as 
they were subjects of the Emperor, it was not right to resist the Ho-o's command and secretly 
intended to obey them so the ex-Zasshu, living at Myokobo, hearing that the minds of the priests 
were thus divided, was much troubled wondering what fresh misfortune would come upon him; 
but still no decision was made concerning his sentence of exile. 

Thus the long cherished plan of the Shin Dainagon for the overthrow of the Heike was delayed 
owing to the riotous conduct of Hieizan. Some deliberation and preparations had been 

b- 63] 

made, but they were only pretence, and as it seemed that the plot was not likely to succeed, Tada 
Kurando Yukitsuna, who had been entrusted with the arrangements, thinking apparently that it 
was no use going further, used the linen which had been presented to him as material for bow 
cases to make ' hitatare ' and 'katabira' for his retainers. Then, on meditating over the affair and 
seeing the prosperity of the Heike, it seemed a very difficult thing to overthrow them ; and if the 
matter chanced to leak out, he himself would be the first to be executed, so he thought it would 
be better to betray it before anyone else could do so, and thus save his own life. So on the twenty 
ninth day about midnight he went to the mansion of the Nyudo at Nishi Hachijo saying that he 
had important business. As Yukitsuna was not accustomed to visit him, the Nyudo, wondering 
why he had come, sent Shume-no-Hangwan Morikuni to enquire. Yukitsuna however replied 
that he could not tell anyone else, whereupon the Nyudo himself came out to the corridor at the 
middle gate. " As it is now midnight," he said, " what can you have to any to me at such a time? " 
" In the daytime there are many people about," replied Yukitsuna, " so I have come under cover 

of night ; what do you think is the meaning of the warlike preparations now going on at the 
Palace of the Ho-o ? " " I understand that the Ho-o has a plan to attack Hieizan," replied 
Kiyomori carelessly. Then Yukitsuna drawing nearer whispered to him: " That is not the reason, it 
is against your house that they make these preparations." " Has the Ho-o any knowledge of it?" 
asked the Nyudo. " Without doubt he knows about it ; it is with his authority that Shitsuji-no- 
Betto Narichika-no-Kyo is collecting his forces." And he went on to explain what Yasuyori, 
Shunkwan and Saiko had, done; after which he retired and the Nyudo called out loudly to 
summon his samurai. Yukitsuna, having said what had better have been left unsaid, fearing that 
he might be called on to prove his words, girded up his hakama and fled from the precincts 
though no one pursued him, feeling like one who is afraid of being caught in the fire 

[ P . 64] 

that he has kindled. Then the Nyudo, calling Chikugo-no-kami Sadayoshi, cried out. " The capital 
is full of traitors who plot to overthrow our house, make haste and report it to all our clan and 
assemble the retainers quickly, let all hear] " Soon Udaisho Munemori, Sammi Chujo Tomomori, 
To-no-Chujo Shigehira, Sama-no-kami Yukimori and others of their kinsmen came up in full 
armour with their bows on their backs, together with a multitude of samurai innumerable. That 
night there assembled at the Nyudo's mansion of Nishi Hachijo about six or seven thousand 
armed men. The next day was the first day of the sixth month and, while it was yet dark, 
Kiyomori called Abe-no-Sukenari and ordered him to proceed to the Palace of the Retired 
Emperor, and calling Taizen-no-Taiyu Nobunari, to say to him as follows; " There is a plot of 
Shin Dainagon Nari-chika-no-Kyo and other retainers of the Ho-o to overthrow our fan lily and 
throw the empire into confusion: arrest everyone and make enquiry; the Ho-o is evidently aware 
of the plot." Sukenari immediately hastened to the Palace and, calling Nobunari gave him the 
message. He, turning pale, straightway went and told the Ho-o. " Ah, someone has revealed the 
secret," he remarked, " but even so, how did it come out, I wonder? " And he gave no direct 

Sukenari, immediately returning, reported this to his master, at which the Nyudo replied that 
evidently Yukitsuna had spoken the truth and that if he had not revealed the plot their lives 
would have been in danger. Then he gave orders to Chikugo-no-kami Sadayoshi and Hida-no- 
kami Sadaie to arrest all who were implicated ; so, taking bands of two or three hundred 
horsemen, they went hither and thither and seized them all. He also sent foot soldiers to the 
mansion of the Shin Dainagon at Naka-no-Mikado Karasu Maru with orders that he should come 
immediately. The Dainagon, thinking that it was not anything concerning himself, but that 
Kiyomori intended to forbid the Ho-o to attack Hieizan, though as the latter was much enraged it 
would be of no avail, gracefully donned a 

[p- 65] 

costume of delicate material and mounted into an elegant car, accompanied by three of four 
retainers, his servants and oxdrivers being more ceremonial than usual ; only to find out soon after 
that it was for the last time. When they came near to Nishi Hachijo for four or five cho they saw 
nothing but armed men and he felt a little anxious, wondering why there were so many, but 
when they arrived at the front gate and were bidden to enter, they saw that the inside also was 
filled with dense masses of soldiers. At the middle gate many fierce looking warriors were 
standing, who, when they saw the Dainagon enter, cried out; " Shall we seize him and bind him ? 

" Whereupon the Nyudo, looking out from behind a curtain, replied; " There is no necessity." So 
fourteen or fifteen soldiers, surrounding him on all sides and seizing him by the hand, pulled him 
on to the verandah and shut him into a small apartment. The Dainacron, like one in a dream, did 
not comprehend what was happening. The samurai who were with him, separated by 
overwhelming forces, were scattered in different directions, and the servants and ox drivers in 
consternation abandoned the ox car and took to flight. Then Omi no Chujo Nyudo Renjo, Hos 
shoji-no-Shugyo Shunkwan Sozu, Yamashiro-no-kami Motokane, Shikibu-no-Taiyu Masatsuna, 
Hei Hangwan Yasuyori, So Hangwan Nobufusa, and Shin Hei Hangwan Sukeyuki were also 
arrested and brought in : Saiko-hoshi, on hearing this, fearing that it was a matter concerning him 
also, rode in haste to the Palace of the Ho-o. On the way, however, meeting some soldiers from 
Rokuhara they accosted him, saying ; " You are required at Rokuhara, haste thither at once; " but 
he replied that he had business at the Palace of the Ho-o and afterwards would do as they 
ordered. " What is it that you have to say to him, O most worthless of priests? " they answered as 
they dragged him from his horse and carried him bound to Rokuhara. As he was the mainstay of 
the plot from the beginning, they bound him firmly and put him in ward in a certain courtyard. 
Then Kiyomori. standing on the verandah above, glared 

[p. 66] 

at him fiercely for a while and then exclaimed ; " This is the way I treat a worthless fellow like 
you who makes plots against m,. Bring him here!" So they brought him to the edge of the 
verandah and the Nyudo trampled on his face with his footgear, " You, who were at first a 
Courtier of the lowest rank and were advanced by the favour of the Ho-o to a high office that 
you did not deserve, you and your son, have behaved outrageously, and procured the exile of the 
Tendai Zasshu, though he was guilty of no offence, and not only that but you have taken part in a 
plot against me and my house. Now confess the whole thing at once and tell the truth ! " But 
Saiko, being by nature a bold fellow, showed no fear, and recovering himself and not at all taken 
aback, replied with a laugh; " As I served as a confidential retainer of the Ho-o's Household I 
cannot say I took no part in the raising of forces by the Shitsuji-no-Betto Narichika-no-Kyo. 
Indeed I did have a hand in it. Why do you say things that I cannot overlook ? Before other 
people it does not matter but in my hearing you shall not speak thus. You are the eldest son and 
heir of the late Gyobu-no-Kyo Tadamori, and you did not enter the Court at all until you were 
fourteen or fifteen years old, and then you were serving in the train of the late To-Chunagon 
Kasei-no-Kyo of Naka no Mikado, when even the children of the city called you Takaheita : but 
in the period Ho en you arrested three pirate leaders and were rewarded with the fourth rank; 
and when you were called Hyoe-no-suke of the fourth rank, people said it was too high a rank for 
you, so it is certainly too much that, being of the line of a men who had not the right of going to 
Court, you have raised yourself to be Dajo-daijin. From old time there is precedent for military 
families like mine to obtain fiefs and hold positions in the Kebiishi. That is not promotion beyond 
one's position." Thus he spoke out boldly without fear, and the Nyudo could neither restrain his 
anger nor could he utter a word for rage ; after a while he managed to ejaculate ; " Do not take 
leis head off now, examine him well aid find out all the 

[p- 67] 

plot; then away with him to the river and behead him." There upon Matsuura-no-Taro Shigetoshi 
applied torture by squeezing his arms and legs. Saiko did not resist at all and the torture was very 
severe : after they had written his confession on four or five sheets of paper, his mouth was split 

open by order of Kiyomori and he was executed at Shujaku on the west side of Gojo. 

His eldest son Kaga-no-kami Morotaka, who had been dismissed from his office and banished to 
Idota in Owari, was now ordered to be executed also by Oguma-no-gunshi Koresue of that 
province. His younger son Kondo Hangwan Morotsune ,vas also taken out of prison and put to 
death. The third son Saemon-no-jo Morohira together with three of his retainers lost his head also. 
These men had all been raised up from humble positions and interfered in matters in which they 
had no right to meddle, procuring the exile of the innocent Tendai Zasshu, and thus they met 
their fate and were overtaken by retribution as a punishment from the deity of Hieizan. 


The Shin-Dainagon, being thus confined in a small chamber, was in such a state of terror that a 
cold sweat broke out all over him and he thought to himself; " AH, this is the result of someone 
letting out our secret. Who can it be that has turned informer ? It must be one of the Ho-o's 
Palace Guards." While he thus continued turning over everything anxiously in iris mind, he heard 
a loud footfall approaching from behind and thought it was the soldiers coming to put him to 
death. It was however the Nyudo himself who came tramping loudly over the Wooden floor and 
abruptly opened the shoji of the apartment. Dressed in a somewhat short costume of white silk 
and striding .long in an [i2]o-kuchi-hakama, wearing a sword without any decora- 

[ P . 68] 

tion loosened in its scabbard, Kiyomori, in wrathful mien, glared fiercely for a space at the 
Dainagon. " You ought to have been executed at the time of the revolution of Heiji, but 
Shigemori saved your neck. That kindness you have forgotten. What is your grievance that you 
wish to overthrow our house ? To understand gratitude is the part of a man, but he who forgets it 
is merely an animal; as however our family is not yet doomed to fall, I have had you brought here 
so that I may find out what has been going on lately." "You are entirely mistaken," replied the 
Dainagon," someone must have surely slandered me, so pray make close enquiry into everything." 
At this Kiyomori interrupting him called , " Hoi there. " When Sadayoshi immediately 
appeared, " Bring the confession that fellow Saiko has made" ordered the Nyudo, and on its being 
produced read it through loudly several times to the Dainagon, " Now you villain, what have you 
to say to that? " he shouted, as, flinging the document into his face, he slammed the shoji to and 
went out. His anger was not yet appeased however, so he called to Tsuneto and Kaneyasu and 
bade them throw the Dainagon down into the courtyard. At this they demurred saying that 
Komatsu Dono might not approve of such treatment. 

" What? " demanded Kiyomori, " do you regard the orders of Shigemori, and pay no attention to 
mine ? It seems I can do no more." But they, thinking it inadvisable not to obey after all, seized 
the Dainagon by both his hands and threw him down into the courtyard. Then the Nyudo, 
exulting in his revenge, ordered them to throw him to the ground and beat him till he cried out, 
whereupon the two, wishing to spare him, whispered : to the Dainagon's ear that he should cry 
out quickly, and so threw him down and he cried out several times. It looked just like a scene in 
the [i3JMeido when those who have sinned in this 

[p- 69] 

[14] Shaba world are tortured by the devils after being weighed in the balance and their misdeeds 
examined in the mirror of clear crystal. Thus in China also Sho and Han were thrown into prison, 

and Kan and Ho were slain with their families to the third generation ; Choso also was executed 
and Shugi was punished . Of these men the first four were all loyal subjects of the Emperor Koso, 
but through the slanders of worthless fellows they were innocently disgraced. 

On this misfortune happening to the Shin-Dainagon his first thought was about the fate of his son 
Tamba-no-Shosho Naritsune and the other younger children. As it was now the sixth month it 
was extremely hot, and as he could not loosen his dress of ceremony, his condition became 
unbearable so that he gasped for breath and sat bathed in tears and sweat. Though he thought 
that Komatsu Dono would not forsake him, there was none to bring him any tidings. 

After some hours had passed, Komatsu Dono, undisturbed as usual either by good or ill, arrived 
at Rokuhara with his eldest son Gon-no-suke Koremori riding at the back of his car. He had four 
or five guards in attendance and two or three retainers but no military escort, and his bearing was 
entirely calm and unmoved. The Nyudo and his family were somewhat surprised to see him 
come thus, and on his alighting at the middle gate Sadayoshi came forward and said; " Why do 
you go without an armed escort seeing that the times are so critical?" " Critical is a word that 
should only be used of the affairs of the nation," replied the Minister, " we cannot use it of our 
own private quarrels." On hearing this the crowd of samurai who stood by armed to the teeth 
looked somewhat uncomfortable. Shigemori then proceeded to search through many rooms to 
find where the Dainagon had been confined, and at last came to a shoji over which was an 
arrangement of beams and ropes like a spider's web. Ordering these to be removed he discovered 
the Dainagon within. He, sitting choked with tears did not at first look up, but on being greeted 
kindly by Shigemori his face 

[p- 7°] 

lighted up like that of a sinner in Hell who sees the approach of jizo Bosatsu. " I know not what is 
the reason," he said, " but this morning I have fallen into this evil plight ; as however you Nave 
deigned to come to me, I am not without hope that you will be able to deliver me. When in the 
period of Heiji I was about to be executed, it was your compassion that saved my life and since 
then I have advanced to be Dainagon and obtained the second Court Rank, being scarcely more 
than forty years old Although I can never repay your kindness, I pray you to save my worthless 
life once more. If that be granted I will retire from the world, and entering the way of Buddha 
retire to some hamlet far remote, where I may give my whole mind to attain enlightenment as a 
Buddha in the future life." "Even so " replied Shigemori, " I think they will not go so far as to put 
you to death, and should they wish to do so, I myself will go surety for your life, so set your mind 
at ease." Then seeking out his father Kiyomori, he addressed him thus; " I pray you consider most 
carefully what you do in putting the Dainagon to death, for since his ancestor Shuri-no-Taiyu 
Akisue, who was Courtier of the Retired Emperor Shirakawa, he has been the only one of his 
family to be promoted to Dainagon of the upper second rank: he is, besides, extremely high in 
favour with his master the Ho o,. wherefore it is not good to put him to death. It will be quite 
sufficient to expel him from the capital. Kitano Tenjin, owing to the slander of the Minister 
Tokihira, spent his remaining days in sorrow and exile across the western sea, and the Minister 
Nishino miya, owing to the traduction of Tada no Manchu, spent his days in bitterness amid the 
misty mountains of the Sanyo, both being innocent of any crime. All this was luring the righteous 
era of En-ki, and tradition calls it the injustice of the Mikado of An-wa ; so if even in great 
antiquity such things happened, how much more in an evil age like this? Even a wise ruler makes 
mistakes; how much more an ordinary person Since you have already arrested him, there is no 

more cause for anxiety, even if you spare his life. 

The Chinese sages have said ; " [15] Give the benefit to the accused where guilt is in question, but 
give him the credit where merit is in question." Moreover, to consider another side of the matter, 
I have married the younger sister of this Dainagon, while my son Koremori has married his 
daughter, and being bound by such intimate ties, perhaps you may think that is the reason I speak 
thus. That however is not the case, but it is for the sake of the Emperor, of our country, and of 
the time, that I entreat you. Remember what an extreme measure it was considered when the 
late Shonagon Nyudo Shinsei, when he was regent, revived the death sentence, which had not 
been imposed since Uhyoe-no-kami Fujiwara Nakanari was condemned to death, in the time of 
Saga Tenno twenty five generations ago, and had the body of Uji-no-Akusafu (Sadaijin Yorinaga) 
dug up and the head cut off : and though people may have said in old times if the ringleaders 
were executed, rebels would cease out of the land, yet, only two years after Hogen there was the 
rebellion of Heiji, when the body of Shinsei which had been buried was dug up and the head cut 
off and exposed ; truly a salutary example that the deed which he did in Hogen should so soon be 
paid back on his own head. Now as this man is not a rebel against the. throne, you ought to 
hesitate to put him to death. I do not think that our family is at the summit of its prosperity yet, 
but I hope that its present glory will continue for many generations : yet, as the good or evil acts 
of the sires are visited on their descendants, we see that " the accumulation of good deeds 
produces happiness whereas misfortune waits at the gate of him who piles up evil ones." So at all 
events he must not beheaded this evening." So the Nyudo, admitting the reasonableness of this 
speech, gave up the intention of executing him. 

Then Shigemori went out to the middle gate and thus addressed the samurai ; " You must by no 
means put the Dainagon to death even if you are ordered to do so, for when the 


Nyudo is angry he is apt to do rash things which he afterwards regrets; so do not make mistakes 
that you will be sorry for afterwards." At these words all the men at arms trembled with 
apprehension. Shigemori continued ; " this morning Tsuneto and Kaneyasu treated the Dainagon 
harshly and violently: this was a very ruffianly deed; why did they not fear lest I should hear of it? 
Rustic samurai are all of this kind." Then Namba and Seno also quaked with fear, while 
Shigemori, having thus admonished them, returned again to the Komatsu Palace. 

The retainers of the Dainagon had hurried back to their lord's mansion at Naka-no-Mikado-no- 
Karasu-Maru, and related all that had passed, whereupon their mistress and her ladies lifted up 
their voices and wept. Then the retainers, telling them of the arrest of the heir and other younger 
members of the family, advised them to hide themselves quickly. " Having come to this," replied 
the wife of the Dainagon, " even if we live unmolested, what hope have we for the future? All 
that I wish now is to die with my husband like dewdrops that melt on the same evening. Alasl 
that I did not know that this morning's meeting would be our last." And casting her clothes about 
her she threw herself on the ground in despair. After a while however, as there was a rumour that 
the soldiers of the Heike were approaching, and not wishing them to behold her wretched 
condition, taking a daughter of ten years old and a boy of eight with her, she got into her carriage 
and fled away, going she knew not whither. As she could not continue thus without any aim, 

going up to Omiya and reaching the U-rin-in, a temple on the northern hills, she alighted before 
one of the buildings, when those who had so far accompanied her, fearing for their lives, took 
leave of her and returned again to the city. What a sad plight it was for her, left with only these 
young children, and with no one to help her with sympathy or advice. As she saw the shades of 
night falling, and reflected that her lord's life might pass away like the dew that very evening, she 
wished that she might give up the ghost. 

[p. 73] 

At the Dainagon's mansion many retainers and ladies were left, but they were too apprehensive 
even to take any food and did not so much as shut the gates, and though there were many horses 
in the stables there was none who gave them any food. Formerly from early dawn there would be 
rows of carriages at the gate and innumerable guests coming to spend the day in dancing and 
merriment, as though the cares of life did not exist, while their inferiors who approached them 
dared not so much as raise their voices in their presence. This haughty state continued until 
yesterday, but in one short night all was changed. How are the mighty brought lowl Now can we 
appreciate, the saying of [i6]Ko-sho-ko, " Pain comes when pleasure is at it height." 


Tamba-no-Shosho Naritsune stayed that night in the Hojujiden, the Palace of the Retired 
Emperor, and did not go out at all. The retainers of the Dainagon hurriedly rode up to this Palace 
and summoned him forth, and on their relating the arrest of his father to him, he replied: " Why 
did not the Saisho (Chief Minister) inform me of an affair like this until now ? " But hardly had 
he finished speaking when a messenger arrived from the Saisho. Now this Saisho was the younger 
brother of Kiyomori, and his mansion was by the outer gate (kado-no-waki) of Rokuhara, so that 
he was called Kadowaki-no-Saisho ; and he was the father in law of Tamba no Shosho. " I know 
not the reason," said the messenger, " but I have been ordered by Nishi Hachijo to bring you 
hither at once." On hearing this the Shosho summoned the ladies-in-waiting who always attended 
him and said: " Last night I heard 

[p- 74] 

some uproar outside and thought it might be the priests of the mountain coming down into the 
city ; but it seems to be something connected with my affairs. As the Dainagon is to be put to 
death this evening, I also shall be included in the same condemnation : I should like to visit the 
Ho-o once more, but as this misfortune has happened to me, I must refrain." The ladies then 
went to the Ho-o and reported the matter to him. The Ho-o, understanding from Kiyomori's 
messenger that morning that the secret plot had been revealed, intimated that he wished The 
Shosho to visit him, whereupon the latter did so. The Ho-o , weeping said nothing, while the 
Shosho, also choked by tears, was silent likewise. So, after a short space, he retired from the 
Presence and the Ho-o saw him off at some distance, saying, " How sad is this degenerate agel 
This is the last time I shall see him: " and he could not restrain his tears. When the Shosho retired 
from the presence of the Ho-o, all the Courtiers and Court Ladies were much grieved at parting 
with him, pulling him by the sleeves and shedding tears, so that no one was dry- eyed. 

When he arrived at the house of his father-in-law the Saisho found that his wife was just on the 
eve of her confinement, and that, as the result of the shock of the morning's upset, it seemed as if 
she were about to expire. Now since his departure from the Ho-o's Palace he had not ceased to 
weep, and now, seeing the condition of his wife, he gave way completely to his despondency. 
Also the milk-nurse of the Shosho, named Rokujo, came to him in tears and said, " Since I came 
here as nurse I have brought up my lord until now, and since I brought him up I did not grieve at 
my increasing years but only rejoiced seeing my lord grow up; and though not yet quite full 
grown, has this year attained the age of twenty-one. Never for even half an hour have I been 
parted from him; when he went to the Palace of the Ho-o I was always anxious if he came back 
late, gad now at last what misfortune has he met with ?" Then the Shesho tried to comfort her, 
assuring her that as the Saisho was 

[p. 75] 

there he would most probably escape with his life. But she would not be consoled and gave 
herself up to violent weeping in spite of the presence of other people. Meanwhile several 
Messengers came from Nishi Hachijo and the Saisho decided that there was nothing to be done 
but to go, whatever might happen, and started forthwith, the Shosho taking his seat at the back 
of his car. Since the age of Hogen and Heiji the Heike family had nothing but prosperity, and no 
misfortune came their way, save only to this Saisho who suffered through his unhappy son in law. 

When they came to the Nishi Hachijo mansion and enquired what they were to do, they were 
told that the Shosho must not enter within the gate, so leaving him in the care of some samurai, 
the Saisho entered by himself. Then Kiyomori's men surrounded the Shosho on all sides and 
guarded him strictly, and being thus parted from the Saisho on whom he so much r; lied, his heart 
failed him and he felt very forlorn. 

The Saisho went in to the middle gate but the Nyudo did not come out to meet him, so after a 
while he sent word by Gendaiyu-no-Hangwan Suesada saying. " I much regret that I am related to 
this troublesome fellow but it cannot be helped ; his wife is now ill and this morning misfortune 
has fallen upon him so that she is now at the point of death. If he is in my hands I will not permit 
him to do anything improper, so I pray you give him into my charge for the present." When 
Suesada reported this to the Nyudo, Kiyomori only answered , " This unfortunate Saisho has no 
discrimination", and gave no decision about the request. Some time afterward however he said to 
Suesada, " The Shin Dainagon Narichika-no-Kyo and other Imperial retainers intended to destroy 
our house and disturb the peace of the land, and this Shosho is the eldest son of this man. 
Whether he is deeply implicated in it or not I cannot overlook it. If this rebellion had been 
carried out would you have been likely to be unharmed ? " When the Saisho heard this he looked 
entirely crestfallen and replied ; " Since Hogen and Heiji I have 

[p- 76] 

many times risked my life in battle on your behalf and hereafter also I will ward off from your 
person the strong wind of adversity. Though I am an old man I have many young children and 
they too may become a strong protection, yet when I ask you this one thing namely to put the 
Shosho in my charge, you do not willingly accede. That must be because you think that I too 
have some treasonable design. If I am thus doubted it is of no use my living any longer in the 
world, so I will retire and become a monk, dwelling in seclusion in Koya or Kogawa and praying 
earnestly for a rebirth in a better world. Verily the relationships of this world are of no avail. 
When one is in the world one has hope, but when the object of hope cannot be attained, spite 
arises. Nothing is better than, despising this fleeting world, to enter the way of Buddha." Then 
Suesada repeated to Kiyomori the words of the Saisho, adding that his mind seemed to be made 
up and begging the Nyudo to grant his request. " Truly it would be a foolish thing for him to 
retire from the world, so I will place the Shosho under his charge, " replied Kiyomori, and 
Suesada returned and informed the Saisho. 

" Ah " he exclaimed, " it is not good to take the responsibility for the child of another ; if he was 
not thus related to my daughter I should not be so distressed " and he went out. The Shosho who 
was waiting for him enquiring how the matter had gone, he replied." The Nyudo was very 
wrathful and would not receive me, repeating that he would not grant my request, but when I 

threatened to become a monk, then he consented to put you in my charge; but I fear it is only for 
a time." " Then I shall at any rate obtain a reprieve for a while by your favour," replied the Shosho, 
" and, by the way, have you heard aught of the fate of my father the Dainagon ? " " Truly " 
answered the Saisho, " I could only put in a word on your behalf, I could certainly go no further." 
Thereupon the Shosho, bursting into tears " I fear for my own life, it is true, but how much do I 
wish to see my father again. This night the Dainagon is to be put to 

b. 77] 

death, so what use for me to live longer ? I wish to share my father's lot whatever it may be, so 
do you please inform the Nyudo of my desire." The Saisho, much troubled at this prospect, 
replied ; " I spoke of your affair indeed, but farther than that I did not go; I have heard however 
that Shigemori the Naidaijin advised his father this morning not to put him to death, so probably 
his circumstances will not be so unfavourable." Without waiting to hear any more the Shosho 
clasped his hands together and wept for joy. Who but a child would be able to forget all anxiety 
for himself and thus rejoice at his father's safety ? Indeed the strongest bond of relationship is that 
of father and child. How necessary a thing it is to have children. Then the Saisho and the Shosho 
returned to the mansion of the Saisho in the same carriage just as they had gone forth: and the 
ladies in waiting and the retainers wept and rejoiced on their arrival as over those who have come 
back from the dead. 



The Lay-priest Chancellor, though he had had so many people arrested, , still seemed 
unsatisfied. Coming forth to the middle gate of his mansion with a menacing aspect, he called in a 
loud voice for Sadayoshi. He was dressed in a red embroidered ' hitatare ' worn over a black suit 
of armour with the breastplate ornamented with silver, and gripped under his arm the short 
halberd with silver mounted handle that he had received many years before from the god of 
Itsukushima when he was favoured with a divine message in a dream, while he was yet only 
known as Aki-no-kami, and which he always kept by his pillow. 

Chikugo-no-kami straightway stood before his lord. He was attired in ' hitatare ' of yellowish red 
hue and his armour was of scarlet. "What do you think, Sadayoshi ? In the period of Hogen, Taira 
Uma-no-suke Tadamasa and more than half our family came to the help of the Newly Retired 
Emperor (Sutoku 

[p- 78] 

Tenno) and Ichi-no-miya (Shigehito Shinno) was the adopted son of the late Gyobu-no-Kyo 
Tadamori my father, so that it was most difficult for me not to support him ; in spite of these 
things however, following the instructions of the late Emperor (Toba Tenno), I assisted the party 
of the Emperor (Go-Shirakawa Ho-o). This was one service that I did for the Imperial House. 
Then at the time of the rebellion of Nobuyori and Yoshitomo in the twelfth month of the first 
year of Heiji, when the Palace was seized and the Court entered, the country therefore falling into 
disorder, at the risk of my life I drove out the rebels and arrested Tsunemune and Korekata. 
Many times therefore have I put my life at the disposal of the Imperial Court, so that whatever 
people may say against us the Imperial House ought not to forsake our family even to the seventh 
generation. Still the Ho-o has listened to such a pair of worthless rascals as Narichika and Saiko. 
This plan of destroying us, which the Ho-o seems inclined to, must by no means be carried out. I 
suppose that hereafter, if any accuse us falsely, the Emperor is likely to issue a mandate for our 
destruction, and if we are once proclaimed enemies of the Emperor, however much we regret it, 
we cannot redeem ourselves again. Formerly for a time until the country was quiet again the Ho- 
o was removed to the North Palace of Toba; what then do you think about bringing hire here to 
Rokuhara now ? If this be done perhaps some of the Imperial Guard may make armed resistance; 
so order our retainers to make ready, I will serve the Ho-o no longer. Saddle my horse and bring 
out my general's armour] " 

Then Shume-no-Hangwan Morikuni rode hard to the mansion of Shigemori and hurriedly told 
him what was happening. Without waiting to hear all the Naidaijin exclaimed, " Ali, now they 
have taken off the head of Narichika-no-Kyo." " That is not so " replied Morikuni, " but the 
Nyudo has assumed his general's armour and is going to lead his retainers to the Ho-o's Palace at 

Hojuji, declaring that until peace be restored he will remove the Ho-o to the North Palace of 
Toba, or if not will 


bring him to Rokuhara ; but we think his real intention may be to banish him to the western 
confines of the country. Then the Naidaijin, doubting if this was really so, but judging from his 
father's demeanour of the morning that he was quite beside himself, hastily got into his car and 
proceeded to Nishi Hachijo. 

When he alighted at the gate and entered, he saw the Nyudo in his body armour with scores of 
Courtiers and nobles of his family all in armour and 'hitatare' of various descriptions and colours, 
sitting in two rows along the verandah by the middle gate, besides a crowd of provincial lords and 
bodyguards and officials of all ranks overflowing into the courtyard beneath: their standards were 
marshalled and their horse-girths and helmet thongs tightened so that they looked as if 
immediately about to set forth. 

Komatsu dono, clad only in ' naoshi ', with his ' hakama ' of large pattern girt up, and an ' eboshi ' 
on his head, entered with a peaceful rustle of his silk garments, making a striking contrast to them 
all. Kiyomori, casting down his eyes in embarrassment, thought in his heart, "Ah, how calmly does 
this minister deport himself as one detached from the world; it seems I must rebuke him. " Still, 
even though it was his own son, in the presence of one who kept the Five Prohibitions and did 
not offend in the matter of the Five Virtues, who was charitable, courteous and polite in all his 
dealings, he felt ashamed to be found in warlike attire, so, slightly closing the shoji, he drew on 
hastily over his armour a white priestly garment, the bosom of which he continually pulled 
together to conceal the shining metal of the breastplate. 

The Naidaijin then took his seat one above that of his younger brother Munemori, neither he nor 
the Nyudo saying anything. After some time the silence was broken by his father. " A rebellion of 
Narichika is a thing of no account, but this affair has been planned by the Ho-o," said he, " so 
what do you think about bringing him to the North Palace of Toba, or if not, making him 
proceed hither until matters have quieted down? 

[ P . 80] 

Not waiting to hear any more the Naidaijin burst into tears." '" What is the matter then? " 
enquired the Nyudo in surprise ; whereupon Shigemori, repressing his tears, replied. " If I am to 
judge by your words I must suppose that the prosperity of our house is drawing to its close, for it 
is when people are on the downward path that they always commit some crime. Your 
appearance in this guise seems to me but as an illusion, for though this our land is a remote and 
narrow realm, yet since under the sovereignty of the descendants of Ama-Terasu-Omi-Kami the 
stock of Ama-no-Koyane-no-Mikoto have administered it, those who have held the office of 
Dajo-daijin have never been accustomed thus to appear in warlike attire. Moreover you, a lay 
priest, putting off the garments sacred to the Buddhas of the three worlds that are the garb of 
those who are [^liberated front the passions, do suddenly assume armour and gird on bow and 
arrows, thus not only transgressing the Five Prohibitions and being guilty of shameless crime, but 
disregarding entirely the hive Virtues. It is not pleasant to speak thus, but I cannot hold back 
what is in my mind. In this world there are four obligations, that to Heaven and Earth, that to the 

Emperor, that to Father and Mother, and that to one's fellow men, and of these the most 
important is that to the Emperor. All the land is the Emperor's dominion; we know the example 
of those two sages in China, he who washed his ears in the waters of Eisen and he who ate the 
bracken on the mountains of Shuyo, how they teach the difficulty of opposing the Emperor. How 
much more must it be so with one who has advanced to the high office of Dajo daijin, from a 
family in which such an office is without precedent ? I too, an ignorant and stupid person, have 
become minister, and more than half the country is subject to our ordinances. Is not all this the 
reason for a rare obligation to the Emperor ? But you, unmindful of all this great obligation, are 
about to treat the Ho-o's person in a violent manner, a 

[p. 81] 

thing quite contrary to the will of Hachiman and Ama-Terasu. Nippon is the land of the Gods 
and the Gods will not permit discourtesy. Thus the Emperor's plans cannot be without reason. 
That our house has for several generations subdued the foes of the Emperor and pacified the 
angry waves of the four seas may be indeed great patriotism, but to boast of it is only 
inconsiderate to others. In the seventeen, articles of the constitution of Shotoku Taishi it is 
written; " Every man has a mind, and every mind has self will; some say one thing is good and 
some another, so who can decide which is right? There is wisdom and folly in both, it is like a 
circle having no end; this being so, when one is angry he must first condemn himself." But as the 
fall of our house is not yet destined this plot has already been revealed : moreover we have 
already taken Narichika into custody, so there is no need for anxiety about anything the Emperor 
may do; after suitably punishing these people you must explain the matter to the Ho-o. Thus 
serving the Emperor and cherishing the people with sympathy you will receive the protection of 
the gods and not disobey the will of Buddha. If you are favoured by the gods and Buddha, the 
Emperor will change his opinion of us. If I compare the Emperor and yourself, there is no 
distinction between the affection I have for both, but when comparing what is right and what is 
wrong one must of necessity prefer the right. Since then right is on the side of the Emperor, I will 
protect the Ho-o's Palace to the best of my ability, seeing that my having risen, to my present 
high position of Daijin-no-Taisho from a low rank is entirely due to the Imperial favour. When I 
consider the greatness of this favour, it is more than ten thousand times ten thousand clusters of 
jewels, yea deeper than the double dyed purple. Therefore I must go to the Ho-o's Palace, and my 
samurai who have vowed to lay down their lives for me at any time will doubtless go with me 
and if I gather them together and go to protect the Hojuji den, a great crisis will come about. 
How unhappy am 1 1 For if I remain loyal to the Emperor I must 

[p. 82] 

forget the gratitude I owe to my father, which is higher than the peaks of [i8]Mt. Meiro. Verily 
my pith is a hard one; for if I avoid unfilial conduct then I shall be a rebellious subject and 
undutiful to the Emperor. I know not which way to take, for it is difficult to decide on one or the 
other. I beseech you then, order me to be beheaded, for then I can neither go with you against the 
Ho-o, nor can I be on his side to protect him. In China Shoka attained merit beyond ordinary 
men and became Prime Minister, being permitted to attend at the Court wearing shoes and with 
his sword girt on, but on one occasion he was disobedient, and the Emperor Koso punished him 
severely. Considering this precedent, even if a man attain to great wealth, rank and prosperity, 
Imperial favour and the highest office, it is not so difficult to fall. If a wealthy and noble house 
like ours accumulate stipend and rank too easily it is like a tree that bears too much fruit and is 

injured in its roots. Alas! I care to live no longer to see my country in such disorder. Born in a 
degenerate age to encounter such misfortunes, what an evil destiny indeed! How easy it would be 
to order one of your samurai to take me out into the courtyard there and strike off my head. 
Consider these things all of you ! " And wiping his tears with the sleeve of his ' 'naoshi ', he wept 
bitterly, and all the Heike, as they sat row upon row, lifted up their voices and wept also. 

The Nyudo, hearing Shigemori, in whom he put all his trust, speak thus, felt his heart fail him, as 
he answered; "Indeed I have never even contemplated such a thing, but I only fear as to what 
may happen if the Ho-o adopt the plans of these rascals." " Whatever mistake may be 
perpetrated," replied the Naidaijin, "how can we lift a hand against the Ho-o ? Then, suddenly 
standing up in the middle gate, he addressed the samurai; " I think 

b- 83] 

you have heard everything that I have said. I was present from this morning and tried to calm 
this disturbance, but it is beyond my power, so I must return home; do not march against the Ho- 
o while my head is on my shoulders! Then calling his retainers he returned to the Komatsu den. 
On arriving there he summoned Shume-no-Hangwan Morikuni and instructed him thus; " I have 
this morning learned that the country is in a critical condition, so let those who consider 
themselves dutiful retainers arm themselves and follow." At this all thought that such a summons 
from one usually so little moved by rumour must be of great import and hasted to obey. The 
retainers came pouring out from the villages of Yodo, Hatsukashi, Uji, Okanoya, Hino, Kwanjuji, 
Daigo, Ogurusu, Mamezu, Katsura, Ohara, Shizuhara, and Serifu, some in armour but without 
helmets, some with arrows and no bow, some with one foot only in the stirrup and some with 
neither, so great was their haste and disorder. Now when they heard of the activity at the 
Komatsuden, the horsemen, who were at Nishi Hachijo to the number of several thousand, 
hastened thither without the knowledge of the Nyudo, so that not a single warrior was left in the 
household Chikugo-no-kami who alone remained was summoned by Kiyo-mori : " Why has 
Shigemori called away everyone thus, can it be that he intends to attack me as he said this 
morning ? " Sadayoshi weeping replied ; " Such things depend on a man's character ; he is not 
likely to do it, for he will already regret what he has said here this morning." Kiyomori however 
thought that it was not advisable to fall out with his son, the Naidaijin, so he modified his violent 
intentions towards the Retired Emperor. Hurriedly stripping off his armour, he donned the robe 
and scarf of a priest and betook himself to his prayers, which, however, by no means arose from 
his heart. Meanwhile at the Komatsu den Morikuni was ordered to make a roll of the retainers 
who had mustered, and it was found that their number was more than ten thousand horsemen. 
After inspecting this muster-roll, Shigemori came forth to the middle gate and thus 

[ P . 84] 

addressed the assembled samurai. " I am greatly moved at your rallying here so quickly without 
regard for your own affairs. In China there is an example of this kind; Yu-o of the Shu dynasty 
had a favourite consort named Ho-ji, and she was the greatest beauty in the kingdom, but in one 
thing she did not please Yu-o ; she never laughed, never at all did she even smile. Now it is the 
custom in China that when a rebellion breaks out in the army they light beacon fires and beat 
drums to assemble the soldiers, and it happened that a revolt took place at this time so that the 
beacons were lighted; and when this consort saw them she exclaimed; " Oh ! what a lot of them 
there are," and smiled for the first time. And when she smiled her expression was very winsome, 

and Yu-o was highly delighted, so that many times after he had beacons lighted without any 
special reason, and when the generals came and found there was no revolt they had nothing to do 
but to go away again. This happening many times, at last they did not even come, and then it 
chanced that an enemy from a neighbouring country made a raid and attacked the capital of Yu-o, 
but though he had beacons lighted, thinking it was only for the consort's amusement, no soldiers 
responded, so that the capital fell and Yu-o himself was killed: whereupon the consort changed 
herself into a fox and ran away. This being so, whenever I summon you, come hither quickly as 
you have done today, for I called you together because this morning I heard that there was a great 
crisis, but afterwards when I investigated more fully I was convinced that the report was 
mistaken: so you may return again to your quarters." On this the retainers retired. Now it seems 
that Shigemori had not really believed that there was any crisis, but after rebuking his father that 
morning he wished to find out whether the soldiers would be on his side or not, and that he did 
not intend to attack Kiyomori, but only used this device to prevent any inclination on his part of 
interfering with the Emperor. As Confucius has said ; " even if the Emperor does not behave as 
Emperor, the subjects must behave as subjects ; and 

[p- 85] 

even if a father does not behave as a father, a son must behave as a son: loyalty to the Emperor is 
like filial piety in a son." 

When the Ho o heard of these things, he exclaimed : " It is not the first time that I feel ashamed 
to face the Naidaijin, for he repays enmity with kindness." His contemporaries also praised him, 
declaring that it was a most fortunate thing that such a man had become Daijin-no-Taisho who 
was superior to all in courtesy and etiquette, beside being supreme in intellect and ability: " If 
there is a minister who dares to advise the Emperor, then the country will be at peace; and in the 
family if there is a son who advises his father, that house will stand firm. Happy is the country 
that has such a minister both in ancient and modern times." 



On the second day of the sixth month they brought forth the Shin Dainagon Narichika-no-Kyo 
into the reception chamber of the mansion and entertained him with a repast, but his heart was 
too full even for him to touch a morsel. Then his guard Namba no jiro Tsuneto ordered his car 
and bade him enter it, whereupon the Dainagon reluctantly did so. He expressed a wish to see 
Shigemori once more, but unhappily was not permitted to do so. Looking round on the escort 
that surrounded him, he could not see one of his own men, "Ah," he exclaimed, " even one exiled 
for a great crime ought to be allowed at least one of his own retainers." When the guards heard 
this their tears flowed even on to their sleeves of mail. Thus going along the west side of the 
Shujaku to the southward, he only saw the buildings of the Court from a distance, who had so 
long been in attendance there, whereat everyone even to the servants and oxdrivers he knew so 
well buried their faces in their sleeves and wept. How much more sad must be the state of his 
wife and children left behind in the cite. On passing by the Toba Palace, 

[p. 86] 

he called to mind how he always accompanied the Ho-o when he visited there. Farther on he saw 
his own country seat, Suhama, in the distance. Passing out through the south gate of Toba den, 
they hurried to take the ship. He then expressed the wish that he might at least be executed at a 
place like this that was near the capital. On enquiring the name of the retainer who was to 
accompany him, the samurai told him it was Namba-no-jiro Kaneyasu. Then the Dainagon asked 
if any of his own retainers were present, as he had something to say before: he embarked, but 
when Tsuneto went round and searched, there was not one to be found. Then the Dainagon 
weeping exclaimed; " Ah, in the time of my prosperity I had two or three thousand retainers, but 
now there is not one who comes to see the last of me even from afar off ; " whereat the rough 
soldiers were again moved to moisten the sleeves of their armour. A copious flood of tears indeed 
was all that followed him. Formerly when he went to visit the shrines of Kumano or Tennoji, he 
used to go in a state barge of great magnificence accompanied by twenty or thirty other ships, but 
now he had to embark on a rough vessel with nothing but a large tent on it, escorted by strange 
soldiers, and today as he leaves the capital for the last time, to sail far off across the sea, his 
wretched feelings can only be imagined. It was only owing to the urgent pleadings of Komatsu 
Dono that his death sentence was lightened to one of exile. That day they reached the coast of 
Daimo-tsu in the province of Settsu. The next day, that is the third, a messenger from Kyoto 
came hurrying to this place, whereupon the Dainagon thought he was to he executed there, but 
the messenger had only brought news that he was to be exiled to Kojima in Bizen. There was also 
a letter from Shigemori in which was written; " I bad thought to get you sent to some country 
place near the capital, but alas, it cannot be ; so I have no further use for this world : however I 
have at least managed to save your life, therefore set your mind at ease." To Namba-no-jiro he 
also sent a message, adjuring him to pay great respect 

[p. 87] 

to his charge and to take care not to oppose his wishes, adding also directions in detail about 
preparations for the journey. Ah 1 whither does he go, leaving the Ho-o to whom he owes so 
much, and parting from his wife and children who have never left his side before even for a 
moment? Never again will he return and see his family. Once before at the appeal of Hieizan he 
had been exiled, but the Ho-o, taking compassion on him, recalled him again from Nishi Shichijo : 
so his present punishment was not by the Imperial will. "Why has this happened?" he gasped, 
looking up to heaven and down again to earth: however much he wept it was in vain. As soon as, 
the dawn came the ship put out and as they journeyed he did nought but weep and seemed not 
to wish to survive any longer: still his fleeting life did not come to an end. As the white waves 
dropped away in their wake the capital receded farther and farther. As the days went by one after 
another, the distant goal came nearer and nearer. When they arrived at Kojima in Bizen, they 
brought him to a rude farmer's house roofed with brushwood; the mountains were behind him 
and the sea before, for it was an eland ; the sounding waves and pine breeze on the shore, 
everything gave him a sad and lonely feeling. 


The Shin Dainagon was not the only person who was thus punished, for many of his companions 
suffered likewise. It was decided that Omi-no-Chujo Nyudo Renjo should be banished to Sado, 
Yamashiro-no-kami Motokane to Hoki, Shikibuno-taiho-Masatsuna to Harima, So Hangwan 
Nobufusa to Awa, and Shinkei-no-Hangwan Sukeyuki to Mimasaka. At this time the Nyudo was 
staying at his villa at Fukuhara. On the twentieth day his messenger Settsu-no-kami Morizumi 
reached the Kadowaki mansion, the residence of the Saisho Taira Norimori, and ordered him to 
bring quickly Tamba-no-Shosho whom he had 

[p. 88] 

in charge as he intended to do something in regard to him. To this the Saisho replied ; " It is very 
sad that I should again be grieved about this; it had been better that something had been done 
before: " but he bade the Shosho hasten to Fukuhar: The Shosho started on his way weeping, and 
his wife and ladies-in-waiting begged him to ask for the Saisho's good offices once more, since all 
else was unavailing. " As for me, I have said all I can," replied the Saisho," there is nothing else left 
for me but to forsake the world. What can I say more? Anyhow to whatever place you may be 
sent I will come and see you as long as I live." Now the Shosho had a child of three years old, but 
as he was himself young, he had not paid any special regard to his children; now however when 
he found himself in this situation they became somewhat dear to him and he thought that he 
would like to see him once more. The milk nurse therefore brought him, and the Shosho, taking 
him on his knee, stroked his hair and wept. " Alas, when you were seven years old I wished to 
bring you into the Imperial Household, but now that is all in vain. If by chance you should live to 
grow up you must become a priest and pray for my happiness in a future life." The child naturally 
could not comprehend these words, but when his father finished speaking, he nodded his head, so 
that the Shosho and the child's mother, beside the milk nurse and others who were in attendance, 
even the most unfeeling, were fain to burst into tears. 

The messenger from Fukuhara bade him start for Toba that evening, but the Shosho asked that, 
as he had not long to stay, at least he might stop that night in the capital : this was not however 
permitted and so, abandoning hope, he went to Toba that night. The Saisho was so grieved that 
he did not accompany him, and on the twenty-second of the same month he arrived at Fukuhara, 
whereupon the Nyudo gave orders to Seno Taro Kaneyasu who dwelt in Bitchu to take him to 
that province. Kaneyasu, fearing that the Saisho would hear of it, did not treat him at all harshly 
but was very kind to him on the way. The 

[p- 89] 

Shosho, in spite of this refused to be comforted, but night and day called on the name of Buddha, 
praying and interceding for his father. 

Now the Shin Dainagon Narichika-no-Kyo was yet in Kojima of Bizen, but as this was considered 
to be an unsuitable place, being near to a port, he was removed to the village of Niwase on the 
confines of Bizen and Bitchu and lodged in a mountain temple named Ariki-no-Bessho in Kibi- 
no-Nakayama, so that he was not more than fifty cho distant from Seno in Bitchu where the 
Shosho was, and the Shosho yearned toward that quarter for tidings of his father. Calling 
Kaneyasu therefore, he enquired of him how far it was to Ariki-no-Bessho, but Kaneyasu, 
thinking it was not wise to inform him, told him that it was twelve or thirteen days journey. The 
Shosho weeping replied; " Of old Nippon had thirty three provinces and now it is divided into 
sixty six, so that what is now called Bizen, Bingo and Bitchu were formerly all one country: Dewa 
and Mutsu in the eastern quarter also formed one province consisting of sixty six districts, but 
now twelve districts of it have been separated and called Dewa. When Sanekata Chujo was 
banished to Mutsu and wished to see the famous pine of Akoya, he went round the whole 
province, but was returning again without having found it, when he met on the road an old man 
whom he addressed as follows; "I see you are an old man, so can you tell me where the pine of 
Akoya in this province may be ?" "It is not in this province " replied the old man, " but in the 
province of Dewa." "Then you do not know where it is either;" replied the Chujo ; " in this evil 
age people even forget the famous places in their own province; " and he was making to pass on, 
when the old man caught his sleeve and said ; "When you asked for the pine of Akoya in this 
province, you were thinking of the verse: 

" Hid by the Akoya pine t'zat stands in the province of 
Mutsu ; 

"though the moon would rise, yet its beams cannot appear. " 

But those lines were written when the two provinces together 

[p- 90] 

were known by the one name; when the twelve districts were divided from it they were given 
the name of Dewa." So Sanekata Chujo went to the province of Dewa and saw the pine of Akoya. 
" From Dazaifu to Tsukushi," continued the Shosho, " is only a fifteen days' journey for the 
courier who carries fish to the Emperor, so that fifteen days' journey from here will take one as 
far as Kyushu, will it not ? Even at the farthest the distance between two places in Bizen, Bitchu, 
and Bingo cannot be more than a three days' journey, and that you thus call near far is only 
because you will not tell me where my father the Dainagon is lodged." After this, though still 
longing to see him, he asked about him no more. 


Meanwhile Hoshoji-no-Shugyo Shunkwan Sozu, Tamba-no-Shosho Naritsune, and Hei Hangwan 
Yasuyori were all exiled to the island of Kikai-ga-shima in the bay of Satsuma. This is a place that 
can only be reached from the capital after many hardships and the crossing of stormy seas. It is a 
place that even sailors cannot find unless quite certain of the way, and it is an island in which few 
men live. There are some people there it is true, but as they wear no clothing, they are not like 
ordinary folk of the mainland ; neither can they understand our language. Their bodies are 
covered with hair and black like oxen, and the men do not wear 'eboshi ' neither do the women 
have long hair. As they have nothing else to eat they must kill animals for food ; they do not 
cultivate the fields and so have neither rice nor corn, nor do they grow mulberry trees, and so are 
lacking in silk. In this island there is a high mountain that burns with eternal fire and the land is 
full of sulphur, so that the island is also called Io-ga-shima (Sulphur Island). Thunder rolls 
continuously up and down the mountain and at its foot rain falls in abundance. It is not possible 
for anyone to live there for a moment. The Shin 

[p- 91] 

Dainagon was feeling more calm in his mind now, but hearing that his son Tamba-no-Shosho 
Naritsune was exiled to Kikai-ga-shima in Satsuma bay with two others, thinking that there was 
now nothing more to wait for, he informed Shigemori by messenger of his desire to shave his 
head and become a priest; and this being reported to the Ho-o, he also gave his assent. Thus 
putting off the bright-sleeved dress of prosperity, he forsook this fleeting world and came down 
to wear the black costume of a recluse. 

Now the Dainagon's wife, having retired to the vicinity of Un-rinji in the northern hills, not only 
found such an unaccustomed life grievous to her, but had nothing to occupy her days and so felt 
extremely miserable. In her former residence she had had many ladies-in-waiting and retainers, 
but now they were either afraid or ashamed to visit her, all except one retainer named 
Gensaemon-no-jo Nobutoshi, who took pity on her and came to see her continually. One day she 
called this Nobutoshi and addressed him thus; " My lord has been so far staying at Kojima in 
Bizen, but lately I have heard that he has been removed to Ariki-no-Bessho. Ah 1 how much I 
should like to send a letter to him and to receive an answer in return." "Since I was a child," 
replied Nobutoshi, bursting into tears," how many are the benefits I have received from you, and 
never yet have I been parted from you. Your commands I have always obeyed and I have always 
heeded your advice. When my lord went down to the western province I would have 
accompanied him, but Rokuhara would not allow it, and so I could not, but now whatever 
hardships I may encounter I will surely bear your august message to him." His mistress was 
overjoyed at these words and forthwith wrote the letter. Her little son and daughter also wrote a 
message, and Nobutoshi taking them proceeded to go down to Ariki-no-Bessho in the far off 
province of Bizen. Making enquiries of the guard Namba- no-jiro Tsuneto, that warrior, 

respecting his dutiful conduct, soon brought him to where his lord was. His master the Dainagon 
Nyudo, now, as 

[p- 92] 

always, occupying himself with sadly musing about his home in the capital, on seeing Nobutoshi 
arrive from Kyoto, hardly understanding whether it was dream or reality, sprang up and bade him 
enter immediately. Nobutoshi advanced, but on seeing the condition of his lord, his lowly 
dwelling and his black priestly garments, his heart sank within him and he could not restrain his 
tears. Then, controlling himself somewhat, he related all that his lady had said to him, and 
presented the letter. The Dainagon, on opening it and seeing the writing all blurred with tears, 
and reading how much his children sorrowed for him, not to speak of his wife's unbearable grief 
and anxiety, felt that his former longing was as nothing to his present anguish. 

Thus four or five days passed and Nobutoshi requested that he might stay with his master till the 
end; but this the soldier who guarded him could by no means allow, and the Dainagon himself 
dissuaded him saying; " As you cannot stay any longer please return at once; I feel that my end 
will not be long in coming and when you hear of my death I beg you pray for my welfare in the 
world to come." So Nobutoshi received an answer to his letter and took his leave, promising to 
come again soon. " Ah," replied the Dainagon, " I think there will be no need for that: you will 
never see me again; " and in his grief and regret at parting, he called Nobutoshi back again and 
again; but as there was nothing else to be done, the retainer, restraining his grief, returned again to 
the capital and delivered the letter to his lady. When she opened it she immediately perceived his 
change of state, for inside the packet there was a lock of his hair that he had shaved off: She could 
read no farther but exclaiming: " Ahl how grievous is such a memento 1 " covered her head and 
threw herself to the ground. Her children also lifted up their voices and wept aloud. 

Now on the nineteenth day of the eighth month of the same year the Dainagon was at last put to 
death at Ariki-no-Bessho in Kibi-no-Nakayama in the village of Niwase in the province of Bizen. 
And of the manner of it, it is said that first, they put 

[p- 93] 

poison in his wine, but as this had no effect, planting tridents in the ground under a cliff about 
twenty feet high, they pushed him over it and he was pierced through by them so that he died. 
What a pitiful death it was] When his wife heard of his death she exclaimed ; " Until now I have 
not changed my condition and become a nun because I thought I might see him again, but now it 
is of no avail ; " and retiring to a temple called Bodaiin, she became a nun and devoted herself to a 
religious life. Now this lady was the daughter of Yamashiro-no-kami Atsukata, and she had been 
loved by the Ho-o Go-Shirakawa, being of exceeding great beauty ; and as this Dainagon was 
beloved by the Ho-o she had been given to him afterwards. So his young sons and daughters 
passed their days bringing flowers and drawing water for the offerings to Buddha and praying for 
the welfare of their father in the world to come. And thus the events of the time went on 
changing just like the five changes[ig] of the angelic beings. 


Now as the Tokudaiji Dainagon Sanesada-no-Kyo was passed over by Taira Munemori, the 
second son of the Nyudo, in the matter of the office of Taisho, he retired from his office of 
Dainagon and lived in seclusion, watching to see what turn things might take; but when he was 
inclined to become a priest, all his house grieved and lamented greatly. Among them was one 
who had the title of Shodaibu, To Kurando-no-Taiyu Shigekane by name, a man capable in all 
matters. One moonlight night Tokudaiji Dono had his lattice drawn up on the south side and was 
singing to the moon, when this To-no-Kurando came 

[p- 94] 

up to him. " Who is there? " enquired the Dainagon. " Shigekane " was the answer. " It is now 
moonlight, what is your purpose incoming here?" "Tonight the moon is very clear and so I have 
come to calm my spirit by contemplating it." 

" It is most admirable that you have come," replied the Dainagon, " for tonight I feel melancholy 
beyond measure and the hours are very tedious." After, a while, when they had spoken of, various 
things both present and past, the Dainagon said ; " Consider the prosperity of the Heike ; the 
eldest son Shigemori and the second son Munemori have become generals , if the right and left; 
and still there is the third son Tomomori and the grandson Koremori : if both of these take their 
turn, it does not seem as if anyone of another family will ever become Taisho at all. That is the 
end of things for me. I will become a recluse." To-no-Kurando weeping replied; " If you become a 
monk all of your family will be without anyone to guide them. I have lately thought of a novel 
plan: you know that Itsukushima, in Aki is exceedingly revered by the Heike family. Do you go 
and visit it. In that shrine there are many elegant dancing-girls who have the title of 'Naishi '[20] 
or Imperial ladies-in-waiting, and they will entertain you in a most interesting way." "But what 
shall I pray for? " enquired the Dainagon. " Tell them the real state of affairs," replied Shigefusa, " 
and when you leave, bring one or two of the chief of these Naishi back with you to the capital, 
and then they will certainly go and pay a visit at Nishi-Hachijo, and when the Nyudo asks the 
reason, they will relate the whole circumstances to him, and as he is easily interested in such 
things it will be a very suitable occasion to obtain his favour." " I had not thought of such a thing," 
replied the Dainagon, "but I will certainly act on your advice immediately : " and straightway he 
purified himself and set out for Itsukushima. On his arrival there he found that there were indeed 
many beautiful dancing girls there, and they declared 

[p- 95] 

that though the Heike lords were accustomed to visit the shrine, other courtiers seldom came, 
and so his pilgrimage was very interesting to them. So ten of the principal Naishi kept him 
company continually day and night and entertained him very agreeably. When these Naishi 
enquired the reason of his coming, he replied that it was because he had been passed over in the 
appointment to the office of Taisho in favour of another person, and had come to pray about it. 

So he tarried there seven days, and they performed the sacred music and dance called Kagura as 
well as many local sacred songs and dances, while the entertainment called Bugaku was given 
three times. Then, when he started on his return journey, the ten chief Naishi prepared boats and 
went with him a day's journey to see him off, and Tokudaiji, regretting to part with them, first 
persuading them to come another day, and then two, at last brought them right to Kyoto, and 
taking them to his mansion, entertained then splendidly and made them many presents. The 
Naishi, declaring that as they had come from such a distant place to the capital they must 
certainly visit their patrons the Heike lords, proceeded to Nishi Hachijo with that purpose. The 
Nyudo, who came forth and received them, enquired for what reason they had journeyed all the 
way to Kyoto, whereupon they explained that Tokudaiji Dono had visited their shrine, and that 
having prepared ships and decided to come with Min one day's journey, to see him off and then 
to return, he had persuaded them to come farther and farther until at last they had come to the 
capital with him. Then the Nyudo asked why Tokudaiji had gone to Itsukushima, and they told 
him that it was to pray about being passed over in the election to Taisho. Hearing this the Nyudo 
nodded his head and said to himself; " How admirable a thing it is that he has made a pilgrimage 
to the distant shrine of Itsukushima that I revere above all others, instead of going to the many 
influential and potent shrines and temples in the capital. If his desire is so earnest, then I will see." 
So he made Shigemori the Naidaijin retire from the office of Sadaisho and elevated 

[p- 96] 

Tokudaiji Dono to it in his place over the head of his second son Munemori the Udaisho. What a 
clever device this was indeed! How sad that the Shin Dainagon did not adopt such a plan as this 
instead of making a useless rebellion which led to the destruction of himself and his descendants. 


Now the Ho-o, having become the disciple of Kogen Sojo of Miidera, was studying the esoteric 
doctrines of Shingon : and having read the three secret Sutras called Dai-nichi Kyo,[2i] Kongo-cho 
Kyo[22] and So-shitsuji-Kyo,^] on the fourth day of the ninth month was to undergo the 
ceremony of Kwancho or Baptism. When they heard this the priests of Hieizan were wrath and 
said ; " From ancient days it has been the custom that the ceremony of Kwancho should be 
performed by our temple, and it is for the especial purpose of admonishing and baptizing the 
Emperor that our god manifests himself in this mountain. If therefore the ceremony is to be 
performed at Miidera there is nothing for it but to burn our useless temple. Therefore the Ho-o, 
considering his idea unprofitable, gave up his intention of receiving Kwancho, and only requested 
that the purification ceremony be carried out. But in order to carry out his original intention, he 
summoned Koken Sojo and went to Tennoji where he built a temple called Gochiko-in, and 
decided on the well of Kame-i as his sacred water of baptism. Then, finishing his study of the 
Sutras, he received baptism at the original sacred spot of Buddhism in Japan. But though the 

[p- 97] 

Kwancho was not performed at Miidera in order to pacify the wrath of the monks of Hieizan, yet 
at that temple differences of opinion between the Doshu (lay brothers) and the Gakusho 
(student priests) led to pitched battles between them in which the Gakusho were defeated ; so 
that the destruction of Hieizan and a great disaster to the Imperial family seemed likely. These 
Doshu were either youthful attendants on the Gakusho who had become priests, or else priests 
who did menial work in the temples, and at the time when Kakujin Gon-Sojo, the Zasshu of 
Kongo-ju-in was the head of Hieizan, they were called Geshu and lodged in the three pagodas, 
being employed in offering the flowers before the Buddhas. Of late years however they were 
called Gyonin, and, setting at nought the higher priests, they got the upper hand by force. So 
when these Doshu, disobeying the orders of the higher priests, planned a revolt, their superiors 
appealed to the Court nobles for an order to punish them and asked the samurai to carry the 
order into execution. Then the Nyudo, at the order of the Ho-o, sent Yuasa-Gon-no-kami 
Muneshige of the province of Kii with about two thousand men of the Kinai district to attack the 
Doshu in cooperation with the Taishu or upper priests. Now the Doshu were at this time lodging 
in the building called Toyobo, but when they heard of this they came down to Sanga no shorin 
Omi and gather ed a large force with which they returned to Hieizan, where they built a 
fortification at Sobisaka and took up their position in it. On the twentieth day of the ninth month 
and the first part of the hour of the Dragon (8 a.m.), three thousand of the Taishu or upper 
priests with two thousand men of the Imperial army, five thousand in all, made an attack on 
Sobisaka, shouting their war cry vigorously. Those in the fort however shot arrows and cast stones 
upon them so that their united forces were shot down to a man. As the Taishu tried to get before 
the Imperial forces while the Imperial army strove to outstrip the Taishu, this vying with each 
other divided their councils and they were not able to fight effectively. Moreover the band of 
ruffians who composed 

[p. 98] 

the Doshu were made up of thieves, brigands, mountain robbers and pirates, all consumed with a 
lust for booty and fighting each for himself, reckless whether they lived or died ; so that on this 
occasion also the Gakusho had the worst of the battle. 

After this Hieizan gradually fell into dilapidation. Except the twelve branches of the Zen sect, 
few priests were left to live there ; the lectures in the valley were gradually abolished, the 
religious ceremonies were performed no more, the academies of learning were closed, and the 
floor for Zen meditation became deserted. No longer was the flower of the Tendai fragrant, and 
the moon of its clear doctrines was clouded. There was none of light the sacred lamps that had 
never gone out for three hundred years ; the smoke of the perpetual incense ceased. No longer do 
the vast buildings tower aloft, cleaving the blue heavens with their three storied bulk, with their 
crossbeams of immeasurable height and their rafters that are scarcely discerned amid the white 
mists. The Buddhas are adored but by the mountain blasts; their golden statues are wetted by the 
muddy raindrops: the moonbeams streaming through the chinks of the roof are their sacred lamps, 
and their lotos seats are encrusted with the diamond dew of dawn. In this unhallowed and 
degenerate age the Buddhist Law that was supreme in the three countries declined. Consider the 
remains of Buddhism in far off India; the Chiku-rin Shoja[24] and the Gitsu-kodoku-on[25], where 
of old the Lax was preached, are they not the haunt of wolves and foxes, their foundations alone 
remaining ? The waters of the lake of Hakuro have dried up and the tall grasses have grown up 
within it. The Taibon and Gejo[26] pillars are moss-covered and leaning to their fall. In China also 
Tendaisan, Godaisan, Hakubaji and Gyokusenji are now dilapidated and forsaken, and the sacred 

[p- 99] 

volumes of the Mahayana and Hinayana are rotting at the bottom of their boxes. In our country 
too the seven great temples of Nara are laid waste: the eight sects, yea the nine have left no race. 
Of old at Atago and Takao the sacred halls and pagodas raised on high their ranging roofs, but in 
one night they we: utterly ruined and became a place for Tengu to dwell in. So also may it not be 
that the noble law of Tendai has been abolish d in this era of Jisho? There were none among the 
men of understanding who did not fail to lament it. Who wrote it we ) :now not, but upon a pillar 
of one of the monasteries this verse found: 

" See this mount of prayer returns to its former condition ; 
Now becomes once more a lonely and desolate peak. " 

Was he not thinking of the prayer^] of Dengyo Daishi when first he established these temples: " 
O unexcelled[28] perfect intelligence of Buddha, show forth thy Divine help on this mount 
whereon I build." It was indeed most touching. How admirable was the writer of it. 

The eighth day is the feast of Yakushi, but there was no sound of the invocation to be heard. The 
fourth month is the month of the incarnation of Sakya Muni, but there was none to make the 
offerings of silk and money. The red fence of the brine is hoary with age, nothing is left but the 
straw rope of the Gods. 


At this time the temple of Zenkoji in Shinano was burned down. Now the Tathagata of this 
temple are a set of three Mida[29] half an arm long, unequalled in the three countries, cast 

[p. 100] 

after profound concentration by Mokuren Choja[3o] from the gold of Enbudan[3i] which the 
wisdom of Gekkwai Choja procured from the Palace of the Dragon King, when of old in Shae[32] 
in mid-India five kinds of disease broke out and priests and people died in great multitudes. After 
Buddhism was destroyed they stayed in India more than five hundred years. Since Buddhism 
moved to the eastward they were brought to Kudara, and after a thousand years, Seimei being 
Emperor of Kudara and Kemmei Tenno of this land, they were brought thence to Japan and 
lodged at Naniwa no ura in the province of Settsu. Since golden rays always shone from them the 
name of the era was called Konko (golden rays) . 

In the third month of the third year and during the first ten days Honda Yoshimitsu of Omi in 
Shinano same up to the capital to meet the statues and took them back with him to his own 
place: by day Yoshimitsu carried the statues but by night they carried him. Arriving at Shinano he 
lodged them in the district of Mizunouchi. Since then five hundred years have gone by but this 
was the first time a fire broke out. It is said that if the monarchical principle is destroyed 
Buddhism will first be abolished, so that people said that the destruction of this holy mountain 
and its many temples was a portent of the coming overthrow of the monarchy. 


Now the three who were exiled to Kikaigashima did not particularly value their lives, which 
trembled in the balance like dew on the tip of a leaf, but food and clothing were provided 

[p. 101] 

for Tamba-no-Shosho from the domain of his father-in-law Taira-no-Saisho Norimori at Kase in 
Hizen, so that Shunkwan and Yasuyori also managed to support themselves from it. Moreover 
Yasuyori on being exiled on his way had become a priest at Murozumi in Suwo, and was 
henceforth known by the religious name of Shosho. He had originally intended to do this before, 
so he made this couplet: 

" Now that the way of the world has gone so entirely against me; 
How very foolish I was not to have left it before. " 

As Tamba-no-Shosho and Yasuyori had always been believers in the god of Kumano, they wished 
to build a temple to supplicate the three Gongen in this island that they might be delivered and 
return to the eapital. Shunkwan, however, being by nature a sceptic, took no part in it at all. So 
the two, being agreed, went round the island searching for a place like to Kumano [33]. One spot 
they found with a wooded bank, its cliff covered with creepers like red embroidery ; another a 
wondrous peak hidden in the clouds with variegated scenery below it like green damask 
outspread, the mountain landscape and splendid groves surpassing all they had so far seen. 
Looking to the southward the sea spread out far as the eye could reach, its distant waves 
dissolving into clouds and mist. Northward from the lofty precipice a waterfall leaped out a 
hundred feet down with an eternal roar of sound. Since the age of the gods the wind had sounded 
in the pines. It was a spot that greatly resembled Nachi with its waterfall sacred to the Gongen. 
So they gave it the name of the mountain of Nachi, and the peaks they also named Hongu and 
Shingu, giving the names of the different gods to various places. Then Yasuyori Nyudo, taking 
Tamba-no-Shosho with him, went round them every day after the style of the worship of 
Kumano, praying for their safe return to the 

[p. 102] 

capital: " Namu[34] Gongen Kongo Doji, send down thy pity upon us, we beseech thee, that we 
may once more return to the capital and see again our wives and children." As the days went on, 
having no change of clothes, they put on hempen ones, end purifying themselves in the water of 
the marsh, they feigned it to be the pure streams of Iwata in Kumano ; climbing up a hill there as 
though it were the Hosshin-monbs]. Whenever Yasuyori Nyudo made his pilgrimage to the 
Sansho Gongen and recited the sacred 'norito," having no paper for ' gohei ' he would wave 
flowers aloft in his hands with these words: " On this the first year of Jisho, the year of the cock, 
and the second day of the tenth month thereof, being the three hundred and fiftieth day of our 
sojourn, choosing a favourable day and a propitious hour, we, Urin Fujiwara Naritsune and the 

priest Shosho, faithful worshippers of the Sansho Gongen of Kumano, roost efficacious in all 
Nippon, and the Holy Law of the great Bosatsu of the waterfall, fervently and truly with whole 
heart, with body, mind, and speech in full accord, humbly make petition. :. Oh, Shojo Dai-Bosatsu, 
Lord of the Law who givest help to those struggling in the painful sea of this world, Wise King 
and Perfect in the Three Manifestations, and thou Pure Ruby who dwellest in the Eastern 
Quarter, Divine Physician, Nyorai who healest all sickness, and thou who dwellest in the south, 
Kwannon the exhorter who art manifested in the Fudaraku[36], Great Master of Nyuju-gen-mon, 
Prince who art the Chief Lord of this Benevolent Master^], show thy face to us in the world, 
thou who grantest the petitions of all creatures. Thou to whom the Emperor and all his subjects 
pour out evening and morning the pure holy water, washing away the filth of this world ; that 
they may have peace in this world and happiness in 

[p- 103] 

the world to come, turning every evening toward thy mountain and calling on thy jewel Name, 
for thy mercy never faileth. Thy goodness is boundless as the lofty mountains and thy pity deep as 
the valleys; so will we climb to the mists above and stiffer the dews beneath. How should we 
tread these rough paths unless we relied on them as a place in which is thy spirit, and unless we 
could look on the goodness of the Gongen how could we go to this remote mountain? Therefore 
O Shojo Gongen and Hiryu[38] Dai satta^g], turn toward us thy lotus eyes of grace and incline 
thine all-hearing ears to listen ; behold our burning zeal and grant all our petitions. Guide when in 
need those who are enlightened in the Law and save those who are yet in ignorance; leaving thy 
jewel abode and hiding thy eighty four thousand beams of light, show thyself in the dust of the 
Six Ways[4o] and the Three Regions. Earnestly we lift up our hands together in prayer for the 
removal of retribution of our sins in a former existence and for the required blessing of long life, 
waving the ' gohei ' without intermission, clad in the garments of purification and offering the 
flowers that symbolise knowledge of the way, making the sacred floor to vibrate with our zeal, 
and offering pure water with earnest mind that it may fill the lake from which flow thy benefits. 
Thus mayest thou receive our petition and fulfil all our desires. Thus looking upward we petition 
the twelve Gongen, that with salvation in their wings, oaring over the sky of this Sea of Pain, they 
may restore us to our former rank, and speedily and at a near time grant our petition to return to 
our homes. 



Thus these two, continually praying before the Three Gongen, at times spent the whole night 
before them; so that it hap- 

[p. 104] 

pened that one night when they had thus stayed until morning singing ' Imayo ' and dancing, 
toward dawn they allowed their eyes to close for a moment with weariness, and in a dream they 
saw a small ship with white sails rowing in from the offing, and twenty or thirty court ladies in 
scarlet hakama coming on shore from it, beating drums and chanting in chorus, " Better than 
prayer to ten thousand Buddhas is the vow to Kwannon of the ' Thousand Hands; straightway the 
withered herbage will put forth flowers and fruit." Repeating this chant three times they vanished. 
Then Yasuyori Nyudo, awaking from his dream, thought it a wondrous sign : indeed it must have 
been sent by the Dragon God ; for seeing that one of the Three Gongen of Kumano called Nishi- 
no-Gozen was the Kwannon of the Thousand Hands in India, and the Dragon God of the sea is 
one of the twenty eight servants of this Kwannon, no doubt they would obtain their desire. 

Another night the two spent there also, and in a dream they saw two leaves blown in by a breeze 
from the offing and wafted into their sleeves, and when they looked at them, lol they were leaves 
of the ' Nagi ' I41I tree at Kumano. On the leaves of the Nagi these lines had been bitten in by 

" Since your prayers to the god have been so long and 

incessant ; 

Surely you are allowed soon to return to your home. " 

So much did Yasuyori desire to return that as one method of consoling himself he made a 
thousand Sotoba ' and wrote on them the character A I42I in Sanscrit, with the clay of the month 
and his name and priestly name, adding these stanzas also: 

" That I am here in au isle of the bay of Satsuma dwelling ; 
Prithee O salt sea breeze, tell to my parents afar. " and 
" Dear is his native land to him who is not so far distant ; 
Feel then more pity for me exiled so lone and so far." 

[p. 105] 

Then taking them down to the shore he cast them into the white sea waves one by one with this 
invocation: " Namu Kimyo chorai, O Shaka Nyorai and Four Great Heavenly Kings and Ye God 

of Heaven and Earth, and all the deities who protect this Imperial land, especially the Gongen of 
Kumano and the deity of Itsukushima in Aki. May it please you to grant that one of these may 
reach the capital." As he went on making them and casting them into the sea thus, as the days 
passed the number of the sotoba increased with them, and whether the winds assisted him or the 
gods and Buddhas sent it, one of the thousand sotoba was cast up on the shore before the shrine 
of Itsukushima Daimyojin. It chanced moreover that a priest who had some connexion with 
Yasuyori Nyudo had just come to Itsukushima in the course of a pilgrimage to the western part 
of the country, and this priest had the intention of going to the island if he could find occasion, to 
enquire the whereabouts of the Nyudo. There a servant came out from the shrine dressed in a 
kariginu and looking like an ordinary person, and in the course of their talk the priest said : " It is 
true that the gods appear in the world in divers guises to save mortals, but in what connexion 
does the god of this place appear as a sea dragon? " [4^! "Because the third daughter of the Dragon 
King of Shakatsura I44I is manifested here as Taizokai (the mandara of wisdom)," replied the 
shrine servant. (Since the goddess appeared in this place she has continued to help mortals until 
the present day and many miraculous events have taken place, so that these eight shrines stand 
raising their lofty roofs by the sea shore, the moon shining on the ebbing and flowing tide: when 
the tide flows the great torii and the red shrine-fence shine like emerald, and at the ebbing tide 
even in the summer night the sand before it is covered with frost.) 

[p. 106] 

Then the priest, wondering at these marvels, offered gifts to the shrine with peace of mind, and as 
the moon rose and the tide came in at dusk he saw the sotoba come floating among the seaweed 
that drifted in from the offing, and idly picking it up he saw the verse upon it, and as the 
characters were cut in the wood they were not washed off by the waves but stood out clearly. 
Thinking this very strange, he stuck it on the side of his pilgrim's box and went back to Kyoto. 
On arriving there he showed it to the old mother of Yasuyori and his wife and children who were 
living in retirement at Murasakino north of Ichijo. " Ah! " they said sadly, " why should this have 
come here, instead of going across to China which lies nearest, to renew our grief by the sight of 
it ? " Then the matter came to the ear of the Ho-o, and when he looked on it he exclaimed, 

" Ali, how cruel that the wretched man should still be living." It was sent on by him to Komatsu 
Dono, and he in turn sent it to his father. 

Of famous verses there is the stanza that Kaki no moto Hitomaro made about ' the ship 
disappearing among the islands,' thinking fondly of his native laud, and that of Yamabe-no- 
Akahito in like case celebrating ' the storks among the reeds.' So the god of Sumiyoshi also spoke 
of 'the shingled roof of his shrine,' and the Miojin of Miwa of ' the cedar trees of his shrine gate,' 
when afar from his home. Since Susa-no-o-no-mikoto first made the verse of thirty one syllables, 
even the gods and Buddhas have thus expressed their feelings in it. 



Now the Nyudo, being neither wood nor flint, was touched and felt pity, and there was none in 
Kyoto among high or low, old or young who did not murmur the stanzas of the exiles of 
Kikaigashima, and even though they had made a thousand sotoba, they were very small things, so 
that it was very wonder- 

[p. 107] 

ful that the verses should be carried all the way to Kyoto from the far distant shore of the bay of 

When one comes to consider the matter, there was also a example of this kind in old time in 
China. When formerly the king of Han made war on the barbarians, Ri-sho-kei was first made 
general and led an army of three hundred thousand horsemen, but his forces being the weaker, 
the barbarian army conquered, and Ri-sho-kei was taken alive by the barbarian king. Then Sobu 
set out against them with five hundred thousand horsemen, but again his army proved the 
weaker and the barbarians were victorious, capturing six thousand prisoners and amongst them 
Sobu himself. Selecting six hundred and thirty of the most important of these, they cut off one of 
the legs of each and let them go. Of these some died immediately and others some time afterward, 
and Sobu was the only one who survived. Having only one leg, he managed to keep himself alive 
by eating the fruit of the trees on the mountains and by plucking the 'nezeri ' [45] berries in the 
fields or by picking up the gleanings of the rice fields in autumn. So long did he do this, that the 
wild geese that abounded in the rice fields ceased have any fear of him, and looking on them and 
meditating sadly that they would fly over his beloved native land, at last wrote his thoughts on 
paper, and having caught one of them he tied the massage to its wing, and, earnestly praying it to 
be the document to the king, let it go. Faithfully enough, as was its wont, the wild goose flew 
over from the south to the capital and as Sho [46] king of Han chanced to be walking in the 
Imperial garden and feeling somehow rather sad, was gazing at the dusky twilight sky, a line of 
wild geese came soaring overhead and one of them, flying low, bit off a letter from one of its 
wings and let it fall, An official immediately picked it up and brought 

[ P . 108] 

it to the king who opened it and read as follows: " Having spent the first three months of the year 
in a cave in the rocks, now I am cast forth wandering among the narrow paths between the rice 
fields, a survivor with one leg among the northern barbarians. Even though I leave my dead body 
in the barbarian country, yet shall my spirit surely again serve my Emperor." (Now this is the 
reason why, since that time, a letter is often called ' Gansho ' or ' Gansatsu,' ' goose script' or ' 
goosenote 1) " Ah! how pitiful,' said the king, " Sobu is still alive; how praiseworthy is this 
intimation." Then he sent out an army of a million horsemen under the general Ri-ko and this 
time the forces of Han were victorious and the army of the barbarians was routed. On hearing of 

the victory, Sobu came crawling along out of the fields and proclaimed his name and title. With 
his one leg, and aged by the frosts of nineteen winters, he was borne in a litter to his former 
country. When he had set out against the barbarians at the age of sixteen he had wrapped round 
his body the banner presented to him at that time by the Emperor, and now taking it off again he 
presented it once more in the Imperial presence, whereat both Emperor and subjects were filled 
with admiration beyond measure. As a reward for his great and meritorious conduct Sobu 
received a grant of large territories from the Emperor, and was raised to the high office of Ten- 

Now Ri-sho-kei stayed in the barbarian country and did not return, and though he did nothing 
but lament and try to find a way of getting home, the barbarian king would not permit him and 
so he could do nothing. The king of Han however had no idea of this, and thought that Ri-sho-kei 
was a disloyal subject, so he had the dead bodies of his parents dug up and beheaded, while his 
six nearest relations, father, mother, elder and younger brothers, wife and son, were all treated as 
criminals. When Ri-sho-kei heard of this he was extremely grieved, and writing a letter in which 
he stated that he was by no means disloyal, but ardently desired to return to his country, he sent 

[p. 109] 

it to the king of Han. The king having read it, exclaimed ; " Ah 1 how sad, he is indeed no disloyal 
subject; " and greatly regretted that he had caused the bodies of his father and mother to be 
disinterred and desecrated. 

Thus just as Sobu of Han fastened a letter to a goose's wing and sent it to his native land, so did 
Yasuyori in Japan send his verses home with the waves for bearers: one sending a written message, 
the other a couple of stanzas, one in a remote age and the other in these latter days. Though the 
one was far away in a barbarian land and the other was but in Yikaigashima, and the times were 
so different, yet the spirit of both was the same. How truly worthy of admiration they were. 


[I] Nyoirin Honzon. Honzon is the principal object of worship. This was a picture or statue of Nyoirin 
Kwannon, or Kwannon holding the sacred jewel called Nyoi Hoju. 

[2] Tendai Zasshu. Heizan was the chief seat of the Tendai sect, so called from the mountain Tendaisan in 
China (T'ien t'ai) and founded by Dengyo Daishi, so the head of it was called the Tendai Zasshu. 

[3] Mei-un, written Rn =r, shining clouds. 

[4] Kowpira Taisho. The first of the Twelve Shinsho or Divine Commanders who led the Yasha (Sk. 

Yakcha) or Daring Devils, a kind of Buddhist Jinn. Sk. Khumbhira, explained as ' a crocodile 1 

[5] Three contemplations, i.e. of Illusion, Impermanence, and the Madhyamika (dissolving every proposition 

into thesis and antithesis, and denying both, e. g. the soul is neither existent nor non existent.) 

[6] Memyo (lit. horse neighing) the patriarch Asvagosha 

[7] Ryuju Bosatsu The patriarch Nagardjuna or Nagasena,chief representative of the Mahayana School and 

founder of the Madhyamika School, the greatest Buddhist philosopher. 

[8] Five defects, or Hindrances. According to the Hokke Kyo women are unable to become either Indra or 

Brahma or Mara or Tchakravarti or Buddha. 

[9] Ryozen. Ghridhrakuta, the Vulture Peak famous for its caves inhabited by ascetics. At its foot was 

Radjagriha the city of royal palaces where the Magadha Pr'nces from Bimbisara to A'soka lived. 

[10] Gesshi India. 

[II] Mandara. A circular picture in which is depicted a representation of the various heavens and Buddhas 
and Bodhisattvas. 

[12] Okuchi hakama. Cf, Sanson, Tsurezure Gusa p. 117, a variety of hakama or loose trousers. 

[13] Meido. The dark road, the underworld, Sk. Nirika. Here men were judged by Emma-O or Yama Raja 

and his attendants, (Ahora Setsu) by means of the balance and the mirror that reflected all things. 

[14] Shaba. Sk. Sahaloka. perh. world of suffering. Those subject to transmigration, popularly for this world. 

[15] Give the benefit etc. From then j°] ^ /V p| r^. 

[16] Ko sho Ko. Oe Tomotsuna. The whole verse runs: Those who live; must die; even Buddha cannot 
escape the smoke of the sandalwood ; when pleasure is at its height comes pain; even the angels have their 
five failings. 

[17] Liberated from the passions. Waft gedatsu Sk. Vimokeha or Mukti 

[18] Mt. Meiro. Sk. Sumeru, the wondrous mountain in the centre of the universes that supports the 

various tiers of the heavens and is the centre round which the heavenly bodies revolve. It is of great height, 

one side is of gold, the second of silver, the third of; lapis lazuli and the fourth of glass. 

[19] Five changes, or degenerations. These were supposed to be; first withering of the flowers on their 

head ; second, sweating under the armpit; third, extinction of their halo; fourth, becoming blind; fifth 

becoming dissatisfied with their place in heaven. 

[20] Naishi Title of Ladies of the Court, but here also of the attendants of the Shrine or Miko, the sacred 

Dancing a girls. 

[21] Dai Nichi. Vairochana, the Buddha of boundless light, first of the three representations of Buddha, 

identified in Japan with Ama-Terasu the Sun-goddess, the central figure of the Shingon System. 

[22] Kongo. Vajrapani, a deity much invoked in the Yogacharya Buddhism practised by the Shingon Sect in 


[23] So shitsuij. The Susiddhikara Sutra, another text of the Tantra School. 

[24] Chiku-rin Shoja. The Karanda Venuvana or Bamboo park, given S'akya Muni by Bimbisara, king of 

Magadha, who was converted by him. 

[25] Gitsu-kodoku-on. The Jetavana Vihara. 

[26] Taibon and Gejo. Two Stupas or memorial tumuli or pillars, set up by S'akya Muni on the road, when 

he was staying at Gridhrakuta. cf Tsurezure Gusa. p. 119. note. 

[27] Prayer. This refers to a famous prayer of Dengyo Daishi, the words ,t which are echoed in this verse. 

[28] O unexcelled, a title of Buddha. Sk. Anuttara Samywk Sambodhi. 

[29] Mida. Amida or Amitabha with Kwannon and Seishi (Mahasthama ) form/this trio of statue, They 

are perhapsthe oldest in Japan. 

[30] Mokuren Choja. Mahamaudgalyayana, the left hand disciple of S'akya Muni. Choja, elder. Sk. S'rechthi. 

[31] Enbudan. Sk. Djambudvipa. the continent situated south of Mt. Sumeru. 

[32] Shae. Sk. S'ravasti, or Kosala, a t ancient city, N.W. of Kapilavastu, which S'akya Muni frequented. 

[33] Kumano. The famous Shrine in Kii, where Amida, Yakushi and Kwannon were worshipped. The 

goddess of the shrine is Izanami-no-mikoto. 

[34] Namu. Sk. Nama. I humbly adore. 

[35] Hosshin-mon. The gate of Kumano. Urin, Chinese form of Shosho. 

[36] Fudaraku. Sk. Putchekagiri. A mountain where Kwannor or Avalokitesvara appeared. 

[37] Benevolent Master. Dai Nichi Nyorai. 

[38] Hiryu. Spirit of the Waterfall. 

[39] Dai- satta. Sk. Mahasattva. a perfected Bodhisattva. 

[40] Six ways. Sk, Gati, Six conditions of sentient existence, viz. devas, men, asuras „ beings in Bell, pretas, 

anima's. Three regions, Sk. Trailokya, desire, form and formlessness 

[41] Nagi. Podocarpus Nageia. 

[42] Letter A. PRj the first letter of the Sanskrit alphabet, much reverenced by Buddhists, especially by the 

Shingon sect. 

[43] Dragon King of Shakatsura. The third of the Eight Dragon Kings. Sk. Sagara. 

[44] The Dragon gods, Sk. Nags, probably came into Buddhism from China. The daughter of the Dragon 

King is well-known in Japanese legend in connexion with the stories of Hohodemi and Urashima. 

[45] Nezeri. Oenanthe Stolonifera. 

[46] Sho. Hp rfj , Sobu was captured in the reign of Bu Ifct, and came back in the sixth year of Sho. The 
story here differs somewhat from Chinese histories. 



On the first day of the New Year of the period Jisho the ceremony of New Year greeting took 
place in the Palace of the Retired Emperor, and on the fourth day the Emperor himself proceeded 
thither in state. These ceremonies did not depart in any way from the usual precedent, but as in 
the summer of the preceding year the Shin-Dainagon Narichika-no-Kyo and other of his retainers 
had been banished or executed, the Retired Emperor still felt much resentment and could not 
give himself to affairs of state with a quiet mind, and was in an unsettled condition about things 
in general. Kiyomori Nyudo also, since the revelations of Tada Kurando Yukitsuna, felt uneasy 
about the Ho-o, and though outwardly appearing unaffected, beneath his apparent calmness he 
took precautions and wore always a cynical smile. 

On the seventh day a comet appeared in the eastern quarter that is called in China ' Shiyuki,' JjJ. 
of evil omen; it is also called ' Sekiki '. On the eighteenth day its light increased. Kiyomori's 
daughter Ken-rei-mon-in, who at this time bore the title of Chugu or second consort of the 
Emperor, falling ill, there was lamentation both at Court and throughout the country. In all the 
temples the holy Sutras were recited and envoys were sent to all the shrines, divination was 
performed and the physicians concocted their medicines, using all the resources of their art both 
exoteric and esoteric, but still the sickness did not pass away. Then she was found to be pregnant. 

The Emperor was now eighteen years old and the Chugu twenty two, and so far neither son nor 
daughter had been born to His Majesty, so that if a son should how be born to the 

[p. m] 

Chugu it would indeed be fortunate. The Heike rejoiced loudly together, declaring that a son 
would surely be born, and other noble families also, seeing how fortune now favoured the Heike, 
did not doubt that so it would turn out. When she was decided to be pregnant, the Nyudo, 
summoning all the priests of high rank and saintly reputation, bade them use all their knowledge 
both open and secret in bringing his star before the Buddhas and Bodhisats and praying with all 
fervour that a son might be born. 

On the first day of the sixth month was held the ceremony of assuming the belt of pregnancy, 
and Kaku-ho Shinno the Lord Abbot of Ninnaji hastened to the Palace with the Kujaku Sutra JjJ 
and performed the incantation ceremony of the Shingon sect. The Tendai Zasshu Kakukai-ho 
Shinno and the Lord Abbot of Miidera, Enkei-ho Shinno also came up and recited the prayers for 
obtaining a male heir. 

Now as the months passed the Chugu suffered more and more severely, just as was the case with 
the lady Ri J3I in Han, whose one smile contained a hundred charms ; the illness of Sho-yo-den 
too was of a like nature. Yo-ki-hi in China also was said to have suffered more and more through 
the three seasons, as the branch of blossoming pear J4I held the spring rain, as the lotus blossom 
withered, and as the dew fell heavy on the ' Ominaeshi'. Considering the season of this illness it 
seemed likely that some evil influences might be the cause, and on enquiring by divination by 
means of a medium from Fudo Myo-o, it was declared to be owing to evil spirits, especially those 
of Sanuki-no-in Uji-no-Akusafu Yorinaga, the departed spirit of the Shin Dainagon Narichika-no- 
Kyo, the evil spirit of Saiko Hoshi and the living spirits of the exiles of Kikaigashima. 

[p. 112] 

So in order to placate both the living and the departed spirits, first of all Sanuki-no-in was given 
back his former title of Sutoku Tenno, and Uji-no-Akusafu was raised posthumously in rank and 
office, being made Dajo-daijin of the upper first rank. Shonaiki Korekata was appointed 
Imperial .Envoy to proclaim these things. 

Now the tomb of Uji-no-Akusafu was at Gosan-mai in Hannyano in the village of Kawakami in 
the district of Sou-no-kami in Yamato, and as in the autumn of Hogen it had been dug up and 
the body thrown out on the roadside, since then the grass had overgrown it more every year. 
How joyful must his departed spirit have been when the Imperial Envoy arrived and read his 
message. Then the deposed Crown Prince Sagara was given the title of Sudo Tenno and thus 
Princess Igami was restored to the rank of Empress. All this was done to appease their angry 
spirits, for from ancient times angry spirits have been considered very terrible. The madness of 
Rei-zei-in and the deposition of the Retired Emperor Kwazan were said to be owing to the angry 
spirit of Motokata-no-Mimbu-no-Kyo : there was also the matter of the eye disease of the Retired 
Emperor Sanjo ; it was said to have been due to the spirit of Kwanzan the Imperial Chaplain. 

Now when the Kadowaki Saisho heard of these things, he sought Komatsu Dono at his residence 
and said : " I hear that there is to be a very great pardon of offences beyond all precedent in 
connexion with the prayers for the birth of a son to the Chugu, and that such a virtuous and 
meritorious act as the recall of the exiles of Kikaigashima is contemplated." On hearing this the 
Naidaijin at once went to his father and said " It is indeed pitiable how Kadowaki-no-Saisho 
laments for Tamba-no-Shosho, and especially with regard to the sickness of the Chugu it is said 
that it is due to the angry spirit of Narichika-no-Kyo, and if you intend to placate the departed 
spirit of the Dainagon you will perhaps also recall the living Shosho : for if you can thus allay 
peoples' anxiety, if it is thus according to 

[p- 113] 

your will to accomodate the wishes of others, you will obtain, your own desire in that the 
delivery of the Chugu will be easy, and she will bear a prince, and so will the glory of our line 
increase greatly." The Lay-priest Chancellor, chancing to be more soft-hearted than usual replied : 
" Then what is to be done with Shunkwan and Yasuyori Hoshi ? " "Surely they too should be 
recalled; " replied Shigemori, " for if one of them be left behind it will be an evil deed." " That 
may be so with Vasuyori, but as for Shunkwan, he is a fellow who rose through my 
recommendation, and this is the man who, though he had other places besides, held meetings at 
his villa at Shishi-ga-tani on Higashiyama for his audacious designs against me. Him I will certainly 

not pardon." So Shigemori returned and calling his uncle the Saisho told him that the Shosho 
would be pardoned, that he might set his mind at rest. The Saisho, without waiting to hear more, 
clasped his hands together and wept with joy. " Ah how pitiable it was when he went into exile 
to see his wistful eyes full of tears whenever he looked at me, wondering how it was I could not 
obtain his pardon." " Indeed so you must have felt," replied Shigemori, " for a child is dear to 
anyone. I will see further to the matter." And he went out. Thus it was settled that the exiles of 
Kikaigashima should be brought back again, and the Nyudo issued the letter of pardon. An envoy 
was entrusted with this and immediately left Kyoto. The Saisho in his joy sent a messenger of his 
own to accompany the official envoy. Though they made haste both by night and day, since the 
sea will yield to none, and they must brave the waves and wind, though they left Kyoto during 
the last decade of the seventh month, it was not until about the twentieth day of the ninth 
month that they reached Kikaigashima. 



The envoy was Tanzaemon-no-jo Motoyasu. Quickly disembarking from the shin he called with a 
loud voice on "Hei 

[p. 114] 

Hangwan Yasuyori Nyudo and Tamba-no-Shosho exiled in this place." Now the two were away 
as usual praying before their Kumano Shrine; only Shunkwan was there, and he, hearing them, at 
first thought it could only be a dream or that he was being deceived by demons or evil spirits. 
Then wondering if it might possibly be real, he hurried along so flurried that he fell as he ran, and 
so presented himself before the envoy crying out that he was the exiled Shunkwan. Then the 
envoy produced from a bag that his servant carried the letter of pardon which the Nyudo had 
sent, and Shunkwan opened and read thus " The crime for which exile was ordered is pardoned 
and the persons herein mentioned may return to the capital. In connexion with the prayers for 
the safe delivery of the Chugu a special pardon has been granted : the exiles of Kikaigashima 
Shosho Naritsune and Yasuyori Hoshi are pardoned." This only was written and there was no 
word of Shunkwan. Thinking that perhaps it was written on the envelope, he looked, but there 
was nothing there also. He read it from the beginning to the end and from the end to the 
beginning, but two persons only were mentioned, there was nothing said of three. Then the 
Shosho and Yasuyori appeared, and, each reading it in turn;, verily it was only they two whose 
names stood written and there was nothing of anyone besides. It all seemed indeed a dream, and 
when they thought it a dream it was a reality, when they thought of it as a reality it was even as a 
dream. Beside this there were many letters for the two from Kyoto, but for Shunkwan Sozu there 
was nothing at all. It seemed that all his friends and connexions had disappeared from the capital. 
" Ah," he cried, " the three of us were exiled for the same offence and to the same place, how 
then is it that two only are granted .a pardon and I only am left out ? Is it that I have been 
forgotten by the Heike, or is it a mistake in the letter, or is there some other reason? " He looked 
up to heaven and cast himself down to the earth, weeping and lamenting, but all in vain. Catching 
hold of the sleeve of the Shosho, he cried, in tones of 

[p- 115] 

agonised entreaty: " That I have fallen into such a plight is because of the worthless plot of the 
late Dainagon your father, you must not think it was anything else; if I am not pardoned I cannot 
go to the capital, but at least take me in this ship and bring me along with you as far as Kyushu, 
for while you were here with me, just as the swallows come in spring and the wild geese of the 
ricefields in autumn, so I could get tidings occasionally of my home, but now I am left alone from 
whom shall I hear anything ? " " Indeed that is so," replied the Shosho," and when we witness 
your anguish, all our joy at returning is taken away and we feel as though we wish to stay with 
you, but as to taking you with us in this ship, though we greatly wish to do so, the envoy will not 
permit it at all, and if it were found out that without permission three of us had left the island it 

would be indeed a serious thing. But when I return to the capital I will intercede with various 
people and entreat the favour of the Nyudo so that he may send someone to bring you back : be 
patient and stay here awhile as before, and as your life has been so far preserved, though you have 
been overlooked in this pardon, at last you are certain to go free." But though they spoke many 
consoling words, yet Shunkwan would not be comforted, and when the ship made to put off 
again he tried to embark in it, and falling off jumped up again with the madness of despair. The 
Shosho left him his mattresses as a memento and Yasuyori a part of the Holy Sutras. When they 
came to cast off the hawser and put the ship off, the Sozu, seizing hold of it, was dragged out up 
to his loins and then up to his armpits, following after them as long as he could keep his foothold 
in the water and entreating them: " Comrades, how can you thus abandon me to my fate ? Where 
is your former fellow feeling fled ? Since there is no pardon for me I cannot go to Kyoto, but at 
least take me with you to Kyushu." But the envoy from Kyoto would not give permission, and 
they pushed away his hands as he clutched the vessel and at last rowed away, while Shunkwan, 
giving himself up to despair, flung himself down 

[ P . 116] 

on the beach and stamped his feet on the sand like a little child that has lost its nurse or mother. " 
Take me with you 1 Let me go with you! " he shrieked and cried, but it was all of no avail, and 
soon, as the ship rowed away, nothing was left but the white waves. The ship was not yet so far 
distant, but his eyes were blinded with tears so that he could not see it. Then, running up to a 
high place, he kept on calling to mind the pathetic story of how in former days Matsuura-no- 
SayohimeJcJ. waved her long sleeves, calling back the Chinese ship that bore away Otomo 

Thus the ship rowed away till it was seen no more, and though the sun set Shunkwan did not 
return to his poor hut, but spent the night lying where he was wetted by the spray and dew. The 
Shosho, being a man full of pity, when he returned did everything he could for him and indeed 
grieved that he had not drowned himself on that shore. Thus we can understand the grief of So-ri 
and Soku-ri \6[ of old when they were abandoned on Kaiganyama. 



Thus the two exiles left Kikaigashima and came to Kase in Hizen, And since the messenger 
whom the Saisho sent urged them not to proceed to Kyoto that year, as the weather was rough 
and the passage dangerous, but to wait till spring, the Shosho spent the rest of that year in Kase. 
Now from the hour of the Tiger (4. a.m.) on the twelfth day of the eleventh month of the same 
year the Chugu began to be in travail, and Rokuhara and all the 

[p- 117] 

capital were in an uproar. The place of lying in was the Ikedono M mansion at Rokuhara and the 
Ho-o himself made an august visit of ceremony : after him all the Courtiers [9I from the 
Kwampaku [8] and Dajodaijin downwards, everyone who could be considered anyone at all, and 
everyone without exception who held emolument or office and hoped for place and promotion 
in future, came and presented themselves at Rokuhara. When we refer to former cases of the 
lying-in of Consorts and Empresses there was always a great pardon. On the first day of the ninth 
month of the second year of Daiji, when Tai-ken-mon-in [io]was brought to bed, a great pardon 
was proclaimed, and on this occasion things were done according to that precedent and a very 
extensive pardon was issued, so that among those guilty of serious offences Shunkwan Sozu was 
unhappily the only one who did of share in it. A vow was made that there should be an Imperial 
progress of the Empress and Crown Prince to the shrines of Hachiman, Hirano and Oharano if the 
birth was easy and a prince was born. This vow Sengen Hoin respectfully heard : we speak of it 
with reverence. Prayer was also made at twenty shrines of the Kami beginning with Ise Daimyojin, 
and the Sutras were read at the temples of Todaiji and Kofukuji beside sixteen others, those who 
read the Sutras being chosen officials among those who served the shrines. Retainers wearing 
kariginu of ornamented brocade and girt with swords walked in procession, carrying various 
sacred vessels and the Imperial sword and The Imperial Vesture, crossing over from the Higashi- 
no-dai to the southern court and going forth from the middle gate. A most auspicious and 
beautiful scene. Komatsu Dono, as was natural to his calm and unmoved nature, came long after 
the others with his eldest son Gon-no-suke Shosho Koremori 

[ P . 118] 

and many nobles of lesser rank in a procession of cars bringing presents; forty changes of garments 
of various kinds, seven silver ornamented swords borne upon large trays, and twelve horses. This 
was according to the precedent of the Kwampaku Fujiwara Michinaga, who sent horses when his 
daughter Joto-mon-in, Consort of Ichijo Tenno, was brought to bed in the era Kwanko. 
Shigemori was the elder brother of the Chugu and since his relation was especially paternal there 
was reason why he should send these horses. Gojo-no-Dainagon Kunitsuna-no-Kyo also sent two 
horses, and people wondered if this was because of his great desire for a prince to be born or 
because of his great virtue. Moreover horses were presented to seventy shrines from Ise even to 
Itsukushima in Aki, and very many sets of decorations for the horses in the Imperial Stables. The 

Lord Abbot of Ninnaji, Kakuho Shinno, read the Kujaku Sutra, while the Tendai Zasshu 
Kakwaiho Shinno chanted the Sutra of the Seven Buddhas. [nl The Lord Abbot of Miidera, 
Enkei Shinno, chanted the Sutra of Kongo Doji, beside which Godaikoguzo, [12! the Six Kwannon, 
[13I the Ichiji Kinrin Godan Sutra [14I, Rokuji Karin, [15I Hachiji Monju, [16I and the Fugen [17! 
of long life were all invoked and recited from beginning to end. The smoke of incense filled the 
whole Palace and the sound of bells echoed to heaven, while the sonorous chanting of the Sutras 
made men's hair stand up. Whatever evil spirits there might be, and in whatever direction they 
might turn, they were put to flight. Then too a life-size 

[p- 119] 

statue of Yakushi Nyorai and the Five Wondrous Kings [1 81 was begun for the chapel of Buddha. 

Now though all these things were done and the pains came continually upon the Chugu, yet she 
was not quickly delivered, and the Nyudo and the Ni-i-no-dono his consort, pressing their hands 
to their breasts in perplexity, continually ejaculated: " What is to be done? What shall we do? " 
And ever when anyone enquired something of them, all they replied was: " Do as you please; Do 
as you like: " the Nyudo adding, " Ah, if I were with my army in the field I should not feel 
anxiety like this." All the while the diviners, the two Sojo, Hokaku and Sho-un, Shunkei Hoin, 
and the two Sozu, Kozen and Jissen, were chanting the Sutras and incessantly telling their rosaries 
and praying, invoking the Three Treasures of their temples and all their ancient and venerated 
statues and books and holy pictures. Indeed it was a most blessed sight. And amid all this 
sanctification, the Ho-o, who was just at this time engaged in purification ceremonies preparatory 
to making a pilgrimage to Kumano, sat in a chamber near the brocade curtain behind which the 
Chugu was, and recited the Sutra of Kwannon of the Thousand Hands. 

Now at this moment a change came. Though the holy mediums who were wildly dancing went 
into a trance, for some time they were silent. " Ah," quoth the " Ho-o whatever evil spirit there 
may be, how can it come near when I am present? Beside which all these hostile influences have 
been granted Our Imperial Benevolence and restored to mankind, and even though they are not 
grateful "yet how can they now hinder us? Let them quickly be put to flight! " (When women 
have difficult labour and there is some obstacle hindering them, however troublesome and 
difficult it may be, if a mighty spell be chanted earnestly then the demon will depart and the 
birth become easy 

[p. 120] 

and successful.) So they all applied themselves diligently to their crystal rosaries with the result 
that not only was the Imperial Consort safely delivered but a Prince was born. Then Hon-Sammi 
Chujo Shigehira-no-Kyo, who was then acting as Chugu-no-Suke, came forth from behind the 
curtain and announced in a loud voice : " The august labour is safely ended and a Prince has 
deigned to be born." 

The Ho-o was the first to offer his congratulations; then the Kwampaku Matsu Dono and the 
Dajo daijin and all the courtiers below him and all the assistants and acolytes, the chief astrologers, 
chief physicians, and all the diviners high and low, shouted aloud their joy in concert so that the 
sound reverberated even to without the gates and did not subside for some while. The Nyudo too, 
in the excess of his joy, lifted up his voice and wept: these were tears of joy indeed. 

Komatsu Dono immediately hurried to the Palace of the Chugu bringing ninety nine mon in coin 
to place beside the pillow of the baby Prince saying: " Heaven is father and Earth is mother. May 
your life be as long as that of To-ho-saku and Hoshi figl : may your mind be as that of Ten-sho- 
ko-daijin." And taking a bow of mulberry and six arrows of 'yomogi.' bol he shot them toward 
heaven and earth and the four quarters of the world. 



The wife of the former Udaisho Munemori had been chosen as the milknurse for the child, but as 
she had died in labour on the seventh month, the wife of Taira Dainagon Tokitada-no-Kyo was 
appointed in succession, and she was afterwards known by 

[p. m] 

the title of Sotsu-no-suke. After a while the Ho-o made his August return journey to his Palace, 
and when his car came to he gate of Rokuhara to receive him, the Nyudo in an excess of joy 
offered a thousand pieces of gold and two thousand ryo in weight of Fuji cotton as a present. And 
this was surprising ;o people and they said it was not fitting. 

There were many things too that people thought laughable in the lying in of the Chugu. For 
instance, the Ho-o acting as a soothsayer; and in the second place, as it is the custom at the lying- 
in of an Imperial Consort that a rice-vessel fkoshiki bil] should be rolled dawn from the ridge of 
the Palace roof, if a Prince is born it is to be rolled down the south side, and if a Princess down 
the north side, this was done as usual ; but by mistake it vas rolled down the north side |22l, 
whereat there was a great uproar, end it was brought up again and rolled down once more in the 
roper manner. This was an ill-omened event in the opinion of host people. What appeared 
ridiculous was the flurry and agitation of the Lay Priest Chancellor, in contrast to the conduct of 
Shigemori, which was much admired. Much to be regretted was it that the former Udaisho 
Munemori-no-Kyo, having lost his much-beloved wife, resigned both his offices of Dainagon and 
Taisho and retired into seclusion : how happy had it been if both elder and younger brothers had 
been there. Then came seven astrologers to perform a thousand exorcisms and among them 

[p. 122] 

was an old man named Kamon no kami Tokiharu. He was a man of small property and office, 
and as so many people came thronging there like the bamboo shoots that stand thick together, 
yea even like rice sprouts, flax, bamboos and reeds, he cried out: "I am an official. Make way!" 
and pressing through the midst of the crowd, what a sight he presented! Having trodden off his 
right shoe, he was resting for a moment when his headdress also got knocked off, and at such a 
time to see a dignified old man in ceremonial court costume, with his hair in disorder, pacing 
along was more than the younger courtiers were able to endure, and they burst forth into 
uncontrollable mirth. For the astrologers say that their peculiar gait must be most punctiliously 
observed. A strange thing too was that he knew nothing about it : all at the time, though 
afterwards when he came to think bout it he remembered everything. Now at the time of the 
August lying-in the following notables visited Rokuhara. The Kwampaku Matsu Dono (Fujiwara 
Motofusa), the Dajodaijin Myo-on-in (Fujiwara Motonaga), the Sadaijin Oi-no-Mikado (Fujiwara 
Tsunemune), the Udaijin Tsuki-no-wa Dono (Fuji Kanezane), the Naidaijin Komatsu Dono, the 
Sadaisho Sanesada, the Gen-Dainagon Sadafusa, Sanjo-no-Dainagon Sanefusa, Gojo-no-Dainagon 

Kunitsuna, To Dainagon Sanekuni, Azechi Sugekata Naka no Mikado Chunaagon Muneie, 
Kwazan Chunagon Kanemasa, Gen-Chunagon Kanemasa, Gen Chunagon Masayori, Gon- 
Chunagon Sanetsuna, To Chunagon Sukenaga, Ike-no-Chunagon Yorimori, Saemon-no-kami 
Tokitada, Betto Tadachika, Hidan-no-Saisho-no-Chusho Saneie, U-no-Saisho-no Shusho 
Sanemune, Shin Saisho-no-Chusho Michichika, Hei Saisho Norimori, Rokkaku-no-Saisho-Iemichi, 
Horikawa-no-Saisho Yorisada, Sadaiben-no-Saisho Nagakata, Udaiben-no-Sammi Toshitsune, 
Sahei-no-kami Shigenori, Uhei-no-cami Mitsuyoshi, Kotaigo-gu-no-taiyu Tomokata, Sakyo-no- 
taiyu Naganori, Dazai-no-daiji Chikanobu, Shinsammi Sanekiyo and t thirty three others. Except 
the Udaiben they wore ' naoshi.' Among those that did not come were the former Dajo-daijin 

[p- 123] 

Kwazan-in Tadamasa Ko, Omiya-no-Dainagon Takasue-no-Kyo and about ten others of lesser 
rank. Some time afterwards wearing ' hoi,' these went to visit the Lay priest Chancellor his 
mansion at Nishi Hachijo. 



Now as the result of the great efficacy of their prayers, rewards were given to the various temples. 
The eastern temple of Ninnaji was repaired. Afterwards seven days' prayer was ordered to be 
made, beside the reading of the Law of Daigen and the ceremony of Kwancho or baptism. Enryo 
Hogen was raised to be Hoin while the Imperial Zasshu was given the second rank of Princes of 
the Blood and allowed the privilege of proceeding to Court in an ox car. As Ninnaji resented this 
Kakusei Sozu was raised to the rank of Hoin, besides which other rewards were bestowed too 
numerous to mention. 

After some time had elapsed the Chugu returned from Rokuhara to the Palace. Since the 
daughter of the Lay priest Chancellor had become Imperial Consort, monthly pilgrimages had 
quickly been begun to Itsukushima the greatly venerated, to pray that a prince might be born to 
her, and that he should soon ascend the Throne in order that the Nyudo and his wife might 
become Imperial Grandparents, and the Chugu had soon become pregnant and been safely 
delivered of a Prince to their great joy. 

Now the time that the Heike family began to revere the shrine of Itsukushima in Aki was when 
Kiyomori only held the office of Aki-no-kami, and with the income he derived from Aki repaired 
the great pagoda at Koya. This work was finished in six years, having been entrusted to the 
steward Watanabe-no-Endo Rokuro Yorikata, and when it was finished Kiyomori himself 
proceeded to Koya and worshipped before the great pagoda after which he visited the Oku-no- 
in. Whereupon 

[p. 124] 

from somewhere or other there suddenly appeared an old priest with white hair and hoary 
eyebrows, his forehead furrowed with many wrinkles, leaning on a cross handled staff, who 
addressed him thus: "From ancient days this holy mountain has yielded place to none as a home 
of the Shingon doctrine; and now our great pagoda has been repaired there is none like it in the 
land. Now Kebi in Echizen and Itsukushima in Aki are the two shrines where our doctrine of the 
Two Worlds [2 3I is revealed. Keki is very prosperous but Itsukushima is in a very dilapidated 
condition: do you therefore report this to the Throne and repair it in like manner, and if this be 
done you shall rise to high office so that there shall be none in the whole country to equal you." 
Having spoken thus, he departed, and where he had been standing a wondrous fragrance of 
incense arose; and when Kiyomori went to look and see whither he had gone he could see him 
but for a distance of three cho, and then he disappeared. " This was no mere man; it was the 
DaishrJ24l : " he thought, reverently pondering over the vision, and as a remembrance in this 
Shaba- world he painted two Mandaras in the Kondo of Koya. The western Mandara he had 
executed by a painter named Jomyo Hoin, while the eastern one he painted himself. And for 
what reason I know not he painted the crown of Dai-Nichi Nyorai, the central figure, with blood 
which he took from his own head. 

Afterwards he went up to Kyoto and reported this to the Retired Emperor, whereat, the 
Emperor and the Court being greatly moved, he was again appointed Aki-no-kami and bidden to 
restore the shrine of Itsukushima. So he rebuilt it, raising up its torii and renovating its many 
shrines, constructing also a 

[p- 125] 

gallery measuring three hundred and sixty yards in length. When all the work was finished, 
Kiyomori went to worship at the shrine, and, in a dream which came to him while spending the 
night in worship, he saw the doors of the Holy of Holies open and a beautiful youth with tightly 
bound hair come out and say: " I am the messenger of the Daimyojin of this shrine; do thou take 
this blade and make secure therewith the Throne of this Imperial Realm; " handing him a short 
halberd ornamented with silver bands. On his awaking and reflecting on the dream lol it was a 
reality, for there was the halberd beside his pillow. Moreover he received also this oracle from the 
Daimyojin : " Whether you remember or forget, I know not, but the words of the sage of Koya 
will stand ; if however your actions be evil, your r preeminence will not be transmitted to your 



When Shirakawa in was on the throne, the daughter of the Kwampaku Fujiwara Morozane of 
Kyogoku became Imperial Consort, and being a clever lady, was much beloved by the Emperor, 
so that His Majesty, wishing to have a son by her, summoned a priest of Miidera named Raigo 
Ajari, who was renowned for the efficacy of his supplications, and promised him that if he could 
successfully intercede with the Buddhas to grant him a son by this lady, he should be given 
whatever he might wish. Raigo respectfully assented and, returning to Miidera, applied himself to 
his prayers with all his might to such effect that the Chugu soon became with child, and on the 
sixth day of the twelfth month of the first year of Shoho was safely delivered of a Prince. The 
Emperor, greatly overjoyed, again summoned Raigo and asked him what reward he wished for, 
whereupon Raigo replied that he wished that a ceremonial dais should be built at Miidera. Now 
the Emperor, thinking that he would 

[ P . 126] 

probably ask to be made Sojo at one step, was greatly astonished at this unexpected request, for 
this ceremonial dais for the ordination of priests was only allowed at Hieizan. " Now this Prince is 
born," replied the Emperor, " we hope that lie will succeed to the Throne and that the land will 
remain in pace and quietness, but if your request be granted Hieizan will be wroth, the Empire 
will be disturbed, war will break out between your two temples and the Tendai sect may be 
destroyed." So that his desire was not granted. 

Raigo, greatly disappointed, returned to Miidera and determined to die by starvation. The 
Emperor on hearing of this was greatly amazed, and calling Oe Masafusa, who was then 
Mimasaka-no-kami, said to him. " Since you have been a pupil of Raigo, go and see what you can 
do about this affair." Oe hastened to Miidera and found that Raigo Ajari had retired to his cell to 
ponder over the Imperial decision. Following him thither he discovered the Ajari sitting in a small 
smoke-blackened oratory from which he shouted in a voice of thunder: " The word of the 
Emperor is no joke: an Imperial speech es! is like sweat. If I cannot obtain my request I will carry 
away the Prince that my prayers have made and take him with me to the Meido : " and without 
another word he retired to his cell. Mimasaka-no-kami returning reported his experience to the 
Mikado, whereupon His Majesty was exceedingly grieved. Eventually Raigo died by starvation as 
he had said, and thereupon the little Prince fell sick and took to his bed, and although many 
prayers were said for him it seemed of no avail. Always a white haired priest holding a ' shakujo 
' [26! appeared to stand at the little Prince's pillow, and this not only in peoples' dreams but in the 
reality of broad daylight, and on the sixth day of the eighth month of the first year of Sho-ryaku 
the Prince at last expired at the age of four years. He was known as Atsubumi 

[p. 127] 

Shinno. The Emperor's grief was extreme, but at that time, hearing that there was a priest at 
Hieizan, the chief priest of the Saito Hall named Ryoshin Dai-Sojo, who was then only Sozu of 
Enyubo, who was reputed to be very potent in prayer, he summoned him to the Palace and asked 
him what he could do. " The Imperial Wish," he answered, " can certainly be accomplished by 
the power of our sect, for was not a Prince born to the Mikado Rei-zei-in by the effective prayers 
of Jie Dai-Sojo, when requested by the Udaijin Kujo Morosuke Ko ? It is not a difficult thing. So, 
returning to Hieizan for a hundred days he gave himself up to earnest prayer, and within this time 
the Chugu conceived, and on the ninth day of the seventh month of the third year of Sho ryaku 
she was safely delivered of a Prince who afterwards became the Mikado Horikawa Tenno. So 
even in ancient times evil spirits were terrible things. 

At the time of this most auspicious lying in of Ken-rei-mon-in, it was a pity that, in spite of the 
amnesty that was granted, Shunkwan Sozu alone should have been omitted. On the eighth day of 
the twelfth month of the same year the Prince was nominated heir to the Throne, the Naidaijin 
Shigemori being appointed Instructor and Ike-no-Chunagon Yorimori appointed Daiyu. This year 
having ended it became the third year of Jisho. 



In the last decade of the first month Tamba-no-Shosho Naritsune and Hei Hangwan Yasuyori 
Nyudo left Kase in Hizen and started for Kyoto with all speed, but as the cold was still severe and 
the sea rough, crawling from harbour to harbour and from one island to another, it was the tenth 
of the second month before they reached Kojima in Bizen. Thence they went to see Ariki-no- 
Bessho where the Dainagon, the father of the Shosho, had lived. Here they found various writings 
on the bamboo 

[ P . 128] 

pillars and on the shoji that the Dainagon had left. " Ah," he said, " there is no better memento 
than a person's handwriting. If he had not written this here how could we have seen where he 
was? " And the two of them read and reread it again and again with tears. " On the twentieth day 
of the seventh month of the third year of Angen, became a priest; on the twenty sixth day of the 
same month Nobutoshi came from Kyoto." was written. Thus they learned that Gensaemon-no- 
jo Nobutoshi had been to visit him. On the wall near by was incribed : " If we trust to the Three 
Holy Buddhas byl to receive us, surely we shall be reborn in Paradise." Whereat, seeing that he 
had hoped to be reborn in the Pure Land, they felt somewhat comforted amid their limitless grief. 

When they enquired for his tomb, alas, there was no mound raised over it, only a place where the 
earth was a little higher than usual. Adjusting his sleeves respectfully, the Shosho spoke as to a 
living person, weeping as he addressed him. " The tidings that you had passed away to the world 
beyond were indeed brought to me in the island where I was living, but not being free I could not 
hasten hither. Since I was exiled to the island I was so melancholy that life was unbearable even 
for a day : but I sustained my frail life and existed for two years, and am exceeding joyful to 
return thus far, and if I could have found my honoured father alive how blessed it would have 
been. As it is now, length of days has become but vanity. Thus far I have made great haste hither, 
but from to day there will be no need for hurry." Thus he spoke weeping, and had his father been 
living how much would he have found to say in reply; but with those in the grave, there dwells 
no regret: who is there that can smile when under the moss? The wind in the pines was the only 
answer. That night the two spent in vigil at the grave, and when day broke they made a new 
tomb, fencing it about with stakes and building in front a temporary but where they stayed seven 
nights, repeating the Nembutsu and reading 

[p- "9] 

the Sutras. Then erecting a great sotoba. they inscribed thereon these words : "The deceased, a 
pure spirit, delivered from the wheel of birth and death, now surely entered into the great 
enlightenment; " with the date of the year and month and beneath it, " Naritsune, a filial son." 

Surely no wood-cutter or lowly peasant, however ignorant, could help weeping at this proof of a 
child being the supremest treasure on earth. As the years roll on, nothing is more unforgettable 
than gratitude for a kind bringing up, like a dream it is and like a vision; yea, and difficult to end 
are the present tears of love. The countless Buddhas of the Three Worlds [28I and Ten 
Quarters [29! must have deigned to grieve, and the revered spirit of the departed, how must it 
have rejoiced. Then, though wishing to stay longer to say the Nembutsu, yet knowing the anxiety 
of those awaiting them in Kyoto, they took their leave of the late Dainagon, promising to return 
again, and departed weeping. Even from those beneath the shadow of the grass it is hard to part. 
On the sixteenth day of the third month at dawn the Shosho reached Toba, where was the 
country residence of the late Dainagon, called the Suhama mansion. On coming to the mansion 
they found it all ruinous, the fence without a roof and the doors gone from the gate. In the garden 
there was no trace of anyone, and the moss had grown thick over everything. Walking round 
beside the pond, the spring breeze of Aki-no-yama was rippling its surface with white waves, the 
purple duck and the white sea gull swimming hither and thither. When could they cease weeping 
and longing for him who had made it all ? 

The mansion still stood, but the entrance was broken in and the shutters and doors had 
disappeared. The Shosho could do nothing but fondly linger over everything associated with his 
father, referring to him in words such as these : " Here it was that the Dainagon did so and so ; 
here is the gate by 

[p- 13°] 

which he used to enter ; that is the tree that he himself planted." It was the sixth day of the third 
month, and some flowers were still remaining in bloom; the willow, the plum, the peach, and the 
apricot, recognizing the season by their flowering twig: " Though their former master was gone, 
yet the flowers forget not the spring." The Shosho, standing beneath the blossom.; murmured to 
himself the ancient verses: 

" Peach and apricot cannot record the seasons that vanish 
There is no smoke to be seen; was it lined here of old. " 
"Ah, if the flowers could speak that grow in the home 
childhood ; 
Would I not ask them to tell all they remembered of you ?" 

Yasuyori too, on hearing this was affected by melancholy feelings and could not but moisten his 
black sleeves with tears. They wished to stay there much longer and, loath to leave, they 
remained until the evening: as it grew dark the moonbeams, as is their wont in ruined houses, fell 
through the ancient eaves and flooded the mouldering chambers with light. Even when the dawn 
began to break on the mountains they did not haste hasten homewards, but as he could not 
remain there for ever, the Shosho sent for the palanquin, since it had not waited for them, and 
reluctantly left the Suhama mansion in tears, going on towards Kyoto rejoicing and sorrowing by 
turns. A palanquin, had also come to meet Yasuyori Nyudo, but being unwilling to part from his 
companion yet, he did not use it, but getting into the back of the Shosho's vehicle, went with him 
as far as Shichijo Kawara, where their ways divided, but still they did not wish to part. Those 

who spend half a day together under the cherry-blossoms, friends who look at the moon together 
for an evening, travellers who stand under the same tree out of a sudden shower until it is over, 
all these feel regret at parting ; how much more those who have lived a life of misery in the same 
island, on the same ship and in the same storms ; since they have the same Karma must not their 
relation in the former life have been most deep? 

[p- 131] 

The Shosho's mother, who was living at Ryozen, had come the day before to the house of the 
Saisho to await her son, and when she but caught sight of him as he entered, in her emotion at 
seeing him alive, she covered her face and lay prostrate. His wife too, who had been in the flower 
of her beauty when he left, had become so emaciated with anxiety about him that he hardly 
thought her the same person, while the black hair of his nurse Rokujo had become snow-white. 
His child, who was three years old at the time of his exile, had now grown old enough to bind his 
hair. Seeing another child of three beside him, the Shosho enquired who it might be, but Rokujo 
could only falter: " Ah, that one indeed.... " when she was overcome by tears. Then the Shosho 
remembered with sorrow that his wife had been about to give birth when he was exiled and that 
this must be the child that she had brought up safely. The Shosho then visited the Ho-o as he had 
formerly been accustomed to do, and was promoted to the office of Saisho-no-Chujo. Yasuyori 
Nyudo retired to a country seat that he had at Sorinji on Higashi-yama and there lived quietly. 
His sentiments he thus expressed: 

" Thickly the moss has grown on the eaves of the roof of 

my home place; 

Through the opened chinks filter the beams of the moon." 

And so, living a secluded life, he pondered on his former unhappy days, and diverted himself by 
writing a work called ' Hobutsu-shu ' or 'Treasury.' 



Thus two of the exiles of Kikaigashima were recalled and returned to the capital, and now only 
one was left, a pitiful guardian of the isle. Now Shunkwan Sozu had a servant called Ario whom 
he had taken pity on and brought up from hi childhood. This Ario, hearing that the exiles of 
Kikaigashima were returning to the capital, had gone as far as Toba to meet 

[p- 132] 

his master, and not seeing him had enquired and been told that, as his crime was most heinous, he 
alone had been left behind on the island. Grief-stricken at the news, he took to frequenting 
Rokuhara, and as he did not hear that a pardon was likely to be granted, he went to the daughter 
of the Sozu where she was living in retirement and said : " This time he has been left behind and 
has not come back ; now I must go anyhow to the island and find out how he is faring: so I pray 
you write me a letter that I may take it." The lady was overjoyed at this and immediately wrote 
as he had suggested. He would have wished to take leave of his parents openly, but fearing they 
would not agree, he went off without telling anyone. As the China ships used to sail on the fourth 
or fifth month, thinking that to set out in the summer would be too late, he started from Kyoto 
at the end of the third month, and, after suffering a hard sea passage, arrived at last in Satsuma 
Bay. At the port whence he tried to cross over to the island, however, he was suspected and 
trapped and search but, nothing daunted, he secreted the letter he was carrying his top knot and 
in the end managed to get a passage in a merchant ship and reach the island. He had heard some 
slight account of it in Kyoto, but it was nothing to what he actually found. No ricefields, no 
gardens, no houses, no village. There were some inhabitants, but he could not understand their 
speech, and thus when he went to enquire of them: " Where is Shunkwan Sozu, the Shugyo of 
Hosshoji, who has been exiled to this place? " whether they understood the words ' Hosshoji ' or ' 
Shugyo,' or not, they answered nothing, but only shook their heads. There was however one who 
knew that there had been three men on the island and that two of them had gone back to the 
capital, leaving one behind who wandered about hither and thither as though beside himself, but 
lately he had not been seen. On hearing this Ario plunged deep into the uncertain mountain paths, 
climbing the peaks and descending into the valleys. Losing the track in the mists, he could not 
find his way until the golden sunset found him still on the hills and 

[p- 133] 

there he lay down and slept, but never once did he see the figure of his master. Then, not finding 
him on the mountains, he searched along the shore, but there was none who answered his cries 
but the sea gulls, whose footprints he saw on the sands or the chidori that flocked on the beach. 
But one morning he saw a figure creeping along by the rocks on the shore, searching for drift 
wood and thorns, emaciated as a dragon fly, looking like a priest whose hair had grown long and 
bristling up on his head. Over his skinny wrinkled frame a few rags were hanging, whether of silk 
or cotton could not be discerned. In one hand he had some 'arame,' and in the other a fish that 
someone had given him. He was trying to walk, but could scarcely get along and staggered like 
one drunken. Ario had seen many beggars in Kyoto, but never yet had he seen one like this. " All 

the Asuras hol dwell by the ocean; the Asuras and the Three Evil Things hil dwell in the depths 
of the mountains and by the ocean; " say the Buddhist Sutras, and he thought for an instant that 
he had unwittingly entered the Gaki-do fPreta hil -world]. But as he approached he wondered if 
even such a creature might perchance know something of his master, and going up to him 
repeated the question that he had put to the islanders the day before: " Can you tell me where I 
can find Shunkwan Sozu the Shugyo of Hosshoji?" The servant did not recognise his master, but 
how could Shunkwan forget Ario? And crying out " Herel here he is," the things that he was 
carrying fell from his grasp and he sank down senseless on the sand. And thus it was that Ario 
found his master. Then taking his dying master on his knees Ario cried: " Alas] after having 
braved the rough seas and come so far, it is of no avail. Thus to find my master in such distress! " 
As he thus lamented in 


tears, the Sozu, coming to himself and sitting up, said: "Indeed you are beyond praise thus to dare 
the dangers of the sea and come so far a journey. Day and night I have never for a moment ceased 
to think of home, and the faces of my dear ones were ever before me both in dreams and in 
illusions. Since I have become so ill and weak I cannot tell dream from reality. Even now I 
wonder if your coming is not a dream. If it be indeed a dream, what shall I do when I awaken?" 
"Indeed it is real," replied Ario, " but when I see your condition, it seems a miracle that you can 
have lived to see me." "Not , only so," answered the Sozu, "but last year, when they cam to fetch 
the Shosho and the Hangwan Nyudo, I scarcely refrained from dying by my own hand. Foolishly I 
relied on the consoling words of the faithless Shosho that he would send someone hither when he 
arrived at Kyoto, but though not willing to live in this island there is no food; so, while I had the 
strength, I used to go up into the mountains and collect the sulphur that is found there. This I 
would barter for food with the merchants who come from time to time from Kyushu, but 
growing gradually weaker, I became unable to do so, and row when the weather is fine. I can but 
mange to creep out to the beach and beg a little fish from the fishermen, or, when the tide is out, 
pick up some shell fish or edible sea weed. Thus holding on to my dew like existence by the 
moss of the sea, I lave managed to keep alive in wretchedness until now; and I wonder 'what 
reason there is for me to continue longer in this fleeting world? But let us go to my house, for 
there are many things I wish to say." Then Ario, thinking it strange that one in such a state should 
possess a house, took him on his back and went towards a place that the Sozu pointed out. It was 
in the midst of a pine wood, a hut made with bamboos for pillars and bundles of reeds for cross- 
beams, thickly covered inside and out with pine-needless: too frail it seemed to keep off rain and 
wind. How strange a place is this for one who of late was Bursar of Hosshoji, and had eighty 
manors in his charge, who had in 


his gate houses four or five hundred servants and retainers at his beck and call! Indeed there are 
various kinds of Karma that which reacts in the present life, that which reacts in the next life, and 
that which will continue for many lives. This Sozu had all his life been occupied with nothing but 
the business of great temples and the affairs of Buddha, but while thus professing the Way of 
Buddha, having committed a shameless crime, the result of this Karma fell upon him thus quickly 
in this world. 

The Sozu had now perceived that Ario was no apparition and enquired; "Last year when they 

came for the Shosho and the Hangwan there were no tidings for me; have you also no letters 
from anyone?" Ario, choked with sobs, pressed his face to the ground and for some time could 
answer nothing. Then raising himself again, restraining his tears he replied: "After my lord went to 
Nishi Hachijo the Nyudo's officials came and confiscated all our property, and after arresting all 
the retainers they examined them with respect to the revolt and then put them all to death. Our 
lady fled with her youngest daughter and went into retirement on Mount Kurama. I alone went 
sometimes to see them and found them ever in a sorrowful state. The child, as she missed you so 
much, would always embarrass me by asking: "Please take me to Kikaigashima." But in the second 
month, being taken with small pox, she died. Our lady mistress, unable to bear this added blow, 
then sank into melancholy and took to her bed, and on the second day of the third month she 
also departed this life. Only the elder daughter is now living safely in retirement with her aunt at 
Nara, and it is from her that I have brought this letter." The Sozu opened and read it and therein 
was written all that Ario had said, to which was added: " Ah 1 why is it that when three were 
exiled two have returned and one only is left, and so far you have not come back ? Alas 1 high or 
low there is none so useless as a woman ; if I had been a man I would have come to the island 
whither you have gone. Pray come back again 

[p. 136] 

soon with this youth. "Ah," said Shunkwan, "see, Ario, the pathetic simplicity of this girl, writing 
that I should soon come back with you. If I had been free to please myself should I have stayed 
three years in such a place? She must now be about twelve years old; how will such a simple 
child be able to marry? Perchance she may be able to keep herself by serving in some great 
household," and he burst into tears afresh. How does this remind us of the saying: "Even a wise 
parent goes astray in considering his own children." 

"Since I came to this island," he continued, "as there was no calendar I have had no knowledge of 
the days and months only by the blossoming and falling of the flowers do I know that three 
springs and autumns have passed, and the voice of the cicada alone tells me that wheat harvest is 
over and summer is come. The piling up of the snow tells me that it is winter ; by the waxing and 
waning of the moon I perceive that thirty days have gone by and by counting on my fingers I 
know that my little boy will be six this year. Has he too preceded me to the other world? When I 
went out that fateful day to Nishi Hachijo, he wanted me to take him with me, and to console 
him I said I would soon be back. It seems indeed but yesterday. When I think of all these things 
the future is nothing to to me. The relation of parent and child, husband and wife is not for this 
world only; now it is only about my daughter that I am anxious, and if she be alive she may 
continue to live, even though it be in wretchedness. But as for me, if I continue to live thus the 
sight of my misery must pain you greatly." 

So from this time he steadfastly refused all food and earnestly gave himself up to invoking Amida 
and saying the death-prayers, and on the twenty-third day from the coming of Ario, the Sozu 
expired in his hut at the age of thirty-seven. Ario, clasping the lifeless body, looked up to heaven 
and cast himself on the ground, weeping unrestrainedly: "Ah, how gladly would I follow you to 
the other world, but for my young mistress's sake who is left behind, and because there is no 
other to 


pray for my master's happiness in the after life, I must continue to live and pray that he may 
attain enlightenment. So without changing his resting place, breaking down the hut and heaping 
up dry pine branches and reeds upon it, he lighted the pyre, and the smoke ascended heavy with 
brine. Then, the cremation being finished, he gathered up the whitened bones and, hanging them 
round his neck, awaited the coming of a merchant ship and returned to Kyushu. From thence 
returning home he sought out the place where the Sozu's daughter was dwelling and related 
everything in detail from beginning to end. "Very much I had hoped to have brought you a 
letter," he said "and your father thought much about it, but in that island there was neither 
inkstone nor paper, so that it was not possible to write one: we live not only in this world but 
throughout many worlds to come, and in another world in the far future we may hear his voice 
and see his face, so let us earnestly pray that he may receive enlightenment." Thus he spake, but 
ere his young mistress had heard him to the end she fell forward on her face and wept bitterly. 
Though but twelve years old she straightway became a nun and lived a holy life in the Hokkeji at 
Nara, praying for the happiness of her parents in the hereafter. 

Ario, taking with him the bones of Shunkwan Sozu, went up to Mt. Koya and deposited them 
before the inmost shrine called Oku-no-in where Kobo Daishi sleeps. Then, becoming a priest at 
Renge-dani, he made a pilgrimage seven times round the whole country, saying prayers for his 
master in the next world. Now all these miseries accumulated to bring a terrible end on the 
Heike house. 



On the twelfth day of the fifth month at noon a mighty whirlwind blew through the midst of the 
capital and many 


houses were overturned; the wind started from Naka-no-Mikado Kyogoku and blew across to the 
south-west, tearing the roofs off the gate-houses of the mansions and carrying them away to a 
distance of from four or five to ten cho. Rafters and beams and pillars flew about in the air, and 
the wooden shingles from the roofs blew about everywhere like leaves in the wind. The mighty 
roaring of it was such that even the wind of Karma I33I that blows people to Hell could not be 
greater. Not only were houses destroyed but many people lost their lives, and cattle without 
number were killed. This was no ordinary occurrence, so that divination was necessary and the 
Official Soothsayers proceeded to make it. "Within a hundred days, a minister in receipt of great 
emoluments must look at himself, beside which there will be a crisis in the Empire, and the 
Throne and the Law of Buddha will decline: wars will also follow one on another:" So the Official 
Soothsayers and Court Diviners both decided unanimously. 



In the summer of the same year Komatsu Dono, feeling melancholy and distressed about these 
and other matters, made a pilgrimage to Kumano, and spent the whole night before the Shojoden 
of the main shrine, calmly making his offerings and humbly praying thus: "My father the Lay 
priest Chancellor, acting in a worthless and immoral fashion, is likely to trouble even the Imperial 
Throne. Seeing this, even the prosperity of this generation seems endangered. I, being the eldest 
son, continually tender him advice, but being a stupid fellow, he does not adopt my 
recommendations, so that it will be difficult to honour our ancestors and exalt the name of our 
family. At this time I find myself very incompetent, and thus I, unworthy des- 

[p- 139] 

cendant of my line, cannot act as a good minister and wise son to guide the fortunes of my house. 
Better were it to give up my name, and, forsaking all hopes in this life, to try to attain 
enlightenment in the future. But an ignorant and ordinary person like myself surely will go astray 
in making choice; so I cannot do as I would. Namu Gongen Kongo Doji, I beseech thee, let the 
prosperity of our line continue, that we may still be favoured with the gracious friendship of our 
Sovereign, and that the evil mind of my father may be softened, and that the Empire may be 
peaceful in our days. But if our house is to be prosperous in this one generation only, and shame is 
to fall on our posterity, then I pray thee cut short even now the life of Shigemori and deliver him 
from the wheel of sorrow I34I in the life to come. I look to thy mystic aid in both these petitions." 
And as he prayed earnestly thus, a light as of a lamp issued from the body of the minister and 
then suddenly disappeared as though extinguished, and though there were many who saw it, yet 
for fear none said anything about it. When the minister returned to Kyoto and while he was 
crossing the Iwata-gawa his eldest son Gon-no-suke Koremori and some other Courtiers, who 
were wearing a violet coloured under-dress beneath their white hemp costumes, it being the 
hottest time of summer, for some reason or other went into the water and were sporting there, so 
that the violet showed through their wet upper garments and it looked like a single garment of 
mourning colour. Chikugo-no-kami, seeing this, called out: "A dress that suggests mourning is 
very ill-omened; I pray you haste and change it quickly." But Shigemori replied: "There is no need 
to change it; it is a sign that my petition is to be fulfilled." And from Iwata-gawa he sent offerings 
to Kumano with a thankful heart. The others present thought it strange, but he did not deign to 
enlighten them at all. (But these Courtiers, strange to say, soon had to put on the 


colour in real earnest.) After Shigemori returned to Kyoto, a few days passed and he became ill. 
Thinking that the Gongen had soon accepted his petition, he applied no remedy, neither did he 
pray for recovery. About that time a famous physician came from the Sung Court of China and 
was staying in Japan. Now the Nyudo was at this time stopping at his country mansion at 
Fukuhara, and sent Etchu Zenji Moritoshi as a messenger to Shigemori, saying: "I hear that your 

ailment is severe: as a very distinguished physician has lately come from the Sung Court, it is a 
fortunate thing, so pray call him and try his skill." On hearing this, the minister, having himself 
raised in bed, called Moritoshi into his presence and said: "With regard to this offer of the 
physician, I am much obliged to you, but as you doubtless know well, that even such a wise ruler 
as Daigo Tenno, in the era of Enki, should have allowed a foreign physiognomist to be introduced 
into the capital is to be considered a wise Emperor's mistake and a shame to our country ever 
after. Far greater disgrace then would it be to our land that a common person like Shigemori 
should bring a foreign physician into the capital. When Koso of Kan, in administering his country, 
struck down Keifu of Wai-nan with the three foot sword that he carried, and was struck and 
wounded by a stray arrow, the Empress Dowager Ro called a skilful physician who said: "To heal 
this wound fifty pounds of gold will be required." Then Koso answered; " As I have been strong 
in defending myself, I have fought many battles and received many wounds; they have not 
disabled me for my time has not come. Our lives are in the hands of Heaven, and even if one had 
such a famous physician as Henjaku hsl . it would be no use." But as he did not wish to appear to 
grudge the money, he gave fifty pounds of gold to the doctor but did not receive the treatment. 
This is a precedent with which I am quite satisfied. I, Shigemori, though of no account, rose to be 
numbered among those of the 


first three ranks, and further was advanced to be one of the three great ministers. h6l My destiny 
therefore is in the hands of Heaven why should I question Heaven's will and hanker after 
physicians? If my illness is destined to be fatal, of what use is a physician? But if it is not so 
destined, without a physician's help I shall recover. Without availing himself of the skill of 
Kiba. hyl Shaka Muni declared his entry into Nirvana by the Batsu-dai river. [3 81 Since this was a 
disease that was destined to be fatal it was to show that it could not be cured. Only Buddha can 
heal completely, Kiba can but alleviate sickness. If a fatal disease can be cured by physicians, why 
then did Shaka die? It is quite clear that medicine is of no value for a fatal disease. But my body is 
not the body of a Buddha, so that distinguished doctors or even Kiba are not necessary. If we 
judge by the Four Books, [39I how can even the best of an hundred remedies save this vile mortal 
body of ours? Is it not also written in the Five Volumes J40J: "Though one can cure ordinary 
diseases, how can one cure that which is caused by the Karma of a "previous existence?" 
Moreover if I should live as the result of this physician's treatment, it would seem as though there 
were no skilful doctor in Japan. If his treatment is unavailing, it is not necessary for me to see him; 
and if one holding the position of one of the first three ministers of Japan comes to ask an 
interview of a wealthy foreign guest, it is both a disgrace to the country and also a degradation of 
his morality. So that though I may lose my life, yet I must not for a moment think of disgracing 
my country." Having heard all these words, Moritoshi weeping returned to Fukuhara and 
repeated everything to Kiyomori. "From of old time" said the Nyudo, "I have never heard of a 


minister who would consider the disgrace of his country, and neither did I think there was one in 
these degenerate days. Shigemori is too good a minister: I fear that he may probably die." So he 
hastily returned to the capital. 

On the twenty-eighth day of the seventh month, Shigemori became a priest, taking the name Jo- 
ren, and on the first day of the eighth month, having said the death prayers, he passed away at the 

age of forty three. In such a prosperous time how sad an end indeed. Though the Lay priest 
Chancellor would try to tear paper across [41I the grain, yet Shigemori was always there t to 
smooth things over ; so that the Empire remained peaceful until this time. But now all classes of 
society were lamenting and wondering what would happen in times to come. But tae, friends of 
the former Udaisho Munemori were rejoicing greatly, thinking that now the control of everything 
would fall into leis hands. Parents love for their children is often a cause of sadness to them, but it 
is doubly sad when they die before their parent.. He was the pillar of his house and the wisest 
man of his a e ; the loss of his kindness and affection and the decline of his house cannot be too 
much deplored. The Empire lost a good minister, and his house had to lament the loss of his 
counsel in the field. Moreover he was a man versed in letters, loyal to the Emperor, talented and 
accomplished and a man of virtuous conversation. 



The character of this minister being thus remarkable, may it not be that he could forsee the 
future? For before his death, on the seventh day of the fourth month, he had a dream. He seemed 
to be walking a long distance on the shore when he saw a large torii near him; wondering what 
torii it was, someone said that it was that of Kasuga Daimyojin. 


Then a crowd of people came thronging to the place, and one of them held up the head of a big 
priest on the pint of a sword. Shigemori asked whose head it was. "It is the head of the Dajo 
Nyudo Dono of the Heike," was the reply, "for the enormity of his sins the Daimyo-jin of this 
shrine has ordered it to be taken." Then he awoke. "Ah," he thought, "our house has subdued the 
enemies of the Emperor many times since Hogen and Heiji and, being greatly rewarded, has come 
to, produce a Dajo-daijin who is grandfather to the Emperor. In our clan more than sixty men 
have received great advancement, and in twenty years there is none in all the Empire who can 
compare with us in rank and office, and now, through the manifold evil deeds of the Nyudo, the 
fall of our family draws nigh;" and he wept bitterly. Just at this time there was a great knocking at 
the door of his apartment. On enquiring who was there, they told him that Seno-no-Taro 
Kaneyasu, having just had a very extraordinary dream, in spite of the lateness of the hour, begged 
leave to relate it to him, and also requested that everyone should be sent from the apartment. 
When all had left him alone, Shigemori gave him audience, and he related with full detail exactly 
the same dream as the Daijin himself had just had. Then, thought Shigemori, the god has revealed 
these things to Kaneyasu also. 

The next morning, as his eldest son Gon-no-suke-no-Shosho Koremori was preparing to go to the 
Palace of the Retired Emperor, his father called him and said: "For a parent to say such things is 
perhaps rather conceited, but you are a very clever son. Ho, there] serve the Shosho with a cup of 
sake!" Chikuga-no-kami Sadayoshi poured out a cup and offered it to the Shosho, but as he 
would not drink before his father, the Daijin drank three cups and afterwards the Shosho drank 
thrice. Then Shigemori ordered what he intended for the Shosho to be brought, and they brought 
a sword in a bag of red brocade. The Shosho, thinking that it was the sword called 


'Kogarasu,' [42I the famous heirloom of the Heike, looked greatly delighted, but how did his face 
fall when he saw that it was only the plain black sword worn at the funeral of a minister. Then 
his father said, weeping, "This is no mistake of Sadayoshi; it is the black sword without 
decoration to be worn at a minister's funeral. The Nyudo thought I should wear it to accompany 
him to the grave, but now, as I shall certainly die before him, I present it to you." The Shosho 
made no answer, but, retiring to his apartment in tears, he covered his face and lay down and did 

not go out that day. It was after this that Shigemori went to Kumano and soon after he returned 
was taken ill and died. Truly indeed he must have known. 


Now Shigemori was a minister who had a strong desire to destroy evil and encourage virtue, and 
therefore, deploring the coming doom of his house, in imitation of the forty-eight vows of Amida, 
he built forty-eight temples at the foot of Higashi-yama, and hung up forty-eight lanterns, one in 
each of them. On the fourteenth and fifteenth of every month they were lighted and prayers 
were offered, so that they looked like the brilliant effulgence of the polished mirrors that shine in 
the beauteous palaces of the Paradise of the Pure Land. Moreover two hundred and eighty-eight 
young and lovely maidens of noble birth were selected, six for each temple, and these were 
ordained as nuns, that on these two days of every month they might raise their voices in earnest 
and unceasing supplication. In truth it seemed as if the light of the Nyorai who comes to receive 
men shone on the earth, as if the rays of the All-Saving Buddha shone on the minister. On the 
fifteenth day there was a great 


supplication, and the minister himself walked in the midst of the procession. Turning to the west 
and joining his hands together he played thus: "Hail Amida Nyorai, Thou who guidest and leadest 
us to the Paradise of the West, save, we beseech thee, all men of the Three Worlds and Six 
Ways." When the people saw him thus going round and praying, their hearts were greatly 
touched, and those who heard of it shed tears of gratitude. Therefore Shigemori became known 
by the name of 'Toro-daijin' or 'Lantern Minister.' 


Now Shigemori wished to do many virtuous actions in this life and to have prayers said for his 
benefit in the world to come, but in Japan, however great merit a man may achieve, it is doubtful 
whether he will have a succession of descendants to pray for him in the future. He thought 
therefore that he would acquire merit in another country to ensure prayers being said for him 
after death. So in the spring of Angen he summoned a certain ship captain from Kyushu named 
Myoden and received him in private audience, giving him the following commands: "You are a 
man of proved honesty; here are three thousand ryo of gold, and of these I present you with five 
hundred : do you proceed to the Court of Sung and give a thousand ryo to the priests of Ikuozan 
I43I, and the remaining two thousand to the Emperor of Sung, that estates may be bought and 
presented to Ikuozan, and they may say prayers for Shigemori in the life to come." 

Myoken, taking charge of the gold, and braving the angry sea for countless miles, at last arrived in 
the Sung country and met Bussho Zenji Toku-ko, the prior of Ikuozan, to whom he related all his 
business. The priest, rejoicing greatly, received 

[p. 146] 

the thousand ryo and handed it over to the priests of Ikuozan, while he presented another two 
thousand to the Emperor. When he reported to the Emperor the words of Komatsu Dono, His 
Majesty was struck with admiration, and ordered five hundred cho of land to be presented to 
Ikuozan, and it is said that an inscription praying for a happy rebirth in the future existence for 
the Minister of Japan, Taira-no- Ason Shigemori Ko, is still in existence at that place at the 
present day. After the death of Komatsu Dono, the Nyudo fell into a state of melancholy, and 
hastening to Fukuhara, went into retirement there. 


At the hour of the Dog (8 p.m.) on the seventh day of the eleventh month of the same year, the 
earth quaked very greatly for a long time, and the chief diviner Abe-no-Yasuchika hurried to the 
Palace and gave his verdict as follows: "According to the books of divination this earthquake is a 
very serious portent. Consulting the book called Kongikyo, one of the three books of divination, 
we find that it is not a matter of years, months or days; it points to a very near and urgent affair," 
and he lifted up his voice and wept. The Imperial Messenger too was greatly perturbed, and 
when it was reported to the Emperor, His Majesty was extremely alarmed. But many of the 
younger nobles and courtiers burst out laughing when they heard of it, saying: "What is this 
useless Yasuchika weeping about? Is it likely that anything much is going to happen now?" This 
Yasuchika, however, had received the traditions of five generations, and was deeply learned in 
astronomy, and as he had always explained the omens accurately up till now without making any 
mistakes, he was considered a divinely inspired prophet. On one occasion in a thunderstorm the 
sleeve of his 'kariginu' had been scorched by a flash of lightning, without any injury to 

[p- M7] 

his person ; in whatever age a sign that he was specially favoured by Heaven. 

On the fourteenth day the Lay priest Chancellor, for some reason or other, saw fit to return to 
the capital with a long train of several thousand horsemen, thereby throwing the city into a 
tumult, though there was no special reason for it. Someone started the rumour that Kiyomori had 
come up to Kyoto with hostile intentions against the Imperial Court. The Kwampaku Motofusa 
also hurried to Court, perhaps in consequence of some secret information. "It seems that the 
Nyudo has come up to the capital this time to try and overthrow me, and I know not what 
affliction I may not have to endure;" said the Kwampaku to his Imperial Master. "Whatever may 
happen to you," replied the Emperor, "I shall feel as though the same misfortune had befallen 
me:" and the august tears coursed down his Dragon Countenance; we speak it with awe. Though 
the government of the country was transacted by the Emperor and the Kwampaku, yet none 
knew what would happen; the matter was as the will of Tensho daijin or Kasuga Daimyojin. On 
the fifteenth day there was no doubt that Kiyomori intended hostilities against the Court, and the 
Retired Emperor in great consternation sent Joken Hoin, son of the late Shinsei Dainagon, to 
Rokuhara with this message: "This year the Imperial Family has been troubled and people are 
unsettled; the people also are restless and disquieted, all of which causes us much grief. You who 
have charge of everything, and can entirely pacify the country, do not do so, but come up and 
make a commotion in the city and menace the Imperial Court ; what is the meaning of it?" Hoin 
proceeded to Nishi Hachijo, but the Nyudo would not receive him, and having waited there from 
morning till evening, as he could not obtain an audience, thinking it was no use, he transmitted 
the Imperial Message to Gendaiyu-no-Hangwan Suesada and went to take his leave, when the 

Nyudo ordered him to be called back, and on his returning, thus addressed him: "Ya-a, priest 
Hoin. Is what I say untrue? The death of 

[ P . 148] 

Shigemori is a great blow to our house, and you may guess how deep is my grief. During the 
disturbances that followed the era of Hogen, when the peace of the Emperor was disturbed, I 
only administered affairs, while Shigemori also humbly exerted himself to the utmost and 
pacified the Imperial wrath. Moreover, whether in emergencies or in ordinary matters of 
administration, a more meritorious minister would have been difficult to find. Then consider the 
history of former ages, how the Emperor Taiso of China, when his minister Gicho died, was 
excessively grieved and wrote this inscription on his tomb, so great was his sorrow: "Inso of old 
dreamed that he had a virtuous minister, but I, when I awake know that I have lost a wise one." 
In our country also, if I mistake not, when Akiyori no-Mimbu-no-Kyo died, the late Retired 
Emperor was excessively grieved, and postponing his visit to Hachiman, refrained from going out. 
All the Emperors, in fact, when their ministers died, mourned for them, but now, when 
Shigemori has not yet been dead fifty days, the Emperor goes to the shrine of Hachiman and to 
other places, not showing the least sign of regret. Even if you forget Shigemori's loyal conduct, 
why do you not sympathise with my grief ? How can you forget Shigemori's loyalty? If both 
father and son thus lose the favour of the Emperor, both are put to shame. This is one thing: then, 
though the Emperor promised not to change his demeanour either to my sons or grandsons, as 
soon as Shigemori is dead, he takes back the domain of Echizen which he had held. For what 
misconduct was this done? Then again, when the office of Chunagon was vacant and the Nii 
Chusho Motomichi earnestly desired it, I recommended him for it, but no notice was taken and 
the office was given to the son of the Kwampaku. However unreasonable I may be, why is it that 
he was thus favoured ? It is much to be regretted that the Emperor should thus pass over one so 
suitable in rank and birth in so arbitrary a manner. Then again, when the followers and retainers 
of the Shin-Dainagon Narichika-no-Kyo met together in Shishigatani to foment a rebellion, that 

[p- M9] 

not done on their own initiative; it was in accordance with the wish of the Retired Emperor, and 
though it is a strange thing to say, though the Emperor ought not to forget the services of my 
house for seven generations, yet he planned to take away the little remaining life that is left to me 
in my old age of three score years and ten. It would seem then to be difficult for my descendants 
to continue to serve the Court in after generations. Thus bereft of my son in my old age, I am like 
a withered tree that has no branches. What then is the use of my wasting my time in such a case? 
What will happen you yourself can guess." As he spoke thus vehemently, alternating between 
anger and tears, Hoin was moved both to pity and fear, and the cold sweat stood out upon him. 
No one could have made any answer at such a time. Beside which he remembered that one of his 
own retainers had taken part in the conspiracy of Shishigatani, and was apprehensive lest he 
might be arrested on that account, feeling rather like one who strokes a dragon's beard or treads 
on a lion's tail ; yet though he felt so terrified he showed nothing in his demeanour, but only 
replied: "Indeed your services have been very great, and no doubt your anger is not without 
reason, but surely both as regards rank and emoluments you have no cause for dissatisfaction. 
Moreover your great merits are always remembered by the Imperial House. But to say that the 
revolt of the Courtiers was by the design of the Emperor, is it not but a treasonable slander ? But 

to believe the ear and to doubt the eye is always the bad habit of the world at large. To believe 
the words of people of no account, putting aside the Imperial favour and opposing the Emperor is, 
whether secret or revealed, a very terrible thing. Heaven is wide and immeasureable in extent and 
not otherwise is the mind of the Emperor that the inferior should be disobedient to his superior, 
how can such conduct befit a minister? Pray consider this well. This is the purport of what I have 
to say." All those who stood by, on hearing this reply, exclaimed: "How bold thus calmly to 
answer the Nyudo when he is in such 

[p. 150] 

a rage." And there was none who did not praise him greatly. 


Hoin, returning from Rokuhara, reported the speech of the Nyudo to the Ho-o, and His Majesty, 
thinking there was much right on his side, said nothing further. On the sixteenth day the Nyudo 
carried out his intentions by depriving the Kwampaku and forty-three other Courtiers of their 
offices. The Kwampaku Motofusa, on hearing in addition that he was transferred to the office of 
Dazai-no-Sotsu and was to depart to Kyushu, remarking that in an evil world like this it did not 
matter what happened, retired to his house at Furukawa near Toba and became a monk, his age 
being thirty-five. "He was an unclouded mirror of courtesy," said everyone, and regret at his loss 
was extreme. As when one sentenced to exile becomes a monk, they do not send him to the 
province decided on, though it had been decided to send him to Hyuga at first, since he became a 
monk he was sent to a place called Yuazama near Kofu in Bizen. (Former examples of the exile 
of ministers are the Sadaijin Soga no Akae, Udaijin Toyonari, tile Sadaijin Uona and the Udaijin 
SugawaraJ44l, I mention him with great respect for he is the present Tenjin of Kitano, besides the 
Sadaijin Komei Ko and the Naidai-jin Fujiwara-no-Ishu Ko. Six in all, but this was the first 
example of the exile of a Sessho Kampaku.) The son of the Naka Dono Nii Chujo Motomichi, 
son-in-law of the Nyudo, then became Daijin and Kwampaku. In the time of the late Enyu-in, on 
the first of the eleventh month of Tenroku, Ichijo-no-Sessho Kentoku Ko died, and his younger 
brother Horikawa Kwampaku Chugi Ko was then Juni-i Chunagon and another younger brother 
Ho-ko-in Dai Nyudo Kaneie Ko was Dainagon-no Udaisho: of 

[p- 151] 

these two Chugi Ko had been passed over by his brother in rank and office, but when he in turn 
stepped over his brother and became Sho-ni-i Naidaijin and obtained a private intimation of this 
from the Emperor, everyone said it was the most extraordinary promotion they had heard of. But 
a much more extraordinary case was it when one who was only Ni-i-no-Chujo and not a 
Councillor of State, passing over the office of Dainagon ^sl, became Daijin and Sessho in one leap. 
Fugenji Dono (Motomichi) was the first one who ever did so. The Councillors (ShokefJ, the 
Ministers (Saisho), the Chief Secretary and the officials under them were all dumbfounded. The 
Dajo-daijin Moronaga was deprived of office and exiled to the eastern provinces. As the 
reflection of the guilt of his father the evil Sadaijin of Hogen, he with three of his brothers went 
into exile. His elder brother the Udaisho Kanenaga, the younger brother Hidari-no-Chujo 
Takanaga, and Hancho Zenji did not live to return to the capital but died at their place of 
banishment, but Moronaga, after nine years spent in Tosa, was recalled in the eighth month of the 
second year of Chokwan, restored to his original rank, and the following year raised to Shoni-i 
(Upper Second Rank). In the tenth month of the first year of Nin-an he rose from being 
Chunagon to the office of Gon Dainagon: the office of Dainagon not being vacant at this time, he 
was added as supernumerary. It was the first time there had been six Dainagons at the same time. 
Also promotion from former Chunagon to Gon Dainagon, with the exception of Uji-no-Dai 

nagon Takakuni-no-Kyo who afterwards became Yamashina-no-daijin Minori Ko, was never 
known before. He was skilled in music and very accomplished in other arts, so his progress was 
rapid until at last he became Dajo-daijin. Then as the result of some fault in a previous existence 
he was again sent into exile. In former times in Hogen he was sent to Tosa by the southern 

[p- 152] 

sea, and now in Jisho he was again, it seemed, to go to Owari beyond the eastern boundary. But 
being guiltless as before, and as a man of taste, only wishing to gaze at the moon in his place of 
banishment, the Daijin made light of it. Recollecting how of old Haku-raku-ten, when guest of 
the Crown Prince of China, used to wander about the bay of Jinyo, in like manner he leisurely 
passed his days, gazing at the distant sea scenery of the bay of Narumi and viewing the clear 
moon, whistling to the sea breeze and chanting songs to the accompaniment of his biwa. Once he 
made a pilgrimage to the shrine of Atsuta Myojin in that province, and in the evening performed 
a recitation on his biwa to please the deity. It was a place where there were none but unlettered 
people living, and there were none with any elegant taste; but the village people, young and old, 
girls, fishermen and farmers, came out with bent head and intent ear to listen, though they knew 
nothing of time or rhythm. So it is said that, when Koba played the biwa, the fish would dance in 
the water, and when Kuko sang, the dust on the beams would skip about. When a genius 
performs, then emotion is invoked spontaneously. So the hair of his audience stood on end at the 
wonder of his playing, and as it gradually grew later, while he sung a piece called 'Fuko' or 
'Fragrance', the flowers poured forth their scent, and when singing of the 'Flowing Water' the 
moon shed its pure clear white light over the scene; until at last the god unable to contain his 
feelings any longer, caused the sanctuary to tremble greatly. Whereat the Daijin shed tears of joy 
saying: "If it had not been for the evil conduct of the Heike, I should not have seen such a blessed 

Azetsu-no-Dainagon Sukekata-no-Kyo and his son Ukone-no-Shosho Sanuki-no-kami Minamoto- 
no-Suketoki were both deprived of their office, as also were the three officials Gondaiyu Uhyoe 
no kami Fujiwara Mitsuyoshi, Counsellor of the Empress Dowager, Okura-no-Kyo, Ukyo-no- 
Daiyu, Iyo-no-kami, Takashima-no-Yasutsune, and Kurando-no-Sashoben, Chugu-no-Gondaishin, 
Fujiwara-no-Motochika, Azetsu-no-Dainagon Sukekata 

[p- 153] 

his son Ukonye-no-Shosho and his grandson U-shosho Masakata were moreover expelled the 
same day from the capital. Thereupon the Dainagon remarked: "The three worlds are wide, but 
there in no room for my five foot length; though life is short it is difficult to live for a single day. 
If you go out of the Ninefold Imperial Court by night, you have got to go beyond the Eightfold 
Clouds." So, going by Oeyama and the way of Ikuno, first he came to a place called Murakumo in 
Tamba where he stayed some time, then at last going on from thence he is said to have reached 


Now among the retainers of the former Kwanpaku Mototusa was a samurai named Ko-no-Taiyu 
Hangwan Tonari, who was not favourable to the Heike. Hearing that he was to be arrested by 
Rokuhara, he took his son Ko Saernon-no-jo Ienari with him and fled to the south country. 
Ascending Inariyama and dismounting from their horses, father and son took counsel together 
saying: "We had hoped to flee to the east and find refuge with the former Uhyoe-no-suke 
Yoritomo, but he has been excommunicated and is himself in jeopardy, and there hardly seems 
any other place in Nippon that is not a Heike fief. As therefore we cannot escape, and it is a 
disgrace to let our ancestral home fall into strange hands, let us go back again, and when the 
Rokuhara retainers come, we will set fire to the house and cut open our bellies and die in the 
flames." So they went back again to their mansion at Kawarasaka and, just as they had expected, 
Gendaiyu-no-Hangwan Suesada and Settsu-no-Hangwan Morisumi carne against them with three 
hundred horsemen, shouting their warcry exultantly. Then Ko-no-Taiyu Hangwan came forth on 
to the verandah and shouting in a loud voice: "See that you tell this at Rokuraral" set fire to the 
house, and cutting himself open with his son, both perished in the flaming pile. 

[p- 154] 

Now the reason why all these misfortunes fell on so many people was the rivalry for the office of 
Chunagon between the former Kwampaku's son Sammi-no-Chujo Moroka and Ni-i-no-Chujo 
Motomichi who became Kwampaku. How ever much the former Kwampaku suffered for it did 
not so much matter, but how about the justice of the forty three others? And the Nyudo did not 
stop at these things only, so that people said an evil spirit had entered into him and he had lost all 
self-control, so that the city was troubled thereat. In spite of the title of Sutoku Tenno being 
given to Sanuki-no-in, and Fujiwara-no-Yorinaga, the evil Sadaijin, being promoted in rank and 
office, still there was no tranquillity. 

Now there was a certain former Sashoben Yukitaka, the eldest son of Nakayama-no-Chunagon 
Akitoki-no-Kyo, who had been made Shoben in the time of the Retired Emperor Nijo, and was a 
very energetic official, but for the last ten years or so had been retired from his office and was 
living in such straitened circumstances that he had not sufficient food or clothing. To him the 
Nyudo sent a message to make haste and repair to Rokuhara, as he had some matter to discuss 
with him. Yukitaka on hearing this was greatly perturbed, thinking that, in spite of his having 
held no office or appeared in society for some ten years, someone had slandered him to Kiyomori 
with intent to bring about his complete destruction. His wife and children, also terror stricken, 
uttered loud lamentations; however, as repeated messages came from Rokuhara, Yukitaka, seeing 
that he must obey, borrowed a car from someone and set out. Quite contrary to his supposition, 
the Nyudo immediately came forth and received him cordially; "Your noble father," said he, "did 
me various services, and I will not be negligent toward his son. I have felt very sorry for your long 

exclusion from office, but in face of the Ho-o's decisions I had no power to remedy it: but now I 
bid you resume your duties and will give orders about your new office." On his return home his 
family received him, weeping for joy, as one that has returned from the 

[p- 155] 

dead. Afterwards, by the hand of Gendaiyu-no-Hangwan Suesada, estates and fiefs were granted 
him as emolument, and as a convenience besides, he was presented with a hundred pieces of silk, 
a hundred ryo of gold, and abundance of rice. As accessories of his office he was also granted a 
liberal allowance of servants, ox-carts and drivers. Yukitaka was so overcome with joy that he 
hardly knew where he was going or what he was doing, it was so like a dream. On the 
seventeenth day he was made Kurando of the fifth rank and again resumed his former office of 
Sashoben. He was then fifty-one years of age, but appeared to have suddenly become young again. 
It was however a transient prosperity. 


On the twentieth day of the same month the forces of the Heike surrounded the Palace of the 
Ho-o, and all the ladies-in-waiting and male and female servants, thinking that they would burn 
the Palace and put all in it to death as Nobuyori had done when he attacked the Sanjo Palace in 
Heiji, forgetting all but their own safety, fled in wild panic without even waiting to garb 
themselves. Then the former Udaisho, Munemori-no-Kyo, gave orders to bring the Imperial Car 
and to make all haste, whereat the Ho-o, much perturbed, exclaimed: "Am I to be banished to 
some far country or distant island like Narichika or Shunkwan? I am not aware of having done 
anything wrong except perhaps that since the Emperor is so young I have occasionally given 
advice on affairs of state; if however this is not desirable, I will do so no more in future." 
Munemori, shedding tears of sympathy, replied: "Far be it from me to do such a thing; it is only 
my father's wish that while things are in this unsettled state, Your Majesty should go and stay for 
a while at the North Place at Toba." "Then," replied the Ho-o, "please deign to attend me 
thither." But Munemori, fearing his father's anger, 

[ P . 156] 

did not accompany His Majesty, his conduct in this respect being greatly inferior to that of his 
late brother Shigemori, who the year before in such a case had at his own risk prevented the Ho- 
o suffering so great a dishonour and secured his safety until now. But now there was none to 
reprove the Nyudo, and so this affair had come to pass. There seemed little hope for the future, 
and the Ho-o thinking of these things wept bitterly. Then, entering his Car, unattended by any of 
his nobles or Courtiers, with only a few guards of low rank and an attendant priest named 
Kongyo, he set out. At the back of the Imperial Car rode a nun, who had been the Ho-o's milk 
nurse, called Kino-Ni-i. As the Car passed along Shichijo toward the west and then along Shujaku 
toward the south, the bystanders exclaimed: "Ah! the Ho-o is going into exile;" and there were 
none among the common people who did not moisten their sleeves with their tears at the sight. 

Everyone said that the earthquake on the seventh day was a portent of this, and that it was 
because the Earth Deity who responds even to a thousand million depths had raged furiously. 
When the Ho-o had come to the Toba Palace there was not a single retainer to wait on him; but 
Daizen-no-Taiyu Nobunari, having somehow managed to escape notice, came and presented 
himself before His Majesty. "I think it is likely that I shall be put to death soon, so I wish to have 
the Holy Water prepared. How do you think? " asked the Ho-o. On hearing this Nobunari, who 
had been extremely anxious all that morning, was dumfounded, but girding up the sleeves of his 
'kariginu,' and pouring water into a cauldron, he broke down a small fence for firewood, and 
splitting up some small beams of the corridor, heated the water in due form. 

Then Joken Hoin went to the Nyudo at Nishi Hachijo and urged that, the Ho-o having gone to 
the Toba Palace the night before, it was too severe treatment that he should have not a single 
person in attendance, so he himself wished to go and attend on His Majesty. The Nyudo replied 
that it as he was a 

[p- 157] 

trustworthy priest he might go ; whereupon Joken was exceedingly delighted and immediately 
hastened to the Toba Palace. Alighting from his car at the entrance, as soon as he entered within 
the gate, he heard the voice of the Ho-o chanting the Sutras, and it had indeed a very melancholy 
sound. When Hoin hastily entered he saw the Ho-o sitting and shedding tears upon the Sutra that 
he was reading, and in his grief at the sight, he too pressed the sleeve of his white costume to his 
eyes and thus came into his presence weeping. Only the nun was in attendance. " Ah, Hoin," said 
the Ho-o," since you had breakfast yesterday morning in the Hojuji den neither last night nor this 
morning have you taken any food. Neither have you slept at all through the night : indeed I fear 
some danger to your life." Hoin, controlling his feelings, replied : " Everything in this world has an 
end; the Heike have held the Empire in their hands for twenty years, but their evil deeds have 
gone on piling up and verily their end too will come. And surely Tenshodaijin and Sho 
Hachimangu will not forget you, while there is also the deity of Hiyoshi on whom you rely, and 
who will surely vouchsafe his sure protection. The oft read eight books of the Hokke Sutra will 
guard you, and then once more the rule will return into your Imperial Power and all the offenders 
will vanish away like foam on the water." The Ho-o, on hearing these words was somewhat 

The Emperor was much grieved at the exile of his Kwampaku and the loss of so many of his high 
officials, but when he heard of the banishment of the Ho-o to the Toba Palace, he would take no 
food, and becoming sick, he entered his august sleeping apartment and would not come forth. 
The ladies in waiting and the Imperial Consorts were at their wits' end to know what to do. After 
the Ho-o had gone to the Toba Palace special worship was held in the Imperial Palace; a dais of 
mo r- [4 61 

[ P . 158] 

tar was made in the Seiryoden where the Emperor worshipped Ise-no-Daijingu every night. These 
prayers were offered for the Ho-o. The Retired Emperor Nijo was a wise ruler, but since in his 
opinion an Emperor [4 7I has neither father nor mother, he was always opposing the Ho-o and did 
not carry on the Imperial Line successfully. Therefore his son the Retired Emperor Rokujo, after 
having ascended the Throne, unfortunately died on the fourteenth day of the seventh month of 
the third year of Angen at the age of thirteen. 


In a hundred volumes we find the saying: "Filial piety is the most important thing. A wise 
monarch governs the Empire by filial piety." Therefore we see that Tokyo revered his old and 
feeble mother and Gushun respected his obstinate father. It is very blessed when the Imperial 
Will follows the example of such wise and pious rulers. About this time the Emperor secretly 
sent this message to the Ho-o at the Tosa Palace : "In such an age even though one live in the 
Palace what can one do? Perhaps it is best to retire into the mountains and become a recluse as 
was done by Uda Tenno in the era of Kwampei and by Kwazan Tenno in former times." To this 
the Ho-o replied " Do not think of such a thing. If you remain as you are, it is one source of 
reliance for me, but if you depart from the Palace, on what can I rely? At any rate wait and see 
what my fate will be." The Emperor, on receiving this letter, pressed it to his face and wept 

As the sages have said: "The Emperor is the ship [4 81; the subjects are the water. The water may 
make the ship float well, or again the water may overturn the ship. The subjects may protect the 
Emperor, or again the subjects may overthrow the 

[p- 159] 

Emperor." In Hogen and Heiji the Lay-priest Chancellor protected the Emperor, but now in 
Angen and Jisho he sets him at naught just as the classic says. 

The Grand Chancellor Omiya ^ol, the Naidaijin Sanjo kol , the Dainagon Hamuro kil, and the 
Chunagon Nakayama |s2l were all dead, and Seirai ^l and Shinhanjj^ only were left; but these 
two, thinking it was no use remaining at Court in such an age, even if they became Dainagon, 
retired from the world and became monks while still young. Mimbu-no-Kyo Nyudo Shinhan 
having the hoar frosts of Ohara for company, and Saisho Nyudo Seirai living among the mists of 
Koya, both had no thought for anything but attaining enlightenment in the next existence. In 
ancient days in China too there were man who hid themselves in the clouds of Shozan lssl and 
cleansed their hearts under the moon of Eisen lsSl , so what wonder was it that these deeply 
learned and pure minded men should forsake so troublesome a world ? 

When the Saisho Nyudo among the recesses of Mt. Koya heard that the Emperor also wished to 
retire from the world, he exclaimed: " Ah, well it was that I have so soon become a recluse ; for 
though to hear of it while here in seclusion is evil enough, how great a grief would it have been to 
have heard it while in attendance on His Majesty. The revolts of Hogen and Heiji were indeed 
evil, but now the age has become more degenerate, and such extraordinary things as this have 
come to pass. What will happen to the Empire in future no one can tell. Would that I could 
ascend above the clouds or hide myself deep in the 

[p. 160] 

farthest mountains." Verily it could not be considered a world in which anyone with any sense 
would live. 

On the twenty first day the Tendai Zasshu Kakukwai Ho Shinno realized his oft expressed wish 
and retired, the former Zasshu Mei un Dai Sojo being reinstated in his place. The Lay-priest 
Chancellor, though he had thus recklessly overturned and scattered everything, seeing that his 
daughter was the Chugu and his soil in law the Kwampaku, now felt quite easy in his mind about 
everything, and went off to Fukuhara declaring that the administration was entirely according to 
the wishes of the Emperor. On the twenty third day the former Udaisho Munenori-no-Kyo 
hastened to the Palace and reported thus to the Emperor ; whereupon His Majesty said : "If I had 
received authority from the Ho-o according to custom I might do something, but as things are, do 
you take counsel with the Kwampaku and do as you like about the administration:" and he paid 
no further attention to the matter. 

Now the winter was half over and the Ho-o was in the Seinan Detached Palace. The wind of 
Yazan lsyl sounded shrilly, and the moon shone bright on the frozen garden. The snow fell and 
piled up on the courtyard, but no one's footsteps were seen upon it. The ice thickened on the 
ponds, but no flocks of birds resorted thither. The boom of the bell of the great temple 
resounded in his ears like that of Iaiji kSl in China; the white snow on the western hills reminded 
him of the scene of the peak of Koro. In the cold frosty evening the clink of the fuller's mallet 
was borne faintly to his pillow; while at dawn he was awakened by the slow wheels creaking on 
the ice outside the gate. The travellers passing along the highway, the sight of the galloping 
warhorses, the pomp and movement of this fleeting world, how vain it seems to one who 
understands. The guards before the 

[ P . 161] 

Palace gates who kept watch day and night, by what connexion in a former existence was it that 
they were now brought into this relation with him? What an awe inspiring thought it was. Thus 
on every side the Ho-o found things that gave him pain. So during his exile here he could not 
help occupying his thoughts with the memory of the various excursions and pilgrimages and 
festivals he had enjoyed, and the recollection of them would bring tears to his eyes; And so things 
went on and the fourth year of Jisho began. 


[I] Kujaku Kyo. Sk. Mayura Raja Sutra, the Sutra of the Peacock King, one of the former incarnations of 
S'akya Muni. 

[2] Shiyu. said to be the name of a certain band of rebels in the time of the Emperor Ko-Tei. 

[3] Lady Ri, favourite of Bu-Tei. 

[4] Branch of blossoming pear, a quotation from the verse of the famous poet Haku-raku-ten. (Po-chu-i). 

[5] Matsuyama-no-Sayohime. referring to the famous story of Sayohime, wife of Otomo, who went up to 

the top of Matsuura-yama to wave her husband back when he was starting for Shinra (Korea) in the thirty 

seventh year of Kinmei Tenno. 

[6] Sori and Sokuri. two brothers in ancient India who were hated by their stepmother and exposed on this 


[7] Ikedono. The mansion of the Chunagon Yorimori. 

[8] Kwampaku. Fujiwara Motofusa. 

[9] Courtiers. Keisho Unkaku. Keisho, all above the third rank; Unkaku, all above the fifth, 

[10] Taiken-mon-in, the Empress of Toba Tenno. 

[II] Seven Buddhas. Sk. Saptatathagata purva pranidhana visecha vistara. 

[12] Godaikoguzo. Hokaikoguzo, Kongokoguzo, Hokokoguzo, Rengekokuzo Gyoyokoguzo. Koguzo, Sk. 

Akasagarva Bodhisattva. 

[13] Six Kwannon. Senju Kwannon, Sei Kwannon, Bato Kwannon. Ju-Ichi-men Kwannon, Juntei Kwannon, 

Nyoi-yin Kwannon. 

[14] Ichiji Kinrin. refers to Dai Nichi Nyorai. 

[15] Rokuji Karin refers to the Six Kwannon. 

[16] Monju. Sk, Manjusri, the Buddha of Wisdom in Japan. 

[17] Fugen. Samantabhadra. All these Sutras seem to be of the Dharani or Mantra School, used as magic 


[18] Five Wondrous Kings. Fudo Myo-o, Kosanse Myo-o, Gunchari Pasha Myo-o, Taiitoku Myo-o, Kongo 

Yasha Myo-o. 

[19] To-ho-saku and Hoshi Two Chinese sages who knew the secret of eternal life and youth. 

[20] Yomogi. Artemisia vulgaris or mugwort. This was done to ward off evil influences. 

[21] Koshiki. Cf Sansom's note on Tsurezure Gusa, p. 46. Explaining the custom the Tsurezure Gusa says. 

"In the case of a birth, in the Imperial Family the dropping of a 'koshiki is not a fixed custom but is 

a :harm used when the afterbirth is obstructed. When it is not obstructed it is not done. The custom came 

from the common people and has no authority. The 'koshiki used are brought from the village of Ohara. 

In pictures treasured from ancient times one sees the dropping of these rice vessels shown when a birth 

has taken place among the common people." The charm originates in the assonance of HE koshiki, rice 

box, and nS^Rl, koshi-ki pain in the loins. The name of Ohara (also=great belly) is also significant. 

[22] North Side The quarter of the women's apartments.Cf. Kita-no-kata. 

[23] Two Worlds. The Kongo kai and the Daizo kai, The world of Ideas or the Diamond World and the 
Hidden World, the peculiar doctrines of the Shingon sect. Vairochana, the great deity of Shingon, was 
identified with Ama terasu, whose daughter Ichiki shima hime was the goddess of Itsukushima. 
[24] Daishi Kobo Daishi, the Founder of Koya. 

[25] An Imperial speech is like sweat, i.e. can only go forth and cannot return or be revoked, 

[26] Shakujo. a staff ornamented with metal rings carried by priests. 

[27] Three Buddhas. Amida. Kwannon and Seishi. 

[28] Three Worlds. Present. Past, and Future. 

[29] Ten Quarters. N.S. E.W. NW, NF, SIB', SE. and Upper and Lower Quarters. 

[30] The Imperial Capital is a place, etc. A quotation from Haku-raku-ten (Po-Chu-F) 

[31] Tablet for marking the hours. Used for announcing to the Emperor the time of day, which was 

calculated by a water-clock. 



At the beginning of the New Year of Jisho, since Kiyomori would not give his permission and the 
Ho-o feared to gainsay him, the usual visits of ceremony were not made at the Toba Palace 
during the first three days, with the exception of Sakuramachi Chunagon Shigenori-no-Kyo, son 
of the late Shonagon Nyudo Shinsei, and his younger brother Sakyo-no-daiyu Naganori, who were 
allowed to go. 

On the twentieth day were held the ceremonies of the first investiture of the Crown Prince with 
the 'hakama' and the first serving of fish to him; it was a very auspicious occasion but the Ho-o 
only heard about it by rumour in the Toba Palace. On the twenty-first day of the second month 
the Emperor, spite of his not having any particular illness, was removed from the Throne and the 
Crown Prince suceeded him. This also showed how the Nyudo did as he pleased in everything, 
and everyone excitedly chorussed: "Now are the palmy days of the Heike." The Imperial Gem 
and the Sacred Sword were taken to the Naijidokoro and the Court Nobles all assembled at the 
camp of the Imperial Guard, everything being done according to ancient precedent, while the 
Sadaijin also went out to the camp. On hearing of the resignation of the Emperor, all those who 
understood the circumstances could not refrain from weeping. When an Emperor in the Retired 
Palace meditates on having resigned the Throne to the Heir of his own accord, the future seems 
dark and wretched, but when as now his wishes are not consulted, but he is forced to resign, his 
state of mind must be truly pitiable. 

The Sacred Treasures were handed over and taken to the 

[p. 163] 

Gosho Palace, where the New Emperor was to reside. When the call of the watchman who gave 
the fire alarm was heard no more in the Kan in Palace of Takakura Tenno, and Palace Guards no 
longer kept watch and ward, but all was silent and still, melancholy fell upon the older Courtiers 
even amidst the rejoicings at the Imperial Accession, and they were affected even to tears. The 
New Emperor was but three years old this year, and people whispered to each other: "Ah, he too 
will retire sometime;" but as Taira Dainagon Tokitada-no-Kyo was the husband of the Imperial 
wetnurse, Sotsu no suke, who was there who could depose this one ? 

In foreign countries we find Sei-o of Shu aged three years, and Haku-tei of Shin aged two. In our 
country Konoe-in was three years old and Rokujo-in two, all of them in long clothes and none 
able to adjust his own dress, but carried in the arms of the Kwanpaku or nursed by their mother 
they went through the Accession Ceremony. Afterwards Kosho, Emperor of Kan, succeeded to 
the Throne at the age of a hundred days. These are the precedents for ascending the Throne both 
in China and Japan, but the learned men of the time grumbled together saying: "Ah, how terrible! 
Say nothing about it; are these precedents good ones, I wonder?" Since the Crown Prince had 
come to the Throne the Nyudo and and his wife were now grandfather and grandfather to the 

Emperor, and, having obtained an Imperial Decree for the three ranks of Empress, Dowager 
Empress and Grand Dowager Empress, he distributed rank and emolument, received and directed 
the ministers in attendance, had ladies-in waiting dressed in flower-embroidered robes, and in fact 
deported himself exactly like a Retired Emperor. With the exception of the O-Nyudo of Hokoin, 
Kaneie Ko, this was the first time that one who had become a priest had received the Decree of 
the Three Ranks. 

During the first decade of the first month, the Emperor Takakura made a pilgrimage to 
Itsukushima. As it is the custom for an Emperor who has relinquished the Throne first of all to 

[p. 164] 

Hachiman, Kamo and Kasuga before going elsewhere, people thought it very strange that His 
Majesty should go to the far distant shrine of Itsukushima. Some say that the Retired Emperor 
Shirakawa went to Kumano and that Go-Shirakawa went to Hiyoshi, but I know not. The reason 
that the Emperor went to Itsukushima was because he had an important petition to make there, 
and moreover as it was the shrine most highly venerated by the Heike, on the one hand he would 
comply with their wishes, while on the other there was the example of the Ho-o shut up in the 
Toba Palace before his eyes, so that no doubt he went to pray that the heart of the Nyudo might 
be softened. 

Now this thing caused Hiezan to be angry, for they argued that if the Emperor did not first visit 
Hachiman, Kamo and Kasuga on his abdication, he certainly ought to come to their temples, and 
wondered why he should go to such a distant shrine as Itsukushima in Aki. "Let us go down to 
the capital with our sacred emblem and prevent it;" they clamoured. So the Emperor postponed 
his visit for a while until Kiyomori managed to pacify the indignation of Hieizan. Then on the 
seventeenth day His Majesty started out on his pilgrimage to Itsukushima by visiting the Ni-i 
Dono, the wife of the Nyudo, at her residence at Hachijo Omiya. That night the festival of the 
Deity of Itsukushima began. The Kwampaku Motomichi presented a car of Chinese style with 
changes of horses to the Emperor. On the next day, being the eighteenth, His Majesty went to the 
mansion of the Nyudo and in the evening, summoning the former Udaisho Munenori-no-Kyo, 
said to him: "On the occasion of my going to Itsukushima I wish to go to the Toba Palace to visit 
the Ho-o, do you think I ought to inform the Nyudo or not ?" Munemori replying that he 
thought it did not matter, the Emperor asked him to go that night to the Toba Palace and inform 
the Ho-o of his intention, and Munemori forthwith hastened thither. The Ho-o, on hearing the 
news was highly delighted, thinking it too good to be true. So on the next day, 

[ P . 165] 

the nineteenth, Omiya no Dainagon Takasue no Kyo arrived while it was yet dark, and the 
Imperial Progress to Itsukushima was at last begun from the Nyudo's residence at Nishi Hachijo. 
The third month was not yet half over, but the moon of the dawning day shone half obscured 
and beclouded in mist, and the cry of the wild geese flying back from Echizen and Echigo 
sounded melancholy in their ears. While it was yet dark they approached the Toba Palace, and 
the Emperor, descending from his car before the gate, entered to find only a deserted mansion in 
the shade of the thick trees: a dismal scene indeed. 

The spring was almost over and the summer foliage was appearing, the cherry blossoms were 
fading on the boughs and the song of the 'uguisu' was growing old. His Majesty thought how he 
had visited the Ho-o at his Palace of Hojujiden on the sixth day of the first month of last year, 
when the musicians had greeted him with sweet refrains, while the nobles were all in waiting, 
and with the serried ranks of Guards the Ho-o's own Courtiers had opened the curtained gate, 
and the attendants of the Kamon spread matting on the ground, the whole ceremony going 
smoothly and without fault: to day it all seemed like a dream. 

Sakuramachi Chunagon Shigemori-no-Kyo now advanced and announced the Imperial visit. The 
Ho-o immediately came forth into the vestibule of his sleeping apartment to await His Majesty. 
The Emperor was twenty years old this year and his countenance was bright like the moon of 
dawn. His figure also was very beautiful. He was exceedingly like his mother, the late Kenshun- 
mon-in, and the Ho-o, being reminded of his departed Consort, could not refrain from tears. 
Then the two Retired Emperors seated themselves close together and, so that their conversation 
might be private, the old nun alone remained in the Imperial Presence. So Their Majesties 
remained long in converse until the sun rose high in the heavens, when the Emperor Takakura 
took leave of his Imperial Father and embarked in his ship at Kusatsu in Tuba. The Emperor felt 
deeply grieved to 

[ P . 166] 

see the silent and lonely condition of the Ho-o's Detached Palace, and the Ho-o on his part felt 
very uneasy when he thought of the Imperial journey and the perilous voyage over the waves. 
Indeed His Majesty's putting aside the claims of the shrines of Ise, Hachiman and Kamo and 
making this pilgrimage to far-off Aki was most praiseworthy; how can it be without acceptance 
before the gods? Doubtless the August Petition will be granted. 



On the twenty-eighth day of the same month the Emperor arrived at Itsukushima and was lodged 
in the mansion of the Naiji most beloved by the Lay-priest Chancellor, spending the days there 
while the Sutras were chanted and Bugaku dances were performed. At the consummation of the 
vow the hierophant Kogen Sojo, ascending the high seat, beat on a gong and cried out the words 
of introduction in a loud voice thus: "How awe-inspiring is the will of our Lord, leaving the Nine 
Gated Palace to brave the eightfold sea-road to this distant shore!" And both the Emperor and all 
his subjects shed tears of joy. Then they went round worshipping at all the shrines in succession, 
beginning with the great shrine of Amida, Fugen and MirokujjJ and the lesser one of TamontenJYl; 
going round the mountain five-cho from the great shrine they went to the water-fall shrine of 
Nyo-i-rin Kwannon. Then Koken Sojo fastened to the pillar of the Haiden the following verse: 

"As with the snow-white cord of the cascade that falleth 

from heaven. 
So does His Majesty here bind his appeal to the God. " 

[ P . 167] 

The shrine official Saiki-no-Kagehiro was promoted to the Lower Fifth Rank, and the Kokushi 
Fujiwara-no-Aritsuna to the Lower Fourth, and at the same time permitted to attend the Court 
of the Retired Emperor. The Zasshu Sonei was made Hogen. Thus it was hoped that by the 
favour of the god the anger of the Nyudo would be calmed. 

On the twenty-ninth day the ship was again made ready and His Majesty started on his 
homeward journey, but as the wind and the waves rose somewhat, they rowed the ship back 
again and stopped that day at a place called Gi-no-ura in Itsukushima. Then the Emperor ordered 
someone to make a poem expressing his regret at parting from the Daimyojin, the god of the 
island, and Takafusa-no-Shosho composed the following: 

"Full of regret at parting, again we return to this haven; 
Surely these white waves are as a blessing divine. " 

About midnight the wind dropped and the sea became calm, so they rowed away again. That day 
they reached the harbour of Shikina in Bingo. 

Here there was a mansion built in the period Oho by the Kokushi Fujiwara Tamenari to 
accommodate the Ho-o when he had journeyed that way, and Kiyomori he had it repaired for the 
Emperor's use, but His Majesty did not go there. This being the first of the month of the Hare 

(the fourth month) it was the day of the ceremony of Changing Clothes at the Court, and 
remembering this they all spoke of the affairs of the Capital, and as they were singing snatches of 
song they caught sight of a deep purple wistaria abloom on a pine branch on the cliff, and the 
Emperor, noticing it, ordered someone to go and bring it to him. Thereupon Omiya-no-Dainagon 
Takasue-no-Kyo, respectfully receiving the command, bade Sashisho Nakaham-no-Yasusada, who 
was rowing in a small boat in front of His Majesty, break it off and bring it. When the Emperor 
looked at the wistaria as it grew on the pine branch, he was much affected by 

[ P . 168] 

emotion and asked for a poem to be composed on it, when Takasue-no-Kyo made the following 

"Full ten centuries long may the life of our Lord be extended; 
Ev'n as the Fuji flower clings to the evergreen pine. " 

On the second day they reached Kojima in Bizen. On the fifth day the weather became clear and 
the sea calm, so they put forth again, the Imperial vessel going first and the accompanying ships 
rowing after. Breasting the head seas that burst in foam like clouds and smoke, the same day they 
reached the port of Yamada in Harima, and from thence His Majesty entered his palanquin and 
proceeded to Fukuhara. The sixth day was spent there in visiting various sights, and His Majesty 
went and inspected the country seat of Ike-no-Chunagon Yorimori at Arata. On the next day the 
Emperor conferred promotions in rank on Kiyomori's family, to wit, the Nyudo's adopted son 
Tamba-no-kami Kiyokuni was given the Upper Fourth Rank, Lower Grade, and his grandson 
Echizen-no-Shosho the Lower Fourth Rank, Upper Grade. The same day they came to Terai. On 
the eighth day all the Courtiers and Nobles came to Toba to meet the Emperor. On the return 
journey His Majesty did not go to visit the Ho-o at the Toba Palace, but proceeded straight to the 
Nyudo's mansion at Nishi Hachijo. On the twenty-third day of the same month, the Accession 
Ceremony of the New Emperor took place. It should have been held in the Daikyoku-den, but as 
it had been destroyed by fire a year ago it was not yet rebuilt. Therefore a Council of Courtiers 
was held, and it was suggested that it might be held in the Dajokwan, but Kujo Dono said that 
the Dajokwan was only a place that might be called a record office in the case of an ordinary 
person's house, and that it ought to be held in the Shishin-den. It was held therefore in the 
Shishin-den. Formerly on the eleventh month of the fourth year of Koho, the Accession 
Ceremony of Reizei-in was held in the Shishin-den because the 

[p. 169] 

Emperor caught cold and could not go the Daikyoku-den. As in the case of Go Sanjo-in in Enkyu, 
people said that this Accession Ceremony ought to have been held in the Dajokwan, but no one 
could do anything in the face of the opinion of Kujo Dono. It was called the Accession of the 
Crown Prince, it is true, but it was the Empress Ken-rei-mon-in who went from the Koki-den to 
the Ninju-den and sat on the Throne. All the Heike family were present; only the retainers of the 
late Komatsu Dono, who were in retirement owing to the death of their lord the year before, did 
not appear. 



Now Kurando-no-Saemon-no-Gonnosuke Sadanaga wrote his congratulations on the Accession 
Ceremony having been completed without any untoward circumstance, on ten sheets of paper, 
and sent it to Hachijo Ni-i Dono, the wife of the Nyudo, who rejoiced greatly with her face 
wreathed in smiles. Still, though it was a very brilliant and auspicious occasion, most people were 
far from being pleased. 

Now the second son of the Ho-o, Prince Mochihito, whose mother was the daughter of Kaga 
Dainagon Suenari-no-Kyo, was living at the Takakura Palace in Sanjo and so came to be known as 
Prince Takakura. His 'Gempuku' ceremony had been held secretly when he was fifteen years old, 
on the fifteenth day of the eleventh month of the first year of Ei-man, at the Omiya Palace at 
Konoe Kawara. He was known for the elegance of his calligraphy and his brilliant intellect, and 
might have been Crown Prince and ascended the Throne, but owing to the enmity of the late 
Ken-shun-mnn-in he had to live thus secluded. In spring time he would divert himself by writing 
poems as he strolled out under the cherry trees, and in autumn by making exquisite melodies on 
his flute at the moon viewing banquets. While he thus spending his days, having then reached the 
age of 

[p. 170] 

thirty, in the fourth year of Jisho, Gensammi Nyudo Yorimasa, who was then living at Konoe 
Kawara, came secretly to his Palace one evening and spoke his mind to him boldly, thus: "Does 
your Highness not think it a very miserable thing that you, who are of direct descent in the forty- 
eighth age from Tensho Daijin, and the seventy- eighth generation from Jimmu Tenno, and might 
become Crown Prince and ascend the throne, should thus live till the age of thirty in obscurity in 
this Palace? Quickly raise a revolt and overthrow the Heikel Will it not be a most worthy and 
filial act to relieve the anxiety of the Retired Emperor, repining at his perpetual confinement in 
the Toba Palace, and to ascend the Throne yourself as Emperor? If your Highness should deign to 
consider this plan, and issue a Royal Order for its execution, all the many members of the Genji 
family who are living in the various provinces will gladly flock to your side. In Kyoto, "he 
continued," are the son of Dewano Zenji Mitsunobu, Iga-no-kami Mitsumoto, Dewa-no- 
Hangwan Mitsunaga, Dewa-no-Kurando Mitsushige, and Dewa-no-Kwanja Mitsuyoshi. In 
Kumano, Juro Yoshimori, youngest son of the late Rokujo Hangwan Tameyoshi is in hiding. In 
Settsu there is Tada-no-Kurando Yukitsuna, but as he betrayed his allegiance after having taken 
part in the plot of the Shin Dainagon Narichika-no-Kyo, he is not to be relied on, but his younger 
brother Tada-no-Jiro Tomozane, together with Teshima-no-Kwanja Takayori, and Ota-no-Taro 
Yorimoto will certainly come. In Kawachi are Musashi-no-Goro-no-Kami Nyudo Yoshimoto, 
governor of the district of Ishikawa, and his son Ishikawa-no-Hangwan Dai Yoshikane. In Yamato, 
the sons of Uno-no-Shichiro Chikaharu, Taro Ariharu, Jiro Kiyoharu, Saburo Nariharu, and Shiro 
Yoshiharu. In Omi, Yamamoto, Kashiwagi and Nishigori, in Mino and Owari, Yamada-no-jiro 
Shigehiro, Kawabeno Taro Shigenao, Izumi-no-Taro Shigemitsu, Urano-no-Shiro Shigeto, Ajiki- 
no-Jiro Shigeyori and his son Taro Shigesuke, Kido-no-Saburo Shigenaga, Kaiden-no-Hangwan 

Dai Shigekuni, Yashima-no-Senjo Shigetaka, and his son Taro Shigeyuki. In 
[p- 171] 

Kai, Hemmi-no-Kwanja Yoshikiyo, and his son Taro Kiyomitsu, Takeda-no-Taro Nobuyoshi, 
Kaganu-no-Jiro Tomitsu, and Kojiro Nagamitsu of the same house; Ichijo-no-Jiro Tadayori, 
Itagaki-no-Saburo Kanenobu, Hemmi-no-Hyoye Ariyoshi, Takeda-no-Goro Nobumitsu, and 
Yasuda-no-Saburo Yoshisada. In Shinano, Ouchi-no-Taro Koreyoshi, Okada-no-Kwanja 
Chikayoshi, Hiraga-no-Kwanja Moriyoshi and his son Jiro Yoshinobu, Kiso-no-Kanja Yoshinaka, 
second son of the late Tatewaki-no-Senjo Yoshikata. In Izu, the former Uhyoye-no-Suke 
Yoritomo, in exile. In Hitachi, Shida-no-Saburo Senjo Yoshinori, Satake-no-Kwanja Masayoshi, 
and his sons Taro Tadayoshi, Saburo Yoshimune, Shiro Takayoshi, and Goro Yoshisue. In Mutsu, 
Kuro Hangwan Yoshitsune, youngest son of the late Sama-no-Kami Yoshitomo. All these are 
descendants of the Sixth Imperial Grandson, and the posterity of Tada-no-Shimpachi Mitsunaka. 
The two warrior families of Gen and Hei, whose only duty is to quell the enemies of the Throne, 
have till now been equal in power, but at the present time they are wide asunder as Heaven and 
Earth; indeed it is not too much to say that their relations are those of servant and master. The 
provinces are oppressed by the Governors and the fiefs are abused by the commissioners; people 
are harried in all matters and there is no peace. Consider carefully the state of things at present. 
Outwardly all submit, but inwardly there are none who do not dislike the Heike rule. If therefore 
Your Highness will agree to issue an Order, the Genji from every province will pour in night and 
day, and the destruction of the Heike will soon be completed. In that case, though I myself am an 
old man, I have many young sons and will bring them to fight against the Heike." The Prince was 
greatly perplexed to know what to do, so that for some time he did not consent. There was, 
however, a certain Shonagon Korenaga, grandson of Ako Maru Dainagon Munemichi-no-Kyo, and 
son of Bingo-no-Zenji Suemichi, who was famous for his skill in physiognomy, so that people 
called him 'Physiognomy Shonagon', and he came and visited the Prince. 

[p- 172] 

and told him that by his features he was predestined to ascend the Throne, and that therefore he 
ought not to abandon the attempt to attain his object. Gensammi Nyudo also kept on urging him, 
and suggesting that the plan was an inspiration of Tensho Daijin herself, so that at last he made 
up his mind to act Calling Shingu-no-Juro Yoshimori, he appointed him Kurando, and changing 
his name to Yukiie, sent him as bearer of his Royal Order to the Eastern Country. 

On the twenty-eighth day of the fourth month he left Kyoto and went first to Omi, and then to 
Mino and Owari to rouse the Genji residing there. On the eighteenth day of the fifth month, 
arriving at Hokujo Hiru-ga Kojima, he communicated his message to the former Uhyoye-no-Suke 
Dono who was in exile there; after which he went to the island of Shinda to his brother Shinda- 
no-Saburo Yoshimori, and then crossed over to the highlands of Kiso to warn his nephew Kisono 
Kwanja Yoshinaka. Now Tanso the Betto of Kumano somehow or other had got to know of the 
matter, and he was an official under great obligations to the Heike. "So Shingu-no-Jiro Yoshimori 
is out with a Royal Order from Prince Takakura to raise a revolt," said he, "then Nachi and 
Shingu are sure to take the side of the Genji: how can I, who have received such great benefits 
from the Heike, forsake them at such a time? I must surely draw bow in their defence before 
hastening to Kyoto to give all information." Whereupon he marched against Shingu with a 
thousand men fully armed. At Shingu were Torii-no-Hogen, Takabo-no-Hogen, and their samurai 

Ui, Suzuki, Mizuya and Kamenoko, and at Nachi Shugyo Hogen and his men, their whole force 
together numbering about fifteen hundred men. Shouting their warcry, both Genji and Heike 
drew their bows and the battle began. For three days it raged furiously, the arrows whizzing 
without cessation, and the humming arrows continuing their whirring, until at last Tanso, when 
most of his own retainers had been killed and himself wounded, barely escaped with his life and 
fled back lamenting to his shrine. 



Now the Ho-o was apprehensive lest he should share the fate of Narichika and Shunkwan and be 
banished to some distant province or remote island, but this did not come to pass, and the fourth 
year of Jisho found him still confined in the Toba Palace. Thus it happened that on the twelfth 
day of the fifth month of that year, at the hour of the Horse (12 noon) many weasels made a great 
noise by running about the Palace, and the Ho-o, wishing to consult a diviner about it, called 
Omi-no-kami Nakakane, who was then entitled Tsuru-no-Kurando, and ordered him to go to 
Abe-no- Yasuchika and ask him, after due consideration of the portent, to send a pronouncement 
on it. Nakakane, respectfully assenting, went to the residence of Yasuchika, but it happened that 
he was away at that time, and being informed that he was at Shirakawa, he proceeded thither, 
and gave him the mesage of the Ho-o, whereupon Yasuchika after a short time handed him the 
pronouncement he desired. Nakakane immediately hastened with it to the Toba Palace, but 
when he came to enter the gate, the guards on duty there would not admit him. As he knew the 
buildings very well however, he climbed over the wall and then creeping under the floor of the 
Palace, managed to insert Yasuchika's prognostication through a loose board in the Ho-o's room. 
When the Ho-o opened and read it, he found this oracle; "Within three days you will have cause 
both for rejoicing and lamentation." "In this condition," quoth His Majesty, "I may indeed rejoice, 
but what further misfortune can befall me, I wonder?" 

On the thirteenth day, owing to the continued petitions that the former Udaisho Munemori-no- 
Kyo made on behalf of the Ho-o, the Nyudo at last relented and ordered that His Majesty should 
be brought back to Kyoto from the Toba Palace and lodged in the Palace of Bifuku-mon-in at 
Hachijo Karasu Maru the cause of rejoicing that Yasuchika predicted 

[p- 174] 

within three days. Now just at this time Tanso, the Betto of Kumano, sent a courier to Kyoto 
with the report, of the rebellion of Prince Takakura, and Munemori was thrown into great 
consternation thereat. The Nyudo was at his residence at Fukuhara and when the news was sent 
to him, he flew into a great rage and ordered Prince Takakura to be immediately arrested and 
banished to Tosa. The carrying out of this order was entrusted to Nijo-no-Dainagon Sanefusa, 
with To-no-Ben Mitsumasa under him, the samurai under them being Gendaiyu-no-Hangwan 
Kanetsuna and Dewa-no-Hangwan Mitsunaga with three hundred fully armed men, and these 
proceeded at once to the Takakura Palace. This Gendaiyu Hangwan was the second son of 
Gensammi Nyudo, and the fact that he was included proved that the Heike did not yet know 
that his father was implicated in the plot. 



Now on the fifteenth evening of the fifth month, as Prince Takakura was gazing at the beauties of 
the moon in a cloudy sky, with-no-thought of anything that might happen, a messenger came 
post-haste from Gensammi Nyudo with a letter, which his foster brother Rokujo-no-Suke-no- 
Daiyu Munenobu at once brought to him. It ran thus: "The plot is already revealed, and you are 
to be banished to Tosa: the officials of the Kebiishi have orders to take you, so leave the Palace 
quickly and go to Miidera. I myself am shortly coming to the Capital." The Prince was dumb- 
founded at this news, and at a loss how to act, when one of his samurai who was always in 
attendance on him, Chohyoye-no-jo Hasebe Nobutsura by name, spoke out saying: "There is 
nothing difficult in that; it is easy to escape in woman's attire." This counsel seemed good, so the 
Prince let his hair loose, donned a female costume, and put on his head a wide straw hat such as 
the townswomen wear, while Rokujo-no-Suke-no-Daiyu 

[p- 175] 

Munenobu went with him to carry his umbrella, and a youth named Tsuru Maru accompanied 
them, carrying some articles in a bag on his head. Thus imitating the appearance of a young 
retainer escorting his mistress, they slipped out of the Palace toward the north. Coming to a 
rather wide ditch, the Prince leaped across it so lightly that some passers by remarked to one 
another: "How strange to see a woman jump a ditch like that." This made the fugitives quicken 
their pace and hurry on quickly, fearing to attract more notice. They left Chohyoye-no-Jo Hasebe 
Nobutsura behind as warden of the Palace, and he at once proceeded to hide the few women of 
the establishment who remained, and to put away everything unseemly that there might be, 
when he happened to notice his master's much prized flute called 'Koeda,' that the Prince had 
forgotten in his hurry and left it by his pillow in his own apartment, a treasure that he would 
wish to recover even if he had to come back for it. "Ah," exclaimed Nobutsura, "what a pity! It is 
my master's favourite flute." And running after them, he came up with them within five cho. The 
Prince, overjoyed at having it again, exclaimed: "When I die, see that you put this flute in my 
coffin." And then added: "Pray come along with us now." But Nobutsura replied: "When the 
officials come to the Palace they must not find it abandoned. Moreover everyone knows that I am 
in the Palace, and if they did not find me there to-night they would know that you had just now 
escaped, and that must not be. A samurai must live up to his reputation even in the smallest 
matters. So I will go back and deceive the officials; then I will eat my way out through them and 
rejoin my master." So he returned alone. That night be girded on under a light blue 'kariginu' a 
body armour, or 'Haramaki' of bright green colour that grew fainter towards the bottom, and an 
'Efu tachi,' and then, opening the great gate of the Palace that fronted on Sanjo and the smaller 
one that fronted on Takakura, he awaited the Heike officers. As he expected, about the hour of 

the Rat (12 p.m.). Gendaiyu-no-Hangwan 

[ P . 176] 

Kanetsuna and Deiva-no-Hangwan Mitsunaga, with about three hundred men, came riding up to 
the gate. Gendaiyuno Hangwan, knowing the circumstances, stayed outside the gate, but Dewano 
Hangwan rode through the gate and stopped in the courtyard, crying out with aloud voice: "The 
Prince's plot is already known; by order of the Betto of the Kebiishi we have now come to send 
him into exile to Tosa. I pray you come forth]" Then Nobutsura, standing above on the floor of 
the Palace, replied: "His Highness is not here: he has gone to visit some shrine. What is all this? 
Pray give a fuller explanation." "Why is he not here?" replied Dewa-no-Hangwan, "and where has 
he gone? Here, men, enter and search the Palace!" "Hoi" returned Nobutsuna, "what rudeness is 
this of an insolent official? To enter the gate on horseback is strange conduct indeed, but to order 
your men to search the Palace as well, what do you call such behaviour? I am Chohyoye-no-jo 
Hasebe Nobutsura. Come on at your perill" Then a strong and brave man named Kanetake, 
unsheathing his sword, glared at Nobutsuna and sprang up on to the floor of the Palace, seeing 
which fourteen or fifteen of his companions followed him. Then Nobutsura, stripping off his 
'kariginu,' drew his sword, which, though but a light Eifu-tachihl , was a blade of fine make and 
temper, and flourished it. His opponent carried a huge blade and a great halberd, but Nobutsura 
at once cut him down with his slender weapon so that he fell suddenly back into the courtyard as 
a leaf is blown down by a puff of wind. It was the fifteenth evening of the fifth month, and the 
moon shone out brightly in the rifts of the clouds. The Palace buildings were quite unknown to 
the Heike soldiers, whereas Nobutsura knew every inch of them, so he struck them down at his 
pleasure, now springing out on to the verandah to cleave one through, now driving another into a 
recess to cut him down, punctuating his blows with the fierce 

[p- 177] 

shouts of the swordsman. "How dare you treat thus the bearers of an official order?" exclaimed 
one of the intruders. "Who talks of official orders," returned Nobutsura springing back and setting 
his bent sword under his foot to straighten it, after which he again slew some fifteen or sixteen 
stout men at arms in the courtyard. But three inches had now been broken off his sword, so 
throwing it away, he felt for his dirk to cut open his belly. His dirk, however, had fallen from his 
belt in the fight, so opening the front gate he made to flee from the postern fronting on Takakura. 
One of the Heike warriors, however, sprang forward to intercept him with a huge halberd. 
Nobutsura attempted to jump over it, but missing his leap, the halberd caught between his legs 
so that he fell to the ground, when, bold as he was, he was overpowered by the weight of 
numbers and secured alive. Then bursting in, they searched the Palace, but finding that the Prince 
had escaped, they bound Nobutsura and took him away to Rokuhara. There Munemorino Kyo, 
standing on the verandah, had him brought into the courtyard beneath, and passed sentence; 
"Because you have attacked the officials of the Kebiishi, and paid-no-heed to a government order, 
and moreover have killed and wounded many of our men, you shall be tortured until you give 

full information, and then taken away to the river bed and beheaded." Then that bold and fearless 
warrior Nobutsura stood erect and laughed in Munemori's face. "So far I have paid-no-heed," said 
he, "to people who came spying round the Palace every night, thinking they were of no 
importance, but when at midnight two or three hundred armed men appeared, and on my 
enquiring what they wanted, replied that they had an official order, I remembered that I had 
constantly heard that bands of robbers and thieves and pirates of all kinds are accustomed to say 
that they are the train of a Courtier or that they have an official order, so I asked what official 
order it was, and attacked them at once: and if I had been in full armour and had a good heavy 
sword, not one of these precious officials should have 

[ P . 178] 

come back here alive. Moreover when the Prince my master will return I do not know, and if I 
knew, a samurai does not reveal what he has once determined to conceal, whatever torture he 
may be made to suffer." When he had finished speaking, all the Heike men at arms who were 
ranged round him exclaimed, "Ah! a stout fellow indeed. Truly he is a match for a thousand." 
And as they were discussing him one said: "This is not the first famous combat he has fought: last 
year at a certain place he pursued six robbers single-handed, whom the Palace guard could not 
arrest, and slew four of them at Nijo Horikawa, taking the other two alive, and it was for this 
bold deed that he was made Chohyoye-no-Jo. What a pity to put such a man to death. As 
therefore they were loath to do him to death, whatever the Nyudo might think, they spared his 
life and he was banished to Hino in the land of Hoki. Afterwards, when the Heike had been 
overthrown and the Genji had come to their own, he went down to the Eastern Country, and on 
his relating the whole affair to Kajiwara Heizo Kagetoki, Yoritomo praised him highly and 
rewarded him with a fief in Noto. 



Thus Prince Takakura, leaving Takakura on the north and Konoe on the east, crossed the river 
Kamo and proceeded to enter Nyoiyama. Formerly the Tenno of Kiyomiharam, when attacked 
by Prince Otomo, went to Yoshinoyama in the guise of a woman, and this Prince was now in just 
such a plight, fleeing far away through the trackless and unknown hills the whole night through; 
his feet, torn and bleeding through the unaccustomed toil, stained the sand like the dark maple 
leaves, and it must have seemed that the dew of the moist verdure was overwhelmed by his tears. 
Thus they reached Miidera at morning 

[p- 179] 

light, and when the priests heard His Highness had come to seek refuge with them, to save, it 
might be, his fleeting life, they were exceeding respectfully overjoyed, and appointing the Ho-rin- 
in as his lodging, gave him food and clothing with due ceremony. 



On the next day, the sixteenth, when it was known that since Takakura had plotted a rebellion 
and had fled to Miidera, there was-no-small commotion in the Capital. 

Now perchance it may be wondered why this Gensammi Nyudo, who had been living quietly for 
a long time past, should suddenly start this revolt. The reason was the extraordinary things done 
by Munemori-no-Kyo. Therefore in this world people should very carefully consider how they 
inconsiderately say things that ought not to be said, or do things that ought not be done. For 
example; Izu-no-kami Nakatsuna, the eldest of Gensammi Nyudo, had a famous horse called 
Konoshita that was renowned in the Palace, and was the most peerless of chestnut steeds, and of 
its speed and gentle disposition none was ignorant. And Munemori-no-Kyo sent a messenger 
saying that he wished this horse to be sent to him, for he had a mind to inspect it: to which Izu- 
no-kami answered that he had the horse indeed, but as he had ridden it much lately it was weary 
and he sent it to the country to rest. This being the case, nothing could be done, but afterwards 
many of the Heike retainers spoke saying: "Oh, that horse was there the day before yesterday; "I 
saw it yesterday" or "it was being ridden in the courtyard this morning." On hearing this, 
Munemori exclaimed; "Oh, he grudges it. Indeed? What hateful conduct] Here!" And he sent his 
retainers with letters to demand it five or six, or seven or eight times in one hour. When 
Gensammi Nyudo heard this, he said to his son: "Even if it were a golden horse, 

[ P . 180] 

if anyone desire it so much, one must not grudge him, so send it without delay to Rokuhara. Then 
lzu-no-kami, seeing that there was-no-other way, sent the horse to Rokuhara with this stanza: 

"How can one bear to part with a creature so dearly 
beloved? If it attracted you so, could you not visit one here?" 

Munemori did not answer this, but exclaimed: "Ah, it is indeed a fine horse; but as he was so 
loath to part with it, brand its master's name on it." So they made a branding iron with 
'Nakatsuna' on it and branded the horse therewith. Then, when anyone came to visit him and 
asked to see the famous horse, he would call out: "Ho there! Put the saddle on Nakatsuna. Bring 
him out! Mount him! Whip him up!" and so forth. When Izu-no-kami heard of this, he was very 
angry and said: "His using his authority to take away a horse I valued as my life is-no-small thing, 
but how can one remain quiet when one is made a laughing stock in addition?" Gensamnu Nyudo 
also exclaimed: "What is this that the Heike think to treat everyone with contumely and to do 
such folly? In that case we must risk everything and watch for a suitable opportunity." He himself 
did not make the plot, but persuaded Prince Takakura to carry it out. This was learned afterwards. 

In this connexion people discreetly quoted a story of Komatsu Dono. Once when he had been to 

Court he went to visit the Empress, when a snake of some eight feet in length got inside the left 
leg of his hakama. Shigemori, thinking that if he made any fuss the Court ladies would be terrified 
and the Empress too would be perturbed, gripping its tail with his left hand and its head with his 
right, put it into the sleeve of his 'naoshi' without making the least sign of confusion; then, 
turning round, he called for an attendant of the sixth rank. Then Izuno-kami Nakatsuna who was 
then only Eifu-no-Kurando, being called by name, came forward and was ordered to take the 

[ P . 181] 

Taking it he passed though the Yubaden and went forth into a small courtyard of the Palace, 
where he beckoned to one of the younger attendants of the Imperial Storehouses to take it away ; 
but the man, shaking his head, ran away. Then Izu-no-kami, calling one of his own retainers, Kiou 
by name, gave it to him to throw away. The next day he received a fine horse and trappings from 
Shigemori with the message: "In recognition of your exceeding courteous behaviour yesterday I 
offer you this excellent horse; please make use of him when you hurry off to meet KeiseiJ^l after 
your official duties are over." Izu-no-kami, on receiving it, made reply as follows: "In answer to 
the gracious gift of your excellency, I am delighted to accept it respectfully: allow me to 
congratulate you on your feat of yesterday, which was indeed just like the Kenjo[6l dance." 
Inasmuch as the demeanour of Komatsu Dono was so considerate and courteous, Munemori 
appeared the more lacking, and moreover his coveting another's favourite horse and seizing it 
thus brought great calamity on the country. 

So, on the evening of the sixteenth day of the same month Gensammi Nyudo Yorimasa, with his 
eldest son Izu-no-kami Nakatsuna, his second son Gendaiyu-no-Hangwan Kanetsuna, ,Rokujo-no- 
Kurando Nakaie, his son Kurando Taro Nakamitsu and three hundred armed men, after firing 
their mansion, proceeded to Miidera. Now there was a samurai of about the same age as 
Gensammi Nyudo named Watanabe-no-Gensan Kiou, a Takiguchi or Palace Guard, who, 
happening to come late. He was left behind and summoned to Rokuhara in consequence. "Why 
is it," they enquired, "that you have not followed your ancestral lord Gensammi Nyudo, but have 
stayed behind here?" Kiou respectfully made reply: "If it had been an ordinary affair I 

[ P . 182] 

would have been the first to ride forth and risk my life, but I do not know how this affair will 
turn out and so I have hesitated to go] "You have some connexion with us too," said Munemori, 
"so consider, in view of the past and future supremacy of our house whether you will follow 
Yorimasa, the enemy of the Throne, or take service with us." Kiou, bursting into tears, replied: 
"Spite of my relation to my lord, how can one agree with an enemy of the Throne? I will then 
take service with you." "Do so then," replied Munemori, "and your recompense shall be-no-less 
than with Yorimasa." And he re-entered the mansion. But that day from morning till night, 
Munemori, not quite reassured, kept on asking where Kiou was, and was always told that he was 
still in the mansion. 

When the evening came Munemori once again appeared and Kiou respectfully addressed him 
thus: "Since Gensammi Nyudo has gone to Miidera, I think he will certainly try to attack us by 
night; he will have with him my clan, the Watanabe, and also the priests of Miidera, and they are 
not enemies to be despised, so I pray you let me go and find him and slay him. If I had a good 

horse I could easily get in by stealth, as I know them all." Munemori, thinking the plan a good one, 
straightway presented him with a valuable grey horse called Nanryo and a splendid saddle and 
trappings. Having received it, he immediately went to his own mansion and cried loudly: "Hoi the 
night comes on: I go to Miidera to die fighting before my lord Gensammi Nyudo." It was almost 
sunset when, having hidden his wife and children and set fire to his mansion, he set out for 
Miidera. His heart was heavy as he rode off, but he made a gallant and glittering spectacle, clad in 
a brocaded kariginu profusely embroidered with chrysanthemums, and wearing a general's armour 
of scarlet; its name was Kisenaga, and it had been a treasured heirloom for many generations. On 
his head was a helmet shining with silver stars, and a splendid sword hung at his side. In his quiver 
were twenty four arrows barred with black on their white feathers, not to speak of the special 

[p. 183] 

arrow, feathered with a hawk's wing, always carried by the Imperial Guard of the Takiguchi. His 
bow was a 'shigeto' of black lacquer with red binding. He rode on Nanryo, while one of his 
retainers followed with a remount and another bore his shield under his arm. 

Now as soon as Rokuhara saw the flames go up from his mansion they were greatly excited. "Hal" 
exclaimed Munemori, "that fellow has deceived us. After him and shoot him down before he gets 
farther!" But Kiou was a warrior surpassed by few in strength and valour, and of great skill in 
archery; and he shouted to the pursuing samurai to come on at their peril, for with each of his 
twenty four arrow he would account for one of them, whereat there was none found to engage 
him and he proceeded on his way unharmed. Now at Miidera where the Watanabe clan was 
assembled, they were discussing him and saying to one other: "Verily it is greatly to be hoped that 
Kiou will not forsake us:" when Gensammi Nyudo, who knew the mind of Kiou very intimately, 
replied: "Certainly he will not be taken alive or fail us, his feeling for me is exceeding deep. See 
he will soon be with us." And even as he spoke Kiou appeared. "Lo! it is even as I have said: 
"exclaimed Yorimasa. Then Kiou, making his obeisance, handed over the horse he was riding: 
"See," he said, "I have brought Izu-no-kami Deno the famous Nanryo from Rokuhara in the Place 
of Konoshita that he lost." Izu-no-kami, greatly rejoicing, immediately cut short its tail, and, 
branding it also, sent it back to Rokuhara. At about midnight it came back and entering the stable 
began to eat with the other horses. Then the grooms of the stable exclamed in astonishment: "See! 
Nanryo has come back again; "whereupon Munemori, hurrying out to see; perceived on its back 
the branded words: "Formerly Nanryo, now called Munemori Nyudo." "Ah," he exclaimed in 
wrath," If only I had cut off his head before he had time to fool me thus. When we attack 
Miidera, see that this rascal Kiou is taken alive, and then I will have his head sawn off." But 
though he continued to 

[ P . 184] 

dance with rage, Nanryo's tail grew no longer, neither did the branded sentence grow less 



Now at Miidera they rang the bell and blew the conch to summon the priests to council. "Of late, 
when we consider the tendency of the time, the decline of the Buddhist Law and the languishing 
of the Monarchy are especially evident. If we do not now chastise the Nyudo for his evil doings, 
when will another opportunity occur? Is it not through the protection of Hachiman and the help 
of Shinra Daimyojinjjl that Prince Takakura has come hither Shall it not be then that the Hosts 
of Heaven and Earth will pour down their favour, and the power and might of the Gods and 
Buddhas bend him to our will? Heizan is a place where also the Tendai-shu is devoutly studied, 
while at Nara, the South Capital, are many who are zealous in meditation and holy attainments: if 
then we send an appeal to them, surely they will join us in a league together." Thus they decided 
with one accord and sent an appeal to Hieizan and Nara. That to Hieizan ran as follows: 

"Appeal of Onjoji to Enryakuji for co-operation to save us from destruction. Since the Nyudo 
Jokai wishes to destroy Buddhism and overthrow the monarchy at his will, to our great grief the 
second son of the Ho-o fled secretly to our monastery on the fifteenth day of this month to 
escape persecution. And though we have been repeatedly bidden by a so-called Imperial Order to 
yield him up, yet we cannot consent. So we are threatened with the despatch of an official army 
against us. Therefore the overthrow of our monastery is now imminent and all our brethren are 
in great trouble. Now Enryakuji and Onjoji, though their buildings are separate, yet both revere 
the one 

[ P . 185] 

Law of Tendaishu, even as the two wings of a bird or as the two wheels of a cart they are to each 
other. So that if one be wanting, will not the other feel the loss? If therefore you will unite your 
strength with us, and save us from destruction, our former animosity will be forgotten and we 
shall again dwell in good fellowship together. Given by us, the chief priests, at council held on the 
eighth day of the fifth month of the fourth year of Jisho. 



When the priests of Hieizan read the letter of Miidera they were astonished and said: "How is 
this? A temple that is tributary to us writes that we are as tho two wings of a bird or the two 
wheels of a cartl This is strange indeed." And the made no reply. Moreover the Lay priest 
Chancellor asked the Tendai Zasshu Mei-un Dai-Sojo to calm the priests of Hieizan, and he 
hastened to the monastery and succeeded in keeping them quiet. Thus he also intimated to the 
Prince that his fate was yet uncertain. Beside this, by the order of the Nyudo, twenty thousand 
koku of Omi rice and three thousand bolts of silk of extra length from the North Country were 
given to Hieizan for the right of passing over its highways. This was distributed among the monks 
of the various peaks and valleys, but as it was done hastily, there were some priests who received 
too much, while others went empty-handed. Whose doing it was I know not, but someone 
scrawled up this lampoon: 

"The Yamahoshi's gown is short, 
He cannot cover what he ought; 
The shame he feels his friends to bilk 
For Nyudo Jokai's scanty silk. " 

While some who had got none at all wrote, 

"The shame on us may lightly sit, 
For we have not received a bit. " 

[ P . 186] 

The letter that Miidera sent to Nara ran as follows: 

"A petition from Onjoji to Kofukuji to beg assistance that this monastery may not be destroyed. 
Know that the supreme excellence of Buddhism is to uphold the Monarchy; and the duration of 
the Throne therefore depends on the Law of Buddha. Now the Nyudo, the former Dajo Daijin, 
Taira-no-Ason Kiyomori Ko, whose priestly name is Jokai, does his will with the authority of the 
country and turns the government upside down, so that there is everywhere resentment and 
lamentation. And on the evening of the fifteenth day of this month the second son of the Ho-o 
hurriedly fled to our monastery to escape persecution, and though they have demanded 
repeatedly that we give him up, our priests unanimously refuse to do so, Therefore this Lay priest 
is collecting an army to enter our monastery, wishing to destroy at one time both Buddhism and 
the Monarchy. In ancient times in China, when the Emperor Bu-so in the era of Eisho attempted 
to destroy Buddhism by force of arms, the monks of Joryusen joined battle and repulsed him; if 
they thus upheld their rights against the monarch, how much more shall we not chastise this 
great rebel, this transgressor of the first of the Eight Disobediences[8l. Nara was the place where 
in unprecedented fashion the guiltless Kwampaku was banished. If we do not act now, at what 

time shall we able to remove this reproach? Thus we pray you to lend us aid lest Buddhism be 
destroyed, and also that this evil revolt against the Monarchy may be put away. If we are of one 
mind we shall attain our object. Given at a council of the Chief Priests; eighteenth, day of the 
fifth month of the fourth year of Jisho. 



The monks of Nara, when they read this letter, also held a council and after a while made answer 
as follows: 

[ P . 187] 

"From Kofukuji to Onjoji, greeting. According to your communication, the Nyudo Jokai wishes 
to overthrow your temple and its Holy Law. Now though divided into two branches, both our 
temples are derived from one Pure source, the golden discourses of the Sutras of Tendai-shu. 
Thus, both North and South Capitals being equally disciples of the same Buddha, our temples 
together can surely overthrow even a mighty enemy of the Faith, be he even as malign as 
Devadattalql himself. Now Kiyomori is of the very dregs of the Heike, and but the off-scourings 
of the warrior caste: His grandfather Masamori was a retainer of a Kurando of the fifth rank and 
was at the service of the provincial governors of any fief. Long ago, when Okura-no-Kyo Tanefusa 
was governor of Kaga, he was employed by the Kebiishi, and when Shuri-no-Daiyu Akisue was 
lord of Harima, he held the office of Groom of the Stables. When his son Tadamori, father of the 
Nyudo, was granted the privilege of attending Court, he was universally regarded as an outsider of 
low birth, and though he thus became a Courtier, people still despised him as an upstart. No 
Courtier who valued his reputation would have cared to enter such a family. However, in the 
twelfth month of the first year of Heiji, since the Emperor, in gratitude for his services in one 
battle, bestowed on him an unparalleled reward, his family have gone on rising until Kiyomori has 
made himself Chancellor, at the same time wielding all the military power of the country, his 
sons becoming Ministers and Commanders of the Imperial Guard and his daughters Imperial 
Consorts or Empresses, while his relatives and even the children of his concubines have been 
made Courtiers, and his grandson and nephews raised to high office. In addition to this he has 
appropriated all the fiefs that he desired, and appoints and dismisses governors at his pleasure, 
making them no better than his slaves and vassals. If anyone provokes his anger in the least, be he 
Prince or noble, he is immediately 

[ P . 188] 

arrested, and if anyone speaks anything against him, be he Courtier of the highest rank, he is put 
in bonds at once; so that in order to escape death or disgrace even the Sacred Emperor is forced 
to flatter him, while those of the noblest lineage must make low obeisance. Even if his family 
property held for many generations is taken from him, none dare open his mouth for fear of 
worse happening, and if even the privileged estates of a Prince are confiscated, for fear of the 
tyrant's power he holds his pace. Presumptuous in his overweening strength, in the eleventh 
month of last year, in the winter, he dared to attack the Palace of the Ho-o and send the 
Kwampaku into exile. Verily such a heinous crime has never been heard of from ancient days. At 
that time we certainly should have set out against this rebel, but in accordance with the will of 
our Deity and as the result of consideration we repressed our anger for a season. But now that, 
again raising an army, he has compassed about the Palace of the second Imperial son of the Ho-o, 
the Divine aid of Hachiman and Kasuga Daimyojin, overshadowing him with their bright radiance, 

has protected him and guided him to the protection of the Shinra Gongen, thus clearly 
demonstrating that the Monarchy can never be overthrown. Therefore what men of 
discrimination are there who will not rejoice to hear that you are risking your lives to protect him? 
We, on our part, though dwelling so far away, feeling great pity at the news you secretly convey 
that Kiyomori is raising forces to attack you, assure you of our readiness to come to your 
assistance. On the eighteenth day at the hour of the Dragon, after we had roused our monks and 
informed all the other temples, and called on the tributary temples to send their men, just as we 
had assembled our forces, you sent by a swift messenger an invitation to join you and in one hour 
dispelled the doubts of many days. If the monks of the monastery of Shoryo in China could drive 
off the soldiers of Bu-so, how much more can the monks of the North and South Capitals of 
Yamato do away with the villainies of this Minister? Do you therefore guard well the residence of 
the Prince and we 

[ P . 189] 

will await your sign to advance. Consider our letter and do not doubt us. Given on the twenty- 
first day of the fifth month of the fourth year of Jisho." 



The monks of Miidera, after receiving the Prince within their temple, proceeded to fortify 
themselves by constructing walls round it and then held another council, saying: "Hieizan will not 
act with us and Nara has not yet come up. It will not do to continue thus. Let us go down and 
attack Rokuhara tonight: in that case, dividing our force into two parts, the veterans and the 
younger men, the elder must go down from Nyoi-ga-mine against the back gate of Rokuhara, 
while they detach some swift runners to fire the dwelling houses of Shirakawa, so that the people 
of the capital and the soldiers of Rokuhara will run out in surprise to see what has happened. 
Then, when their attention is thus distracted, we must act on the defensive from the direction of 
Iwasaka and Sakuramoto, while the main force under the leadership of Izu-no-kami, comprising 
the younger men and the fiercest fighting monks, must attack the front gate of Rokuhara from 
Matsusaka and set fire to the buildings from the windward side. Then in the melee and confusion 
of the onset it ought not to be difficult to burn out the Dajo Nyudo and take his head." At this 
point a certain monk called Ichi-nyo-bo no Ajari Shinkai, who did priest's services for the Heike, 
bringing about ten others who lived with him, came forward into the courtyard where they were 
holding consultation and gave his opinion as follows: "If you think of acting thus, one must think 
you are partisans of the Heike. A plan like that will not do at all. Surely we must consider the 
reputation of our temple as well as the interests of the priests. In former days the families of Gen 
and Hei vied with each other in upholding the Imperial Family by their might, but of late the 

[p. 190] 

fortunes of the Genji have declined and the Heike have become supreme in the land, having now 
stood firm for twenty years like a tree that no gale can bend. How then can you hope to succeed 
in attacking their mansions with so trifling a force? Consider the matter very carefully. Is it not 
better to assemble a large force and proceed with the attack at a later time?" And he continued to 
argue thus with them for a long tine in order to delay the expedition. Then Joen-bo no Ajari 
Kyoshu, wearing under his robes a body-armour of light green colour, and a great sword thrust 
through his girdle in front, and brandishing a white handled halberd in his hand, burst into the 
council. "There is no need of further argument," he exclaimed, "the founder of our temple, 
Temmu Tenno, while he was yet Crown Prince, being attacked by Prince Otomo, issuing from 
the mountains of Yoshino, passed over the district of Uda, and making his way across Iga and Ise, 
with a band of only seventeen men, being joined by the forces of Mino and Owari, overthrew 
Prince Otomo and eventually ascended the Throne. There is a saying that a man will have pity on 
a distressed bird that takes refuge in his bosom. I don't know about the rest, but as for me and my 
followers we go down to attack Rokuhara tonight and die there!" Enman-in no Taiyu Genkaku 
too broke in exclaiming: "Enough of this discussion; the hour grows late, haste and advance!" So 
Gensammi Nyudo Yorimasa took command of the elder monks who were to attack the back 
gate of Rokuhara and with him Joen-bo no Ajari Kyoshu, Rissho-bo no Ajari Nichiin, Sotsu-no- 
Hoin Zenji and his disciples Giho and Zenyo, with about a thousand men, holding torches in their 
hands, started off towards Nyoi-ga-mine. The leader of those attacking the front gate was Izu-no- 

kami Nakatsuna, eldest son of Gensammi Nyudo, and with him was the second son Gendaiyu- 
no-Hangwan Kanetsuna, Rokujo-no-Kurando Nakaie, his son Kurando-no-Taro Nakamitsu and 
the soldier monks Enman in-no-Taiyu Genkaku, Rissei bo-no-Iga-no-kimi, Horin in-no-Oni Sado, 
and Joki in-no-Aratosa ; all 

[p- 191] 

arms carrying bow and arrows, swords and halberds, everyone of them worth a thousand ordinary 
men, caring not whether they met god or devil. From Byodo in came Inaba-no-Risshi Kodaiyu, 
Sumi-no-Rokuro Bo, Shima-no-Ajari, Tsutsui Hoshi, Kyo-no-Ajari and Aku Shonagon. From 
Kita-no-in were Kongo-in no Roku Tengu, Shikibu Daiyu, Noto, Kaga, Sado and Bingo, Natsui, 
Higo, Chonan-in no Chikugo, Kaya-no-Chikuzen, Oya-no-Toshinaga, Gochi-in-no-Tajima, and 
among the sixty disciples of Kyoshu, Kaga Kojo, Gyobu Shunsha, Ichiran Hoshi, Tsutsui Jomyo, 
Myoshu, Okura-no-Songetsu, Sonei, Jikei, Rakuja, Kanako-bushi no Genei, and among the 
samurai, Watanabe-no-Habuku, Harima-no-Jiro Sazuku, Satsuma-no-Hyoye, Choshichi Tonau, 
Kiou Takiguchi, Atae-no-Umanojo, Tsuzuku Genda, Kiyoshi and Susumu with about fifteen 
hundred men-at-arms. These all set out from Miidera, but as, after the Prince had entered, they 
had made a rampart and moat and set up fences and palisades, and thrown obstacles of trees 
across the road, the moat had to be bridged and the obstacles removed, so that the night had 
passed and the cock crow of approaching dawn was heard before all was finished and the way 
was clear. "If it be now cock-crow," exclaimed Izu-no-kami, "it will be morning light when we 
reach Rokuhara. What then is to be done?" Then Enman-in no Taiyu Genkaku, coming forward 
as before, said: "Of old King Sho of Shin put Mosho Kun into bonds, but he managed to escape 
with three thousand soldiers by the help of one of the consorts of Sho. Coming to the barrier at 
Kan, however, he found that, as is the custom in foreign countries the gate was not accustomed 
to be opened until cock-crow. Now among the three thousand soldiers of Mosho was one Denko, 
who was so skilled in imitating the crowing of cocks it he was nicknamed 'Keimei' (cock-crow), 
and he, running to a high place, imitated the cock crow so well that all the cocks at the barrier 
hearing it at once crowed in concert. Then barrier guards, deceived by the sound, at once opened 
the gate and they passed through. So perhaps this cock-crow is 

[p- 192] 

only a ruse of the enemy: let us then advance." But as he finished speaking the dawn began to 
break mistily, for it was the time of the short days of the fifth month. Then Izu-no-kami replied: 
"A night attack cannot be made now, and we dare not provoke a battle with them in broad day, 
so give the order to retire." So the attackers of the front gate retired from Matsusaka and those of 
the back gate from Nyoi-ga-mine. The young and turbulent priests, declaring that it was the fault 
of Ichi-nyo-bo who had prolonged their consultations till daybreak, clamoured for him to be put 
to death at once, and attacked and wounded him, and his disciples and followers who strove to 
defend him were all wounded also. He, wounded as he was, managed to crawl away and get to 
Rokuhara, though when they heard his tale there, since there were many tens of thousands of 
armed men assembled, they were by no means perturbed. 

Then the Prince, seeing that Hieizan had turned against them, and Nara had not yet sent their 
men, since Miidera alone could do nothing, on the twenty-third day of the same month left that 
temple and started for the Southern Capital. The Prince had with him two flutes of Chinese 
bamboo called 'Semiori' and 'Koeda.' Of these 'Semiori' was made of a bamboo with joints like a 

living Cicada (semi), which had been sent from China as a return gift when in the reign of Toba- 
in much gold dust had been sent as a present to the Emperor of the Sung dynasty. Wondering 
how such a rare treasure could be well-carved, it had been sent to Daisei-in no Sojo Kakuso of 
Miidera and placed on the altar while prayer was offered for seven days, after which it was carved. 
On one occasion Takamatsu-no-Chunagon Sanehira-no-Kyo came to the temple and played on it, 
but forgetting it was no ordinary flute, he dropped it to the ground from his knees, and the flute, 
feeling the reproach, broke at the joint like a Semi; so that ever after it was called 'Semiori.' As 
the Prince excelled so greatly at flute playing he had inherited it. But now, thinking that his end 
was nigh, he 

[p- 193] 

deposited it in the Kondo Hall before Miroku Bosatsu. How sad the thought that it was because 
he wished to seek the way of Miroku Bosatsu and forsake the world. The Prince gave all the elder 
priests leave to stay behind, but the young and high-spirited monks went with him. The 
following of Gensammi Nyudo, the clan Watanabe and the monks of Miidera made up in all a 
force of about fifteen hundred men. Then Joen-bo-no Ajari Kyoshu, leaning on an old man's staff, 
came into the presence of the Prince with tears streaming from his eyes: "I had wished to 
accompany you always," he said "but my years are now four-score and so it is very difficult for 
me to march, but I am sending my disciple Gyobu Bo Shunshu; he is the son of Yamanouchi Sado 
Gyobu-no-jo Toshimichi of the province of Soshu, who at the time of the fighting in Heiji served 
the late Sama-no-kami Yoshitomo and was slain at Rokujo Kawara. Having some slight 
connexion with him I brought him up so that nothing that is in his heart is hidden from me. Take 
him therefore and let him serve you always." Then the Prince overcome by his feelings, could not 
refrain from tears and exclaimed: "What have I done that he should show me such great 



Now the Prince rode down to Rokutabi between Uji and Miidera, and because he had no sleep 
the previous night they tore up about six yards of the planking of the bridge at Uji and he entered 
the temple of Byodo-in and rested there awhile. The men of Rokuhara, learning that he was 
fleeing to Nara, at once started off in pursuit to take him and put him to death. The leaders of 
their force were Sahyoye-no-kami Tomomori, To-no-Chujo Shigehira and Satsuma-no-kami 
Tadamori, while as commanders of the samurai there were Kazusa-no-kami Tadakiyo, his son 
Kazusa-no-Taro Hangwan Tadatsune, Hida- 

[p- 194] 

no-kami Kageie, his son Hida-no-Taro Hangwan Kagetaka, Takahashi-no-Hangwan Nakatsuna, 
Kawachi-no-Hangwan Hidekuni, Musahi-no-Saburo Saemon Arikuni, Etchu-no-Jirohyoye 
Moritsugu, Kazusa-no-Gorohyoye Tadamitsu, and Akushichi-hyoye Kagekiyo with about twenty- 
eight thousand men in all. Crossing over Kobatayama they pressed on to the bridge head of Uji. 
Perceiving that the enemy were at Byodo-in, they raised their warcry three times, when they 
were answered by that of the Prince's men. The vanguard, seeing the danger, raised a cry of alarm: 
"Take care! they have torn up the bridge!" But the rearguard paid-no-heed and pushed them on 
with cries of "Advance! Advance!" so that some two hundred horsemen of the leading company 
fell through into the river and perished in the stream. Then the warriors of both sides, taking their 
stand at each end of the bridge, began a duel of archery, and on the side of the Prince, Oya-no- 
Shuncho, Gochiin-no-Tajima, Watanabe-no-Habuku, Sazuku, and Tsuzuku-no-Genda shot so 
powerfully that their shafts pierced the enemy through both shield and armour. Gensammi 
Nyudo Yorimasa, knowing in his heart that this fight would be his last, went forth in a suit of 
amour of blue and white spots worn over his long-sleeved Court hitatare, purposely wearing no 
helmet on his head, while his son Izu-no-kami Nakatsuna wore a suit of black armour over a 
hitatare of red brocade, he also leaving his head bare for greater ease in drawing the bow. Then 
Gochiin-no-Tajima, throwing away the sheath of his long halberd, strode forth alone on to the 
bridge, whereupon the Heike straightway shot at him fast and furious. Tajima, not at all 
perturbed, ducking to avoid the higher ones and leaping up over those that flew low, cut through 
those that flew straight with his whirring halberd, so that even the enemy looked on in 
admiration. Thus it was that he was dubbed "Tajima the arrow cutter." Another of the soldier 
priests, Tsutsui-no-Joinyo Meishu, wearing armour laced with black leather over a hitatare of 
dyed cloth, and a helmet of five plates, a sword in a black lacquered sheath at his side and a 

[p- 195] 

quiver of twenty- four black feathered arrows on his back, his bow being also of black lacquer, 
gripping his favourite white handled halberd in his hand, also sprang forward alone on to the 
bridge and shouted in a mighty voice: "Let those at a distance listen, those that are near can see; I 
am Tsutsui Jomyo Meishu, the priest; who is there in Miidera who does not know me, a warrior 
worth a thousand men? Come on anyone who thinks himself someone, and we will see!" And 
loosing off his twenty- four arrows like lightning flashes he slew twelve of the Heike soldiers and 

wounded eleven more. One arrow yet remained in his quiver, but, flinging away his bow, he 
stripped off his quiver and threw that after it, cast off his foot gear, and springing barefoot onto 
the beams of the bridge, he strode across. All were afraid to cross over, but he walked the broken 
bridge as one who walks along the street Ichijo or Nijo of the Capital. With his naginata he mows 
down five of the enemy, but with the sixth the halberd snaps asunder in the midst and flinging it 
away he draws his tachi, wielding it in the zig-zag style, the interlacing, cross, reversed dragonfly, 
waterwheel, and eight-sides-at-once styles of fencing, and cutting down eight men; but as he 
brought down the ninth with an exceeding mighty blow on the helmet, the blade snapped at the 
hilt and fell splash into the water beneath. Then seizing his dirk which was the only weapon he 
had left, he plied it as one in the death fury. Now a retainer of Joen-bo-no-Ajari Kyoshu, Ichirai 
Hoshi by name, a man of great strength and courage, was fighting behind Jomyo, but as the beams 
were so narrow he could not come alongside him, so placing a hand on the neckpiece of his 
helmet, he shouted: "Pardon me Jomyo, this is no good," and springing over his shoulder to the 
front fought mightily until he fell. Ichirai Hoshi being killed, Jomyo-bo crawled back again and 
retired to the Byodo-in, where he sat down on the grass before the gate, and stripping off his 
armour, counted the dints of the mows that had struck him. There were sixty- three in all, but of 
these only five had pierced through, and none of the wounds 

[p. 196] 

being very severe, he treated them with cautery; then, covering his head and changing his clothes, 
using his broken bow as a staff he went down on foot to Nara. Following the example of Jomyo- 
bo, the soldier monks of Miidera with the Watanabe clan of Gensammi Nyudo's men vied with 
each other in pressing forward over the beams of the bridge, and fought till sundown some 
returning with spoil, and some, after being wounded, cutting themselves open and jumping into 
the river. 

Then the commander of the samurai, Kazusa-no-kami Tada-kiyo came to the commander in 
chief of the Heike forces: "See here," he said "the battle on the bridge is very fierce; we ought to 
ford the river, but after the rains of the fifth month neither man nor horse can live in the stream; 
shall we go round by Yodoi, Moarai or Kawachiji? What is to be done?" Then Ashikaga-no- 
Matataro Tadatsuna, a young man in his eighteenth year, spoke saying: "Why not leave the 
samurai of India or China to go to Yodo, Moarai or Kawachiji, for that is not our way. If we don't 
rout the enemy that confront us here, the Prince will get away to Nara, and then you will have all 
the forces of Yoshino and Totsugawa to deal with and that will be no light affair. On the 
boundary of Musashi and Kozuke there is a great river called the Tonegawa and there the 
Ashikaga and the Chichibu are always fighting each other, and on one occasion, when the front 
were attacking at Nagai ford and the rear at Kogasugi ford, a certain Nitta Nyudo of Kozuke, who 
was coming to the help of the Ashikaga from the Sugi ford, being told by them that the Chichibu 
had destroyed all the boats that had been provided to cross, exclaimed: "If we do not ford the 
river here it will be a disgrace to our reputation as samurai; to be drowned is but to die; Forward 
then!" and using their horses as a raft they forded the river. As the samurai of the East Country 
say: "Keep your face to the enemy, and when separated by a river, shun the swift rapids by the 
bank. This river is neither more nor less swift and deep than the Tonegawa, so come along sirs," 
and he plunged into the stream. Ogo, Omuro, Fukasu, Yamakami, 

[p- 197] 

Nawa-no-Taro, Sanuki, Hirotsuna, Shirodaiyu, Onodera-no-Zenji Taro, Heyako-no-Shiro, and 
among the younger men Ubukata-no-jiro, Kirifu-no-Rokuro, and Tanaka-no-Sota immediately 
bed in after him with some three hundred men behind them, shouting the Ashikaga warcry. "Put 
the heads of the weaker horses downstream, those of the stronger upstream!" he shouted "if the 
horses keep their feet give them the rein and let them walk, but if they get off their feet let them 
have their heads and swim them; if you are washed downstream stick the butt of your bow down 
into the bottom; join hands and go across in line if your horse's head gets down, pull it up, but 
don't pull it too far or you will fall off backwards; sit tight in the saddle and keep your feet firm 
in the stirrups; where the water is slow and deep get up over the horse's tail; don't shoot while in 
the water; if the enemy shoots don't draw bow in return; keep your head down and your neck- 
piece well sloped upwards, but not too far or you will be shot in the crown of the helmet; be 
light on the horse and firm against the stream; don't go straight across you will be washed away, 
keep obliquely to the stream." Thus advising and encouraging them he brought the whole three 
hundred rapidly across without losing a man. 



Then Ashikaga Matataro, wearing armour with red leather lacing over a hitatare of russet gold 
brocade, with a helmet ornamented with lofty horns, a gold-mounted tachi by his side, a twenty- 
four black and white spotted arrows on his back, carrying a black lacquered bow lashed with red 
bands, and riding a light brown horse with a gold-mounted saddle on which is the crest of an owl 
on an oak bough, stood up in his stirrups and shouted loudly: "I am Ashikaga Matataro Takatsuna, 
aged seventeen, son of Ashikaga-no-Taro Toshitsuna of Shimotsuke, descended in the tenth 
generation from Tawara Toda 

[ P . 198] 

Hidesato, the renowned warrior who gained great fame and reward for destroying Masakado the 
enemy of the Emperor, and though it may be at the risk of divine anger that one without rank or 
office should draw bow against a Prince of the Royal House, yet as I owe deep graditude to the 
Heike for many favours, here I stand to meet any on the side of Gensammi Nyudo who dares to 
face me." And he made an onset and fought his way within the gate of the Byodo-in. Then the 
commander Sahyoye-no-kami Tomomori, seeing this, ordered his forces to cross over, and about 
twenty-eight thousand horsemen plunged into the river, so that the rapids of the Ujigawa were 
dammed and stayed by the mass of men and horses, and the footsoldiers crossing below the 
horsemen were hardly wetted above their knees. But everything is carried away, by the natural 
force of water, so the men of Ise and Iga, to the number of six hundred horsemen, were washed 
away through their ranks being broken by the force of the current, and their armour of various 
hues, green, scarlet and red, rising and sinking as they were washed hither and thither in the 
stream, looked like the maple leaves on Kannabiyama, when in late autumn they are blown by 
the mountain blasts into the Tatsuta river and collect in masses where the flood is dammed. 
Among them three gallants, clad in the scarlet armour of a leader of armies, stuck helplessly in a 
fish decoy, and Izu-no-kami, watching them as they struggled in the rapids, composed this stanza: 

"LoJ the bright scarlet hue of the mail of the warriors of Ise; 
Now they are stuck like fish, struggling in Uji's decoys. " 

They were Kuroda-no-Gohei Shiro, Hino-no-Jiro and Otobe-no-Yashichi, all men of Ise, and 
Hino-no-Juro, a veteran soldier, wedging the butt of his bow into a cleft of the rock, scrambled 
out by its aid and then pulled out his two companions, thus saving their lives. 

Now when the whole force had reached the other side they advanced and fought their way in 
through the gate of the Byo- 

[p- 199] 

do-in and in the confusion the Prince attempted to escape town; Nara, while Gensammi's men 
the Watanabe and the warrior priests of Miidera strove to hold back the foe with their bows and 
arrows. The veteran warrior Gensammi, now more than three score years and ten, was soon 
wounded in the right elbow by an arrow and was about to retire within the temple to die calmly 
by his own hand, when a band of the enemy threw themselves in his way, whereupon his second 
son Gendaiyu-no-Hangwan Kanetsuna turned to counter them and let his father escape. His 
armour laced with Chinese silk was worn over hitatare of dark blue brocade, and he rode a cream 
colour horse with a saddle mounted in gold. Then Kazusa-no-Taro Hangwan shot an arrow that 
struck him beneath the helm, and as he staggered at the blow, Kazusa-no-kami's son Jiro Maru, a 
strong and valiant fighter, clad in green armour with a helmet of three plates on his head, 
unsheathed his sword and sprang upon him. They both grappled immediately and fell together, 
when Gendaiyu Hangwan, who was a powerful man, gripped Jiro Maru, pressed him down and 
cut off his head, but just then fourteen or fifteen of the Heike horsemen came up and Kanetsune 
was overpowered at last by numbers and slain. Izu-no-kami Nakatsuna too, after fighting with 
reckless bravery, covered with wounds, retired to the Tsuridono of the Byodo and there put an 
end to himself, his head being taken up by Shimokawabe-no-Tosaburo Kiyochika and thrown 
under the verandah. Rokujo-no-Kurando Nakaie and his son Nakamitsu also fought valiantly until 
they were slain. This Nakaie was the eldest son of the late Tatewaki Senjo Yoshikata, and when 
father was killed, being an orphan, he was adopted by Gensam-mi Nyudo out of pity, and now, 
faithful to their long compact, they both died together. Gensammi Nyudo, calling Watanabe 
Choshichi Tanau, bade him strike off his head, but he refused, overcome by the thought of 
cutting off his master's head while alive, but offered to do so after he had committed suicide. 
Then Gensammi Nyudo, turning to the West, put his hands together 

[p. 200] 

and repeated the Nembutsu ten times in a loud voice, after which he composed this sad stanza; 

"Like a fossil tree from which we gather-no-flowers 
Sad has been my life, fated-no-fruit to produce. " 

And with these last words he thrust the point of his sword into his belly, and bowing his face to 
the ground pierced himself through and died. It was not a time when people usually make poems, 
but as he' had been extremely fond of this pastime from his youth up, so even at the hour of 
death he did not forget it. Choshichi Tonau took his head, and fastening stones to it sunk it in a 
deep part of the Ujigawa. Now though the Heike samurai had been strictly ordered to take the 
Takiguchi Kiou alive, yet he, after fighting with great bravery, being very severely wounded, at 
last cut himself open and died. Enman-in-no-Taiyu Genkaku, thinking that the Prince had by this 
time got far away, gripping his sword in one hand and his halberd in the other, cleft his way 
through the midst of the foe and leaping into the river, without relinquishing any of his arms, 
dived beneath the water and emerged safely on the other side. Then ascending to a high place he 
shouted with a loud voice: "Hoi how now, my lords of the Heike, see I have got thus far!" after 
which he returned to Miidera. Now Hida-no-kami Kageie, a veteran soldier, suspecting that the 
Prince would certainly attempt to flee to Nara under cover of the fighting, rode hard on his track 
with four or five hundred men in full armour, and as he expected, overtook him in front of the 
torii of Komyozan with his escort of about thirty horsemen. As the arrows flew like rain-no-one 

could tell whose it was, but one of the arrows of the Heike struck the Prince in the side so that 
he fell from his horse, whereupon they killed him and cut off his head. Oni Sado, Aratosa, 
Kodaiyu, and Gyobuno Shunshu who accompanied him, not wishing to live after their master, 
threw themselves upon the enemy and died fighting together. Among them his foster brother, 
Rokujo-no-suke-no-Taiyu Munenobu, jumped into the pond at Niino, and hiding his face among 
the waterweed, lay 

[p. 201] 

there trembling. Soon after the Heike came riding back again to the number of four or five 
hundred horsemen, laughing and shouting as they rode, and peeping out he could see in the midst 
of them a headless corpse in white clothing born on a shutter. It was the Prince without doubt, 
for in his girdle was the flute ' Koeda ' which he had bidden them bury with him in the coffin if 
he died. He earnestly wished to rush out and throw himself on the body, but fear restrained him, 
and after the enemy had half passed by he came out of the pond, and wringing out his wet 
garments returned weeping to the capital, where there was none who did not hold him in 

Now about seven thousand soldier priests of Nara in full armour had gone forth to meet the 
Prince, and while the vanguard reached as far as Kozu and the rearguard was still surging out of 
the southern gate of the Kofukuji, they heard that the Prince had been slain before the torii of 
Komyozan, alasl but fifty cho distant from Kozu. So, unable to do any more, they halted, 
lamenting that they had not come up in time. 



The Heike soldiers, sticking the heads of the followers of Prince Mochihito and Gensammi 
Nyudo, the Watanabe and the monks of Miidera, about five hundred in all, on the points of their 
swords and halberds, returned to Rokuhara towards evening, flourishing them in the air and 
shouting exultantly. The head of Gensammi himself could not be found, for it had been sunk in 
the waters of the Ujigawa by Choshichi Tonau, but after searching hither and thither all those of 
his sons were recovered. As to that of the Prince, it could not be identified, since there was no 
one there sufficiently familiar with him to recognize it. The Chief Court Physician Tenyaku-no- 
kami Sadanari, having been called to attend the Prince when he was sick the year before, could 
have identified him, but illness prevented him from 

[p. 202] 

answering the summons. Then one of the Prince's favourite consorts was sent for to Rokuhara, 
and as she had borne him several children and they were much attached to each other, she could 
not well make a mistake. Thus it was that, after only one glance, she buried her face in her sleeve 
and burst into tears, so that they knew that it was indeed the Prince. 

Now this Prince had many children by different consorts and among them he had a son of seven 
years old and a daughter of five by a lady called Sarnmi-no-Tsubone, daughter of Iyo nokami 
Morinori, who was living with her children at the Palace of the Princess Hachijo-no-Nyoin, and 
Kiyomori ordered his brother Ike-no-Chunagon Yorimori to tell her to send the little Prince to 
him at once, though the daughter might remain. To this Hachijo-no-Nyoin replied that the child's 
nurse had fled away with him in a panic that very morning and he was nowhere to be found. On 
this being reported to Kiyomori he ordered soldiers to be sent to the Palace to search. Now the 
wife of Yorimori was a lady called Saisho Dono, the foster sister of this Hachijono Nyoin, and 
they had been very friendly with each other, but it happened that shortly before this they had 
become somewhat estranged. Then the little Prince said to the Nyoin: "It seems that great trouble 
may befall you on my account, so pray send me back quickly." "Ah!" exclaimed the Nyoin 
weeping, "how very sad it is that a child of seven or eight year who knows nothing of the world 
should be so affected by this calamity as to say such a thing. Alas, in vain have I brought him up 
this six or seven years that this fate should now befall him," and she wept unrestrainedly; but as 
Norimori-no-Kyo kept on repeating his demand, at last, as nothing else could be done, she 
delivered him up. His mother Sammi-no-Tsubone too was greatly grieved to think that she was 
parting from him for ever, but, as it was inevitable, weeping bitterly she put on his clothes and 
parted and arranged his hair before sending him away, feeling the while like one in a dream, while 
all the household from the Nyoin to the ladies in waiting and the maidservants buried their faces 
in their 

[p- 203] 

sleeves and wept in concert. Yorimori-no-Kyo, taking the child with him in a car, brought him to 
Rokuhara: then the former Udaisho Munemori-no-Kyo when he saw him spoke thus to his father 

the Nyudo: "Surely this is the retribution from a previous existence; just to look on the young 
Prince makes one feel how pathetic is his case; if there be no objection, grant him his life and 
hand him over to my keeping." "In that case," replied the Nyudo, "he must be put away in a 
monastery." Then Munemori-no-Kyo sent a report of this sentence to Hachio-no-Nyoin, and she 
made-no-objection but bade them do so: without delay. So the little Prince retired from the 
world and entered the way of Buddha, becoming a disciple of the Abbot of Ninnaji fiol . In after 
days he was known as Yasui-no-Miya-no-Daisojo Toson, chief priest of the temple of Toji ful in 
Kyoto. Prince Takakura had also another son in Nara, and he also was made monk by his guardian 
Sanuki-no-kami Shigehide, who accompanied him to the North Country. But Kiso Yoshinaka, 
when he came down to the capital, had his priestly vows revoked and brought him with him to 
make him Emperor, so that he was called 'the Kiso Prince' or 'the Prince of the revoked vows', 
and also, because he lived at Yorino in the vicinity of Saga, he was known as the Prince of Yorino. 

In old times, there was a physiognomist named Tojo who prophecied that both Fujiwara 
Yorimichi and his younger brother Norimichi who were Kampaku under three Emperors would 
live to the age of eighty, and so it happened. Also that Sotsu-no-Uchi-no-Otodo (Fujiwara 
Korechika) had the face of one who would be exiled, and so it turned out. Moreover Shotoku 
Taishi declared that the physiognomy of Shushun Tenno was that of one who would die a violent 
death, and he was killed by the minister Umako. Though what the physiogno- 

[p. 204] 

mists predicted did not always come to pass, yet it seems that those in former ages were the more 
accurate. (This because people said: "Has not the Physiognomy Shonagon made a mistake?") 

At a later period too, though Kenmei Shinno and Guhei Shinno were both the sons of wise and 
pious Emperors, yet they did not succeed to the Throne, but still they made no rebellion. Also in 
the case of Sukehito Shinno, the third son of the Retired Emperor Go-Sanjo, an exceedingly 
clever and distinguished Prince, who was nominated by his father in his will to succeed him on 
the Throne when the Retired Emperor Shirakawa was only Crown Prince, and yet, on account of 
some decision of Shirakawa he did not succeed; and the son of this Sukehito Shinno, taking the 
surname of Genji, rose from having no rank at all to the third rank and became Chujo, being 
known as Sammi Chujo. Except in the case of Yosei-in-Dainagon Sadatnu-no-Kyo, son of Saga 
Tenno, this is the first time that a member of the Genji family has thus risen from nothing to the 
third rank. This was Hanazono Sadaijin Arihito Ko. 

Now the priests who had made special prayer for the crushing of this rebellion of Prince 
Takakura were well rewarded for their pains, the Chamberlain Kiyomine, son of the former 
Udaisho Munemori-no-Kyo, being raised to the third rank at the age of twelve years. At the same 
age his father Munemori had been only Hyoye-no-Suke, and with the exception of the son of the 
Kampaku there was-no-precedent for a boy of twelve holding such high rank. And the record of 
it ran: "These are rewards for the putting to death of Minamoto-no-Mochihito and Gensammi 
Nyudo Yorimasa and his sons." Not only were they impious enough to shoot a real son of the 
Senior Retired Emperor, but they had the effrontery to describe him by the name of an ordinary 
subject. For this 'Minamoto no Mochihito' meant Prince Takakura. 



Now this Gensammi Nyudo Yorimasa was the fifth generation from Settsu-no-kami Raiko, the 
grandson of Mikawanokami Yoritsuna and son of Hyogo-no-kami Nakamasa. At the time of the 
fight of Hogen he was on the side of the Imperial Army, but received-no-reward: also in the 
rebellion of Heiji he forsook all his kinsmen and fought on the same side, but his recompense was 
small. For long he only held the title of Daida Shugo or Guard of the Palace, and had not the 
privilege of entry to Court, but after he was old, he obtained the privilege by composing the 
following verse: 

"Standing far off outside as guard to the Holy of Holies 
How can I see the moon, hid in the shade of the treesl" 

For this he was granted the lower grade of the Upper Fourth rank, and so he remained for some 
time until, wishing to proceed to the Third Rank, he made another stanza, thus: 

"So I go through the world as one who is picking up acorns ] 11] . 
Under the boughs of the oak, doomed not to rise any higher. " 

Some time afterwards he retired from the world and was known as Gensammi Nyudo Yorimasa, 
(Minamoto Third Rank), being seventy-five the same year. Among the many deeds of renown 
that Yorimasa performed in the course of his life the most remarkable was in the Ninpei period 
when the Emperor Konoe-in was on the Throne. Every night the Emperor was frightened by 
something, and though he summoned the most celebrated of the priests and had them chant 
those Sutras most potent for exorcism it was all of no effect. The time that the Emperor was thus 
troubled was about the hour of the Ox (2 a.m.), when 

[p. 206] 

a black cloudy mass used to come up from the direction of the wood of Higashi Sanjo and hover 
over the Palace, and it always affrighted him. So a Council of Courtiers was held about it. Now in 
former days in the period of Kwanji, when Horikawa in was on the Throne, this Emperor was 
terrified in the very same way, and Yoshiie Ason, who was Commander of the Guards at that 
time, took up his position on the verandah of the Shishinden, and at the usual time of the 
apparition twanged his bowstring three times and declaimed in a loud and terrible voice: "I am 
Minamoto Yoshiie formerly Mutsu-no-kami," so that the hair of those that heard it stood on end, 
whereat the distress of His Majesty was relieved. So according to this precedent Yorimasa was 
chosen from among the warriors of the Taira and Minamoto families. He was at this time only 
Hyoye-no-kami, and on being informed of it he said: "From former times samurai have been 

stationed at the Palace to drive away rebels and to smite those who disobey the Imperial 
Commands, but it is the first time that I have ever heard of their having apparitions to deal with." 
But as it was an Imperial Order he went. He took with him his most trusted retainer I-no-Hayata 
of Totomi, who carried an arrow feathered with the underfeathers of an eagle's wing, while he 
himself, wearing a double kariginu, carried his lacquered bow and two barbed arrows and 
proceeded to the verandah of the Shishinden. The reason for his taking two arrows was that one 
Masayori-no-Kyo, who was at that time Sashoben, had suggested that he be chosen to deal with 
the monster, and so Yorimasa had determined that if he failed to kill the creature with the one 
arrow he would shoot the other straight at Masayori's neck. After awhile, as has been described, 
at the time when the Emperor was always wont to be alarmed, a mass of black cloud came from 
the direction of the wood by Higashi Sanjo and floated over the top of the Palace. Yorimasa, 
looking up, saw a strange shape in the midst of the cloud and determining not to live if he missed, 
took an arrow, and earnestly, repeating, invocation to the god of war 'Namu 

[p. 207] 

Hachiman Dai-Bosatsu!' drew the bow mightily and let fly. The arrow flew straight to the mark 
and Yorimasa gave a loud shout of triumph as I-no-Hayata came running up, seized the thing as it 
fell and, pressing it down with might and main, pierced it through nine tunes with his sword. 
Then many others ran up with torches, and when they came to inspect it they found it was a 
most horrible monster with a monkey's head, the body of a badger, the tail of a snake and feet 
like a tiger, its voice being like a Nue bird. The Emperor, out of his great gratitude to Yorimasa, 
presented him with a famous sword called 'Shishio' or Lion King. This was handed to the Sadaijin 
Yorinaga to give to Yorimasa, and as His Excellency proceeded to come half-way down the steps 
of the Palace, it being then the tenth day of the fourth month, the voice of a cuckoo that chanced 
to fly overhead echoed twice or thrice, whereupon the Sadaijin exclaimed: 

"How does the cuckoo too wish to make a name in the heaven. " 

But Yorimasa, sticking out his right knee and spreading out his left sleeve, looked up at the 
crescent moon in the sky and replied: 

"Then let the bow-shaped moon let fly a shaft at the bird. " 

Then he received the sword and retired. 

This Yorimasa-no-Kyo, beside being a peerless warrior, was also a distinguished poet and much 
admired by his contemporaries. The bird they put into a boat and set it adrift. In the period Oho 
also, in the reign of Nijo in a monstrous bird called Nue was heard to cry in the Palace, so that the 
heart of the Emperor was troubled, and so as had been done before he summoned Yorimasa. It 
was the evening of the twentieth day of the fifth month. The Nue only flew once over the Palace 
and its voice was not heard a second time. It was so dark that nothing could be seen and therefore 
there was nowhere to aim, so Yorimasa took a great whirring arrow and shot it over the roof of 
the Palace at the place where the cry had been heard. 

[p. 208] 

The Nue, alarmed at the sound of the arrow, sprang up into the sky, when Yorimasa, quickly 
seizing a smaller whirring arrow, let it fly. It struck and brought down the creature, whereupon 
all those in the Palace came rushing out shouting confusedly. On this occasion Yorimasa received 
a robe of honour from the Emperor. This time it was Oi-no-Mikado no Udaijin Kinyoshi who 
received it to present to Yorimasa. "In ancient China," said he in admiration, "You shot a wild 
goose beyond the clouds, but now Yorimasa has shot a Nue in the rain: 

"Famous the deed site the dark in the rainy season of springtime. " 
"Nay at the time it seemed twilight had scarcely gone by, " 

[p. 209] 

replied Yorimasa as he received the robe and retired. Then, having received the fief of Izu, he 
appointed his eldest son Nakatsuna as its Governor, and having attained the Third Rank was 
living at ease on his estates in Tamba and Wakasa, when he started this vain revolt and perished 
with the Prince and his sons and grandsons. 



The priests of Hieizan who had formerly behaved in a disorderly manner were now peaceful and 
quiet, whereas Nara and Miidera, since they had received and lent their support to the Prince, had 
put themselves in the position of enemies of the Throne. Therefore it was resolved to proceed 
against both monasteries, but, with the intention of attacking Miidera first, Sahyoye-no-kami 
Tomomori with Satsuma-no-kami as his Lieutenant marched against the Onjoji with about ten 
thousand men. At the monastery about a thousand soldier-monks, arming themselves, made a 
shield barrier, threw up a barricade of felled trees and awaited them. At the hour of the Hare (6. 
a.m.) they began to draw their bows, and the battle continued the whole day, until when evening 
came on three hundred of the monks and 

[p. 209] 

their men had fallen. Then the fight went on in the darkness, and the Imperial forces forced their 
way into the monastery buildings and set them on fire. 

The main temples of Honkaku-in, Joki-in, Shinnyo-in, Keon-in, Daiho-in, Joryu-in, Fugendo and 
the Hall of the Kyodaikwasho with the Honzon-do, the sixteen yard Great Hall, the Bell Tower, 
the Baptismal Hall, the Shrine of the Tutelary Deity, the new Shrine of the Deity of Kumano, the 
Halls, Residences, Pagodas and Shrines to the number of six hundred and thirty seven, together 
with one thousand eight hundred and fifty three houses of Otsu, not to speak of seven thousand 
volumes of the Holy Sutras, called the Issai Kyo fijl , which Jito had brought from China, and two 
thousand Buddhist statues, were suddenly reduced to ashes. It seemed as if the Five 
Pleasures [14I of Heaven had departed from the world and the Three Hot Torments [1 si of the 
Dragon were at their height. 

Now Miidera had originally belonged to the Governor of Omi, but afterwards became the 
chantry temple of Temmu Tenno. The principal Buddha of this temple was that which this 
Emperor himself specially worshipped, and which the Kyodai Kwasho [i6l , said to be the living 
Miroku, who for a hundred and sixty years worshipped it, had given over to Jito Daishi. This 
image is said to have come down to earth from the jewel Palace 

[p. 210] 

of the Toshita Heaven, the fourth of the Six Heavens of Desire, and to here await the far off time 
of the revelation of Miroku under the sacred Dragon Flower. Indeed a most extraordinary matter! 
As the Daishi here established the three symbols of a well, flowers, and water, as holy memorials 
that it was a place efficacious in teaching and baptism, it was called Miidera (Temple of the 
Three Wells) . Such a holy place it was and now it has come to nothing. In an instant, the Law of 
Tendai and Shingon was destroyed, no trace is left of its stately buildings, the Halls of the Law are 
done away, the sound of the bell is heard no longer, the flowers of the summer preaching have 
vanished and the splashing of the holy water sounds no more. The aged and virtuous teachers 
preach the Law no longer, and the multitudes of disciples have forsaken their studies. The Lord 

Abbot Enkei Shinno is dismissed from his office of Betto of Tennoji and thirteen other chief 
priests must vacate their posts, and all are committed to the Custody of the Kebiishi, while thirty 
priests, including Tsutsui Jomyo Hoshi, are sent into exile. Such an upheaval and disorder in the 
Empire was no ordinary matter and all considered it a portent of the fall of the Heike supremacy. 


[1] Miroku. Sk. Maitreya, a Bodhisattva, the Messiah of Buddhism, cf. p. 212. 

[2] Tamonten. or Bishamon, Sk. Vais'ramana, one of the Four Deva Kings. 

[3] Eifu-tachi A light ornamental weapon carried by the officials of the Eifu or Imperial Guard as 
a badge of office. 

[4] Tenno of Kiyomihara. Temmu Tenno, so called from his place of residence. 

[5] Keisei. Name of some favourite courtesan. Lit. 'Ruiner of castles' significant of their character 
and habits. 

[6] Kenjo. Name of a dance in which the dancer held a snake in a bamboo curtain (sudare) in his 
hand while he danced and afterwards slipped it into his sleeve. 

[7] Shinra Daimyojin. A god that was revealed to So-en-chin on his way back from China and 
introduced by him to Miidera. 

[8] Eight Disobediences. Rebellion, Great Disobedience, Irreligion, Unfilial conduct, Great unfilial 
conduct, Undutifulness, Wicked disobedience, Faithlessness. 

[9] Deavdatta. (Jap. Chodatsu.) the rival and enemy of S'akya Muni. 

[10] Ninnaji. A temple to the N.W. of Kyoto, whither Uda Tenno retired; had a special 
connexion with the Court, as its abbot was a Royal Prince. 

[11] Toji. or the Eastern Temple. So called because it lay east of the Shujaku Gate of the Palace. 

[12] Picking up acorns, (shii) there is a word play on the double meaning of 'shii' oak, here 
referring to its fruit, and Shi-i Fourth Rank, so that it would then mean "as one who has only 
picked up the Fourth Rank." 

[13] Issai Kyo also called the Daizo Kyo, the Tripitaka with commentaries. 

[14] Five Pleasures. The five melodious sounds of the Palace, Trade, Horns, Levies and Wings. 

[15] Three Hot Torments. The Dragon is said to plunge into boiling water three times a day. 

[16] Kyodai Kwasho. Apparently a famous priest of this temple. (Kwasho is the Sk. Upadhyaya, a 
Buddhist priest, as dist. from other priests; sometimes it signifies the head of a monastery.) This 
priest was perhaps considered to be an incarnation of Miroku, or it may be revered as much as 
Miroku Bosatsu or Maitreya. This Bodhisattva is to come as successer of S'akya Muni after a lapse 
of fifty thousand years, to usher in the golden age. Kobo Daishi, the patron saint of Mt. Koya is 

said to be asleep there awaiting his advent. He will come and preach under the Dragon Flower 



It was decided that the Emperor should proceed to Fukuhara on the third day of the sixth month 
of the fourth year of Jisho. People thought that the change of capital was likely to take place 
about this time, but as they had not expected that it would be fixed so soon, there was a great 
uproar in Kyoto among all classes. Then, after having been arranged for the day, it was anticipated 
by one day and finally settled for the second. At the hour of the Hare (6 a.m.) on the second day 
the Imperial Palanquin was in readiness; the Emperor was now three years old and owing to his 
tender years could not but acquiesce in anything. When the Emperor was a child it was the 
custom that the Dowager Empress should go with him in the Palanquin, but this time the 
precedent was not followed and the Imperial Nurse Sotsu-no-Suke alone went with him. The 
Empress press Dowager, the Retired Emperor and the former Emperor Takakura also went in the 
procession. They were accompanied by the Sessho, the Dajo-daijin and all the Court Nobles, and 
all the Heike house headed by the Dajo Nyudo himself went with them. On the following day 
they arrived at Fukuhara, and the Emperor proceeded to the country seat of Ike-no-Chunagon 
Yorimori, the younger brother of the Nyudo, and took up his abode there. On the fourth day the 
Upper Second Rank was conferred on Yorimori as a reward for the services of his house, so that 
he was promoted over the head of the Udaisho Yoshi-michi-no-Kyo the son of the Udaijin 
Kanezane, this being the first time that the second son of an ordinary subject was, advanced over 
the son of the house of a Sessho Kwampaku. Now the Lay-priest Chancellor, though he had 
changed his 

[p. 212] 

mind and brought back the Ho-o to the Capital from the Toba Palace, enraged by the rebellion of 
Prince Takakura, had His Majesty again moved to Fukuhara, and, building a wooden chamber 
eighteen square feet , surrounded by a foursquare wooden fence having only one opening in it, he 
confined him there, and appointed Harada-no-Taiyu Tanenao to keep guard over him. As it was 
by no means easy for anyone to gain access to it the young men nicknamed it "Ro-no-Gosho," or 
"The Prison Palace." An abominable and pathetic thing even to hear of. "As for me," quoth the 
Ho-o, "I have not the least desire to take any part in the government; all I wish is that I may be 
allowed to wander at will from temple to temple for consolation." But there seemed altogether 
no end to the evil deeds of the Heike; ever since the period Angen they had gone on sending 
Courtiers and Ministers into exile or putting them to death: they had banished the Kwampaku 
and put the Nyudo's son in law in his place, and shut up the Ho-o in the Seinan Detached Palace, 
and then they had even dared to put to death Prince Takakura, so that people said that changing 
the Capital was the only thing left for them to do. But to change the Capital was by no means 
without precedent. Jimmu Tenno, who was the fourth son of Hiko-nagisa-take-ugaya-fuki-aezu- 
no-mikotoJVl the fifth Earthly Deity, and whose mother was Tama-yori-hime the daughter of the 

Sea God, being the descendant of twelve generationsjjj of Gods and the ancestor of a hundred 
earthly sovereigns, in the year of the cock in the cycle Kanotojjl succeeded to the Imperial 
Throne in the district of Miyasaki of the province of 

[p- 213] 

Hyuga, and in the tenth month of the fifty ninth year, the year of the ram of the cycle Tsuchinoto, 
subduing the East, he took up his abode in Toyo-ashi-hara-no-naka-tsu-kunim, giving it the name 
of Yamato. Then, having viewed the mountain of Unebi, he made there his Imperial Capital, and 
clearing and subduing the land of Kashihara, he built therein his Royal Palace, calling it the 
Kashihara Palace. Since this age generation after generation of Sovereigns have removed their 
Capitals to many sites in various provinces to the number of more than thirty times, yea even 
unto forty. From Jimmu Tenno to Keiko Tenno twelve generations of Sovereigns made their 
Capitals in the provinces of Yamato and did not remove to another province, but in the first year 
of Seimu TennobJ. the Capital was changed to the province of Omi and set up in the district of 
Shiga. In the second year of Chuai Tenno it was changed to the district of Toyoura in the 
province of Nagato, and while the Capital was in this province the Emperor died and his Consort 
the Empress Jingo succeeded to the Throne and reigned as Empress, subduing the lands of Kikai, 
Korai and Keitan[6l and receiving the submission of the foreign armies. Then, returning to her 
country she gave birth to a Prince in the district of Mikasa in the province of Chikuzen, 
wherefore that place was called Umi-no-Miya, and this Prince, we speak it with reverence, is the 
god Hachiman, and when he succeeded to the Throne he was known as Ojin Tenno. Afterwards 
the Empress Jingo removed to the province of Yamato and abode in the Palace of Iware-no- 
waka-zakura, while Ojin Tenno resided at the Palace of Akari in Karushima in the same province. 
In the second year of Nintoku Tenno it was again removed to Namba in the province of Settsu 
and the Emperor abode in the Palace of Takatsu. In the second year of Richu 

[p. 214] 

Tenno the Capital was again changed to the province of Yamato, and established in the destrict 
of Tochi. In the first year of Hansei Tenno it was removed to the province of Kawachi and the 
Palace was built at Shibagaki. In the forty second year of Iingyo Tenno the Capital was once more 
changed to Yamato and the Palace was established at Asuka in Tobutori. In the twenty first year 
of Yuryaku Tenno it was again moved to Asakura in Hase of the same province. In the fifth year 
of Keitei Tenno it was changed to Tsutsuki in the province of Yamashiro, and twelve years 
afterwards the Palace was built in Otokuni. In the first year of Senkwa Tenno it was removed 
again to Yamato and the Palace was established at Iruno of Hinokuma. In the first year of the 
Great Reform of Kotoku Tenno it was changed to Nagara in the province of Settsu and the 
Emperor dwelt in the Palace of Toyosaki. In the second year of Saimei Tenno it was again 
removed to Y amato and the Palace set up at Okamoto. In the sixth year of Tenchi Tenno the 
Capital was made again in t Omi and the Palace built at Otsu. In the first year of Temmu Tenno 
it was brought back to Yamato and the Emperor dwelt at the South Palace of Okamoto and it 
was called Kiyomihara-no-Mikado. The two Emperors Jito and Mommu dwelt in the Palace of 
Fujiwara. From Gemmyo to Kwonin Tenno seven generations had their abode at Nara, but in the 
time of Kwammu Tenno, on the third day of the tenth month of the third year of Enryaku, the 
Nara Capital was removed from the village of Kasuga to Nagaoka in Yamashiro, and on the first 
month of the tenth year the Dainagon Fujiwara-no-Oguromaro, and the Sangi Sadaiben Ki-no- 
Kosami, sent the Dai Sozo Genkei and others to inspect the village of Uda in the district of 

Kadono in the same province. Then they both made the following report to the Emperor: " 
Having inspected the condition of the locality, we find that it is a most convenient site for the 
Capital, for it has on the four quarters suitable place, for the four deities, Shoryujjl on 

[p- 215] 

the left, Byakko on the right, Shujaku in front and Gembu behind." Therefore, having reported 
this to the deity Kamo Daimyojin who dwelt in the district of Otagi, on the twenty first day of 
the eleventh month of the thirteenth year of Enryaku the Capital was removed from Nagaoka to 
this site. And from this time to the present day there have been thirty-two generations of 
Sovereigns during a period of three hundred and eighty years. Since that time many Sovereigns 
have changed the Capital to many places, but no other spot is so excellent as this, and Kwammu 
Tenno, deeply convinced of this fact, ordered his Ministers and all the able men of the country to 
have an image of clay 8 feet high made to stand perpetually, and to attire it in helmet and armour 
of iron and put a bow and arrows of iron in its hand, adjuring it to protect the capital if in ages to 
come any one should try to change it to any other province. It was buried, the top of 
Higashiyama in a standing position looking toward west, and this mound, whenever any great 
event was to happen, would stir and give forth sounds. It is called Shogun-zuka and is there to 
this day. And this Capital he gave the name of Heianjo, that is the city of peace and security. It 
ought to have been greatly revered by the Heike, for Kwammu Tennowas the sovereign from 
whom their house had its origin, and it was very foolish of them, without any good reason, to 
remove to another province the Capital that their Imperial Ancestor so much respected. Once in 
the time of of Saga Tenno, his predecessor on the Throne, the Emperor Heijo, persuaded by the 
Naishi-no-kami, Fujiwara Kusuri, attempted to change it, but as the Ministers and Courtiers and 
all the people were opposed to it he did not carry out his plan, so how impious was it of this Lay- 
priest Chancellor, a mere subject, to dare to remove the Capital that the Sacred Sovereign would 
not change. Most splendid and auspicious was the Ancient Capital; above it rose Hieizan its 
tutelary deity making soft the sunlight; on all sides the great temples ranged their roofs, protecting 
it with their holy influence while around a the farmers and townsfolk lived in 

[ P . 216] 

peaceful security on the Imperial Domains. But now few wagons plough their way over the 
deserted roads, and but an occasional passer-by is to be seen in some lowly equipage. The houses 
of the city that formerly jostled each other for room are now daily becoming fewer and more 
ruinous; broken up and made into rafts they float down the Kamo and Katsuragawa, and the 
furniture and possessions of their owners are piled up on boats and brought down to Fukuhara. 
Ah 1 how sad to see the Flower Capital thus turn into an expanse of rice fields. Who wrote them 
I know not, but these two stanzas were found affixed to a pillar of the deserted Palace. 

"Here for four hundred years has stood our loved city unchanging, 

When we regard it now-- Ah 1 , what a desolate waste. " 

"Leaving Miyako behind, the city where flowers ever blossom, 

Now, on this wind swept shore\8] , what are the perils we face?" 



On the ninth day of the sixth month the new capital was begun. Tokudaiji-no-Sadaisho Sanesada- 
no-Kyo and Tsuchi Mikado-no-Saisho-no-Chujo Michichika-no-Kyo with the former Sadaiben 
Yukitaka, taking many officials with them, went to Wada-no-No to plan the nine avenues of the 
new city, but on so doing they found that, though there was sufficient space for five avenues, 
there was none left for any beyond. On their returning and reporting this to the Throne, a 
Council of Courtiers was held to consider the matter, and though some suggested Innamino in 
the province of Harima as a better site, and others Koyano in the province of Settsu, yet in the 
end nothing was 

[p- 217] 

decided. As the thoughts of all still lingered about the old capital, and the new one was not yet 
fixed, everyone felt unsettled and distracted. The old inhabitants of the district were distressed at 
losing their land, while those who migrated to it were troubled by the difficulties of building; 
indeed it all seemed like an evil dream. Then the Saisho-no-Chujo Michichika said: "In China 
there appears to have been a capital built with three wide avenues and twelve gates, so why can 
we not build the Palace in a city of five avenues? At any rate let us build a temporary Palace." 
Thereupon the Nyudo, after a Council of Courtiers had been held, ordered Gojo-no-Dainagon 
Kunitsuna to use the income of the province of Suwo and build the Palace. Now this Kunitsuna 
was a noble of exceeding great wealth, so that he would not be at all embarrassed by having to 
build the Palace, but in using the income of the province it seemed hardly likely that the people 
would escape hardship. 

On account of all these critical happenings the Ceremony of the Accession of the Emperor was 
put off; indeed when the land was thus in confusion owing to the change of capital and the 
building of a new Palace, the time was highly unsuitable. In ancient times, in the days of a certain 
most revered Sovereign IqI, the Palace was built with a thatched roof without even any eaves, and, 
noticing that little smoke went up from the houses of the people fiol, the Emperor remitted the 
taxes, thus showing mercy to his subjects and succouring the land. So also we find an example of 
the same kind in China where in So the flowery terraces of the Shokwa Palace devastated the 
people, and in Shin the building of the splendid halls of A-ho [nl threw the country into disorder, 
while how different was the case of Tai-so of To, who built his palace of Rinsan of undressed logs 
and roofed it with a thatch of untrimmed reeds, who used no decorated boats or chariots, and 
spent no wealth on gorgeous dresses, fearing there- 

[p. 218] 

by to impoverish his subjects, so that he made no royal processions, and the pine-shoots grew on 
the tiles of his roof and the ivy clustered thickly on the walls of his palace. 



The ninth day of the sixth month was fixed for the commencement of the new Palace, the tenth 
day of the eighth month for the celebration of the raising of the roof-beams and the thirteenth 
day of the eleventh month for the Imperial Entry. The Ancient Capital was now falling into ruin, 
but the new one was full of life and bustle. Thus sadly did the summer pass and the autumn had 
already come on. When the autumn was almost half over, those who were in the new capital of 
Fukuhara went out to the places famous for moon- viewing. Some went along the shore from 
Suma to Akashi, recalling the ancient memories of the romance of Prince Genji, and some crossed 
over the strait to the Isle of Awaji to gaze at the moon at Ejima-ga-iso. Others made their way to 
Shiraura, Fukiage, Waka-no-Ura, Sumiyoshi, Naniwa, Takasago, or Onoue and stayed to view the 
moon at dawn before returning. Those who had stayed behind in the Ancient Capital went to 
Hirosawa at Fushimi for moon-viewing. 

Now Tokudaiji-no-Sadaisho Sanesada-no-Kyo, being greatly devoted to the moonlight scenery of 
the Ancient Capital, after the tenth day of the eighth month went up thither from Fukuhara. Ah 1 
how changed did he find everything. Before the front gate of the few remaining houses the grass 
had grown thickly, and in the dew-laden courts was a tall undergrowth of mugwort and rushes, 
while the chirp of the insects shrilled everywhere, and the chrysanthemum and purple orchid 
grew wild as in the plains. Only the Omiya Palace at Konoe Kawara still recalled the grandeur of 
former days. The Sadaisho proceeded to this Palace with his retainers and knocked, at the outer 
gate. From 

[p- 219] 

within the voice of a woman called reproachfully. "Who is it that brushes the dew from the 
weeds of such a neglected place?" "It is the Sadaisho who has come up from Fukuhara," was the 
reply. ' Ah, in that case, since the great gate is locked, I pray you enter by the postern on the 
eastern side," she answered. So the Taisho entered by the eastern postern. Now the occupant of 
the Palace, the Senior Dowager Empress, Consort of Konoe Tenno, finding time hang heavy on 
her hands, had opened the lattice on the south side of her apartment and was solacing herself by 
playing on the biwa, reviving the while her memories of former days, when unexpectedly the 
Sadaisho entered. His appearance greatly surprised the Empress, who laid aside her biwa and 
exclaimed: "Ah 1 is it indeed reality or am I in a dream? But pray enter." In the volume of the 
Genji Monogatari called 'Uji'[i2l it is written how the daughter of the Lay-devotee Prince ly}, 
oppressed with melancholy at the passing of autumn, spent the night playing the biwa to calm 
her troubled spirit, and becoming impatient at last for the moon of dawn to appear, her feelings 
overcame her and she beckoned to it with the plectrum of her biwa. By this we can understand 
something of the Empress' feelings. 

Now in this Palace was a waiting damsel who went by the name of 'Eve awaiting Maid,' and the 
reason of this nickname was that once the Empress had asked which was the most affecting, the 

awaiting a lover in the evening or the parting from him in the morning, and the girl had replied 
with the verse: 

"Sadder the bell at eve when we wait in vain for his coming; 
Nought is the cry of the bird, hast'ning the parting at dawn. " 

[p. 220] 

Calling this lady, Sanesada-no-Kyo conversed with her about many things past and present, and 
then he made the following song in the Imayo style about the ruined state of the former capital; 

"When we now view the capital of yore, 

How is it wasted like a reed-grown plain; 

Through all its chambers pours the moon's pale light, 

The blasts of autumn pierce me to the bone. " 

This strain he sang three times clearly, and the Empress and all her lady attendants were so 
moved that they buried their faces their sleeves and wept. 

Meanwhile the dawn broke and the Sadaisho took leave of them and returned to Fukuhara. On 
the way he called a certain Kurando of his company and said to him: "I think that lady-in-waiting 
seemed very much pained at parting, I pray you go and say something suitable to the occasion." 
So the Kurando hurried back again at his bidding and improvising this stanza recited it to her as 
though from his lord: 

"Though you said it is nought, the cry of the bird at the dawning; 
Now at this very dawn, why is your countenance sad?" 

Without hesitation the lady replied: 

"Though we are pained at the bell when at eve we grow weary of waiting; 
Yet when at dawn he returns, hateful the cry of the bird. " 

Then the Kurando hastened back again and related the whole affair to his lord, whereat the 
Sadaisho praised him saying that vas well said indeed; and ever after this Kurando was known 
Mono-ka-wa-no-kurando, after the first words of his poem. 

The three couplets of the lady and the Kurando run thus: 

Matsuyoi no fukeyuku kane no koe kikeba, 
Kaeru ashita no tori was mono ka wa. 

Mono ka wa to kiki ga iikemu tori no ne no, 
Kesa shimo nado ka kanashikarurammu. 

Mataba koso juke yuku kane no tsurakaramme 
Kaeru ashita no tori no ne zo uki. 



Since the Heike removed the capital to Fukuhara, people were much troubled by evil dreams, 
and many strange occurrences took place. One night, when the Nyudo had retired to his bed, 
suddenly the whole room was filled with faces innumerable, peering at him. Kiyomori was not at 
all perturbed but looked up and glared at them in return, whereupon they all faded away and 
vanished. And in the Oka Palace which was then being built, though there were no especially 
great timbers, yet one night there was heard a crashing sound as of great timbers falling, and then 
a great shout of laughter up in the air as though two or three thousand people were all laughing at 
once. Verily, it was considered, this must be the work of the Tengu l^l. so a guard was stationed, 
fifty men by day and a hundred by night, called the guard of the whizzing arrows. For when they 
shot these whizzing arrows toward the direction where a Tengu was, there was no sound, but if it 
was shot at a place where there was none, then there was a burst of laughter. Also one morning 
when Kiyomori went out of his chamber and passed through the wicket gate to view the garden, 
at once the garden was filled with a heap of skulls of dead men without number that rolled and 
writhed one over another, up and down and in and out, rattling and clattering as they moved. The 
Nyudo called to his attendants, but it chanced that there was no one to answer. Then all the 
skulls came together and united into one huge skull like a mountain in size, that seemed to fill 
the whole garden, perhaps a hundred and forty or fifty feet high, and in this great skull appeared 
millions of great eyes like the eyes of a man, that glared at the Nyudo with an unwinking stare. 
The Nyudo on his part was quite unmoved, and stood his ground glaring at them in return for 
some time, when as the dew or hoar-frost that melts in the sun, they vanished away leaving not a 

[p. 222] 

behind. Also it happened that this Lay-priest Chancellor had in his stables a horse that he was 
especially fond of, so that he appointed many attendants to look after it night and day, and one 
night a rat made a nest in its tail and produced young ones therein. As this was a very strange 
phenomenon, the Imperial diviners were consulted about it, and they declared it to be portent of 
grave significance. Now this horse had been presented to the Nyudo by Oba Saburo Kagechika of 
Sagami, and renowned as the finest horse in all the eight eastern province. It was black with a 
small patch of white on its forehead and was named Mochizuki. It was afterward given to Abe- 
no- Yasuchika chika, Chief of the Diviners. Now in former times, in the days of Tenchi Tenno, a 
rat made its nest and brought forth young in the tail of a horse of the Imperial Stables, and 
thereupon there followed an insurrection of bandits in Korea. It recorded in the 'Nihon Shoki'. It 
happened also that a young retainer of Gen Chunagon Masayori-no-Kyo had a very ominous 
dream. He dreamed that he was in the Imperial Department Rites in the Palace and that a 
number of Lady Officials of the Court, clad in the stately robes of ancient ceremony, had 
assembled there as for a council. She who sat in the lowest seat, and who seemed to be a 
supporter of the Heike, was driven out the assembly, while an old man of dignified bearing, who 

sat in the highest place, declared that the Sword of Commission [1 si that was deposited with the 
Heike should be returned and given to Yoritomo the former Uhyoye-no-suke, now in exile in the 
province of Izu; upon which another elder who sat by his side demanded that afterwards it 
should be given to his grandson. On the young samurai asking in his dream what was the meaning; 
this, yet another old man told him that the Lady Official who sat in the lowest place and was a 
partizan of the Heike was Itsukushima Daimyojin, while he who said that the Sword 

[p- 223] 

should be given to Yoritomo was Hachiman Daibosatsu, and the other who wished it given to his 
grandson was Kasuga Daimyojin, at the same time informing him that he himself was Takeuchi 
Myojin. When he awoke, the young man told this dream to someone, so that it came to pass that 
the Nyudo heard of it, whereupon he immediately sent a messenger to Masayorino Kyo bidding 
him send the young samurai who had had this dream that he might question him further about it. 
The young samurai, fearing some evil consequences, ran away, and Masayori himself went to the 
mansion of the Nyudo and denied the whole story; after which no more was heard about it. It 
was a remarkable thing too that the silver-mounted halberd that had been given to the Nyudo in 
a divine dream by Itsukushima Daimyojin after he had worshipped at her shrine when he was 
Aki-no-kami, suddenly disappeared one night in a strange manner. How sad it was that though 
the Heike had guarded the Imperial House and protected the Empire up till now, they should 
disobey the Imperial Order and be deprived of their Sword of Commission. 



Now when the Saisho Nyudo Seirai heard these things in his retirement at Koya, he exclaimed: 
"Truly the end of the supremacy of the Heike draws nigh. That Itsukushima Daimyojin should 
favour the Heike is quite natural, and as that deity is the third daughter of the Dragon King 
Shakatsura, she will be a female deity; moreover it is also not without reason that Hachiman 
Daibosatsu [i6l should speak of giving the Sword of Commission to Yoritomo, but I do not at all 
understand why Kasuga Daimyojin should ask for it to be given to his grandson 

[p. 224] 

afterwards. Can it be that after the Heike have been destroyed and the Genji have succeeded to 
their power the Courtier Ministers of the line of Kamatari will become rulers of the country?" 
Then a certain priest who was with him answered: "Verily the Glorious Deities deign to put 
away their effulgence and descend to earth to become incarnate in divers manners, at times 
appearing as female deities and sometimes again as ordinary mortals, and seeing that this 
Itsukushima Daimyojin indeed possesses the Three Enlightenmentsjrzl and the Six Supernatural 
Powers [i8l, it is not difficult for her to appear as a mortal. Thus though a man may weary of this 
fleeting world and enter the True Path, and devote himself with a single mind to the Future 
Enlightenment so that all else is nothing to him, yet when he hears of good government he will 
rejoice, and when he learns of trouble he will be moved. This is indeed the way of all men. 

Now on the second day of the ninth month it came to pass that Oba Kagechika of Sagami rode 
hard to Fukuhara with these tidings: "On the seventeenth day of the eighth month the former 
Uhyoye-no-nuke Yoritomo who was exiled to Izu, in league with his father in law Hojo-no-Jito 
Tokimasa, attacked the residence of the deputy governor of Izu, Izumino Hangwan Kanetaka, by 
night and slew him, after which with some three hundred horsemen under Doi, Tsuchiya, 
Okazaki and others, he retired on the defensive to Ishibashiyama. I then, having got together 
about a thousand horsemen of our partizans, at 

tp- 225] 

once pressed on and attacked them and drove them headlong, so that Yoritomo after making a 
desperate stand with seven or eight horsemen who were left, fled to Sugiyama of Doi for refuge. 
Then Hatakeyama on our side gathered together some five hundred horsemen and attacked 
Miura Osuke of the Genji who mustered about three hundred. The fight took place on the shore 
of Kotsubo at Yui, and Hatakeyama was defeated and retired to the province of Musashi. After 
this Hatakeyama gathered his whole clan with Kowagoe, Inake, Koyamada, Edo and Kasai, seven 
parties of soldiers in all, and numbering about two thousand, and besieged Miura in his castle of 
Kinugasa. After attacking it was taken and Osuke was slain, the survivors of his force taking boats 
at Kuri-ga-hama and fleeing to Awa and Kazusa." 



Thus were the Heike soon rudely awakened from their pleasant diversion of removing the capital. 
The younger among the Nobles and Courtiers exclaimed with apprehension: "Ah it seems that 
some crisis is at hand, let us then prepare to fight at once." Now at this time Hatakeyama Shoji 
Shigeyoshi, Koyamada-no-Betto Arishige and Utsu-no-miya-no-Saemon Tomotsuna were in the 
capital taking their turn as Imperial Guard, and Hatakeyama said: "We all know that Hojo is 
friendly with Yoritomo and likely to plot with him, but it is difficult to think that the others 
have thus opposed the Throne." Whereat many others agreed with him, though there were others 
who dissented, murmuring: "No, no, a great crisis is upon us." The Lay priest Chancellor on his 
part flew into a great rage: "This Yoritomo," he exclaimed, "ought to have been executed when 
his father Yoshitomo rebelled in the twelfth month of the first year of Heiji, but the urgent 
entreaties of the late Ike-no-prevailed and hr was sent into exile. Now he is so far 

[ P . 226] 

wanting in any gratitude as to draw his bow against our house. How can the gods and the Three 
Sacred Things pardon such iniquity? Surely he will suffer the punishment of heaven." 

Now the first example of an opponent of the Throne was in the fourth year of the reign of Iware 
Hiko-no-Mikoto (Jimmu Tenno), when in Takao village in the district of Nagusa in the province 
of Kishu there was a certain spider, long of legs and short of body, whose strength was greater 
than that of the a strongest man, that wrought great damage to the people. The Imperial Army 
went forth to meet it, and when they had read the Imperial Decree, made a net of wild vines 
with which they caught it and killed it. Since that time the following persons have attempted 
treacherously to overthrow the Imperial Authority. Oishi-no-Yamamaru, Prince Oyama, 
Yamada-no-Ishikawa, the Minister Moriya, Soga-no-Iruka, Otomo-no-Matori, Bunya-no-Miyada, 
Tachibana-no-Hayanari, Hikami-no-Kawatsugi, the Imperial Prince Iyo, Dazai-no-Shoni, 
Fujiwara-no-Hirotsugu, Erni-no-oshikatsu, Prince Sahara, Igami-no-Hirokimi, Fujiwara-no- 
Nakanari, Taira-no-Masakado, Fujiwara-no-Sumitomo, Abe-no-Sadato, Muneto, the former 
Tsushima-no-kami Minamoto-no-Yoshichika, Akusafu, and Akuemon-no-kami, more than 
twenty in all, and of all these there was not one that attained his desire, but all of them left their 
carcasses on the mountain or plain, while their heads were exposed on the public scaffold. In the 
present generation the Throne is held in light esteem, but in former days when the Imperial 
Decree was read withered herbs and trees would straightway put forth flowers and fruit, and the 
birds of the air would obey. Not so very long ago, when the Mikado of the Engi era (Daigo 
Tenno), was proceeding to Shinzen-en, a heron was seen by the brink of a pond, and the Emperor 
ordered an attendant of the sixth rank to catch it. The Courtier wondered how he was to do so, 
but as it was the Imperial Mandate, he went towards it, when the heron at once prepared to fly 
away. "The Mikado Commands," cried the Courtier, whereupon the bird crouched down and did 

[p- 227] 

move, so that he caught it and brought it to the Emperor. "How admirable indeed," said His 
Majesty, "that this heron should thus obey the Imperial Behest; let the fifth rank be hereby 
conferred upon it." Moreover the Emperor with his own hand bound round its neck a tablet 
declaring that from that day it should be promoted to be the King of the herons, after which it 
was set free. This heron was not; intended to be taken to make sport for His Majesty, but to 
show the power of the Imperial Authority. 



To quote a foreign precedent Tan, Crown Prince of En, was taken captive by the Emperor of 
Shin and kept imprisoned for twelve years. Then, weeping, he petitioned the Emperor saying: "I 
have an old mother in my native land and I long to see her once more; grant me I pray you 
permission to return." But the Emperor only derided him saying: "If horns grow on a horse and a 
crow be found with a white head, then I will allow you to return." Then Tan, prostrating himself 
on the ground and looking up to heaven, prayed earnestly that these things might be caused to 
happen, that he might return to his country and see his mother once again. Now Myo-on- 
Bosatsu bol went to Ryosen |2ol in India to punish the unfilial, and Koshi and Genkai[2iJ in China 
first taught the people filial piety. So the Three Treasures of the Hidden and Revealed felt 
compassion for his filial desire, and there came a horse with horns to the Palace, and a crow with 
a white head appeared sitting on a tree in the Imperial Garden. The Emperor was greatly 
astonished at such an extraordinary thing and, out of respect for his 

[ P . 228] 

Royal Word, he remitted the imprisonment of Tan|22l and sent him back to his native country. 

But afterwards he repented of his generosity. Now between the countries of En and Shin there 
was another country called So, and on its boundary ran a great river over which there was a 
bridge called the bridge of So; and The Emperor sent his troops to this bridge to cause him to fall 
into the river when he should have crossed to the middle of it. But though he fell into the midst 
of the river, he was so fortunate as not to drown, but going as though on dry land he safely 
reached the farther bank. Wondering how this could be, he looked back and perceived that 
innumerable turtles were floating on the water, and that they had ranged themselves in a line on 
the surface so that he had been able to cross over on their backs. Tan, filled with resentment, 
would not submit to the Emperor so he sent his army to destroy him. Tan, greatly alarmed, sent 
for a certain warrior named Kei-kajjrjl and made him Prime Minister, whereupon Kei-ka in turn 
summoned another soldier called Den-ko to his aid. Then Denko said: "Did you send for me to 
assist you thinking I was young and strong? A Kirin may spring a thousand miles it is said, but 
when he is old he is worse than a bad horse; so how can I, now that I am old, be of any use to you? 
It will be better to find a more vigorous soldier than I am." "Ah," replied Kei-ka, "do not tell 
anyone of this affair." "If this thing becomes known," answered Denko, "I shall lose my reputation 
in the future, and there is no shame worse than that one lose his good name." So saying he dashed 
his head against the plum tree that stood by the gate and died. 

Now there was another warrior named Han-yo-ki, and he was a subject of Shin, but as his parents 
and relations had been put to death by the Emperor, he fled to En. Then the Emperor of Shin 
sent a proclamation through the four seas saying: 

[p- 229] 

Whoever shall bring me a map of En and the head of Han-yo-ki shall receive five hundred 

pounds weight of gold." Then Kei-ka went to Han-yo-ki and said: "I hear that anyone who takes 
your head to the Emperor of Shin will receive five hundred pounds of gold; if then you will give 
me your head that I may take it to him, he will certainly divert himself by looking at it. At that 
time it will not be difficult for me to draw a sword and stab him to death." When Han-yo-ki 
heard this proposal he was greatly amazed and then drew a sigh of gladness. "The Emperor has 
slain my parents, my uncles and my brethren," he exclaimed, "and I brood over it day and night, 
for an unbearable resentment has pierced me to the bone; if therefore you will kill him indeed, 
most willingly I give you my head." And he cut off his head and died. 

Now there was another soldier named Shin-bu-yo who had fled to the land of En when he was 
but a boy of thirteen, after having taken revenge on his enemy; he was a matchless warrior whom 
little children would embrace when he smiled, while grown men would faint at his angry frown. 
This man Kei-ka took with him as a guide to the capital of Shin and they both set out. One night 
as they were stopping at a certain mountain village they heard the sound of music coming from 
another hamlet near by, and made divination from the tune that was being played in order to 
determine whether their enterprise would be successful. "The enemy is water and we are fire. 
The rainbow cannot pierce the sun. Our aim will be difficult to carry out," was the oracle. 
However, as it was not convenient to return now, they went on and in due time arrived at Kan- 
yo-kyu the capital of Shin, and announced that they had brought to the Emperor the map of En 
and the head of Han-yo-ki. The Emperor sent an envoy to receive their presents, but, as they 
refused to deliver them up except to the Emperor himself, he bade that they should be 
summoned to be received in audience by the Court. Now the circumference of the city of Kan- 
yo-kyu was eighteen thousand three hundred and eighty miles, and 

[p- 23°] 

the Palace was built up three miles above the level plain. Here was the Hall of Longevity and the 
Gate of Eternal Youth: a sun wrought of pure gold adorned it, and a moon of silver, and it was 
strewn with sand of pearls, rubies, and gold. It was enclosed on all sides by a wall of iron four 
hundred feet high, and over the Palace was stretched a net of iron to keep away all evil demons 
from the under world; and as this wall obstructed the wild geese in their flight in spring and 
autumn, an iron gate called the Wild Goose Gate was made in it for them to pass through. 
Within it was the Palace called the Aho-den where the Emperor was wont to proceed to give 
audience for the affairs of state: it was nine cho in length from east to west and five cho from 
south to north, its height being three hundred and sixty feet, while banners fifty feet in height 
could easily stand under its floor. It was roofed with tiles of emerald and shone with gold and 
silver below. When the two, Kei-ka carrying the map of En and Shin-bu-yo the head of Han-yo- 
ki, had half ascended the jewelled staircase, Shin-bu-yo, overcome by the immensity and 
splendour of the Palace, was seized with a fit of trembling. The retainers, seeing this, said: 
"Common people must not approach our Lord; the superior man does not approach the common 
herd, if he does so he risks his life." Then Kei-ka turned and replied: "Bu-yo has no treacherous 
intent, but he is a rustic only accustomed to the ways of the country, and has no experience of a 
Court like this, so he is naturally embarrassed." Thus the retainers were pacified, and they were 
permitted to enter the Emperor's presence and exhibit to him the map and the head. Now as the 
Emperor was looking at the head, he caught sight of a gleaming knife at the bottom of the box in 
which it was presented, and immediately started back, but as he did so Kei-ka seized his sleeve 
and struck at his breast with the knife. At this time, though the Palace was crowded with scores 
of thousands of armed retainers, not one of them dared to lift a hand to help their master; they 

only deplored the crime of such a treacherous subject. But the Emperor entreated 
[p- 231] 

Kei-ka saying; "I pray you allow me a short respite, for I desire greatly to hear the Empress play 
on the Koto once more;" to which request Kei-ka assented. Now the Emperor had three thousand 
consorts, among whom the lady Kwa-yo was an unrivalled player on the Koto, so that the wrath 
of the fiercest warrior was calmed when he heard her, and the birds would descend from the air, 
and the trees and flowers move in harmony with her music, and now that in tears she played to 
her Lord for the last time none could resist the spell of her melody. Kei-ka bowed his head and 
listened, and for a while his fierce and revengeful mood relaxed. Then the lady Kwa-yo began a 
second piece and the words that she sung were these: 

"Though a seven-foot screen may be high, 

Is it not possible to leap over it? 

Though a length of silk gauze may be strong, 

If you jerk it will it not tear?" 

These words passed unnoticed by Kei-ka, but the Emperor heard and understood, and suddenly 
tearing his sleeve, he leaped over the seven foot screen that stood near and ran and took refuge 
behind a copper pillar. Then Kei-ka sprang up fiercely and hurled the dagger at him, but the 
Emperor's Physician in Waiting immediately threw his medicine bag so that it caught the dagger, 
which struck and pierced half through the six foot copper pillar. Kei-ka had no other weapon, so 
he could do no more, and the Emperor returning to his place took his own sword and cut him to 
pieces, Shin-bu-yo being put to death also. Then the Emperor gathered his army and marched 
against Tan of En. Thus if the blue sky does not permit, the rainbow cannot pierce through the 
sun; the Emperor escaped and Tan was destroyed at the last. Yoritomo will also come to an end 
in like manner, said those who wished to flatter the Heike. 



Now this Yoritomo had been spared and banished to Hiru- 

tp- 232] 

ga-kojima in Izu in the domain of Hojo on the twentieth day of the third month of the first year 
of Eiryaku only through the urgent pleading of the late Ike-no-zenni, when his father Sama-no- 
kami Yoshitomo was executed in the twelfth month of the first year of Heiji for the rebellion 
that he made. He was at that time fourteen years of age, and having spent some twenty autumns 
in exile was now of mature years; and if one should wonder why he stirred up a revolt in this 
year, it was because of the exhortation of Mongaku Shonin of Takao. 

This Mongaku was formerly known as Endo Musha Morito and was the son of Watanabe-no- 
Endo Sakon-no-Shogen Mochito, having been a retainer of Josei-mon-in, a consort of Toba-in, but 
at the age of nineteen, possessed by a desire to enter the Way of Buddha, he shaved his head and 
started to practise mortification of the flesh. With the intention of proving how much he could 
endure, he stripped himself naked and lay dawn on his back in a bamboo thicket in the depth of 
the mountains under the scorching sun during the hottest days of the sixth month, when there 
was no breath of wind, and the horse flies and mosquitoes and wild bees and ants and every kind 
of poisonous insect came and settled on his body and bit and stung him; but in spite of this he did 
not move a muscle. Thus he remained for the space of seven days, but on the eighth day he arose 
and asked whether religious asceticism demanded as much as this or not. "If it was so severe" was 
the reply, "how could people, survive it?" Thus reassured, he began his austere life by going to 
Kumano, intending to live in retirement at Nachi. Now at Nachi is a famous water fall, and 
Mongaku determined to bathe in it as a religious exercise. It was past the tenth day of the twelfth 
month when he arrived there and the snow had fallen thickly; the river that ran through the 
valley was silent in its icy shroud; the freezing blasts blew fiercely from the mountain-tops and 
the water-fall was a mass of crystal icicles, while the 

[p- 233] 

twigs were everywhere hidden under their heavy coat of snow. Mongaku, invoking the magic 
power ^l of Fudo Myo-o fisl . immersed himself up to the neck in the pool of the water-fall and 
remained thus two, three, then four days, but on the fifth, unable to endure any longer, losing his 
senses he was washed away by the mighty volume of the falling water, and carried some six or 
seven hundred yards down stream, his body dashing against the sharp-edged rocks as it rose and 
fell in the swirling current. Then suddenly there appeared a beautiful boy who seized his hand 
and drew him safely up on to the bank. The bystanders, seeing his dangerous plight, soon kindled 
a fire and warmed him so that he recovered consciousness, for it was not his fate to perish, but as 
soon as he again drew his breath and opened his eyes, he glared about him in great anger, crying 
out with a loud voice: "I am under a vow to stand under the water-fall for thrice seven days and 
repeat the magic invocation of Fudo three hundred thousand times, and to day being only the 
fifth day, who has dared to pull me out? " On hearing these words the hair of their heads stood 

up and they could say nothing. Then he plunged again into the water fall and stood as before for 
two days, and on the second day eight boys appeared and grasped both his hands to draw him 
from the water, but he resisted them strongly and would not move. On the third day he again 
became as one dead, whereupon, that the water fall should not be polluted, two heavenly youths, 
with their hair bound up tightly, descended from above the fall, and rubbed the whole body of 
Mongaku from head to foot with their warm and perfumed hands, so that he breathed again as 
one in a dream, and asked who it might be that thus had compassion on him. "We are Kongara 
and Seitakajjgl, the messengers of Fudo Myo-o," 

[p- 2 34] 

replied the two youths, "and we have come in obedience to the command of the Myo-o. 
Mongaku has made a sublime vow and is now undergoing unparalleled austerities; go ye and 
succour him." Then Mongaku cried with a loud voice; "Where is the abode of the Myo-o?" "His 
abode is in the Tosotten, the fourth Heaven of Desire," they replied as they ascended far aloft 
above the clouds. Mongaku clasped his hands and exclaimed fervently: "Now am I full of hope, 
for even Fudo Myo-o knows of my austerities;" and he again took up his position in the water fall. 
But from henceforth he was favoured by most gracious signs of divine assistance; the bitter wind 
no longer pierced his body, and the falling water felt warm and soothing, and so he completed the 
three weeks of his vow and afterwards spent a thousand days in retirement at Nachi. Then he 
started to travel round the whole country as a pilgrim, ascending Omine three times, Katsuragi 
twice, and then proceeding to Koya, Kogawa, Kinbusen, Hakusan, Tateyama, the peak of Fuji, Izu, 
Hakone, Togakushi in Shinano, and Haguro in Dewa, until at last, feeling a longing for his native 
province, he returned to the Capital, hardened like a well tempered blade by his privation, and 
wise enough to pray down a flying bird from the sky. 



Thereafter Mongaku retired to the mountain recesses of Takao to meditate. In this mountain was 
a temple called Shingoji, which Wake-no-Kiyomaro had built in the time of Shotoku Tenno, and 
which had not been repaired for a long time. In spring the mists filled it, and in autumn the fog 
was its only occupant; the doors had been blown down by the winds and lay rotting under the 
fallen leaves. The rain and dew had despoiled it of tiles, and the altar of Buddha stood bare to the 

[p- 2 35] 

sky. No priest abode there to read the Sutras, only the sun and moon shone betimes into it. 
Mongaku, having made a vow to rebuild this temple, drew up a roll for donations and went 
round in all quarters to seek supporters, and in the course of his wanderings he came to the 
Hojuji-den where the Ho-o was residing, and requested His Majesty to make a contribution. But 
it chanced that the Ho-o was at the time engaged in some amusement and paid no attention, so 
Mongaku, who was naturally a bold and uncompromising character, knowing nothing of the Ho- 
o's disinclination, but only thinking that the attendants had not told him, forced his way through 
into the Imperial Garden and shouted out loudly: "Oh most merciful Lord, how can it be that 
you pay no heed to such a matter as this? And forthwith he spread out the roll of Kwanjincho[28] 
and lifting it up high before him began to read; 

"Contribution roll of the novice Mongaku, who, desiring to obtain the great blessedness of 
happiness in this world and in the world to come, respectfully begs the assistance of all, high and 
low, priest and layman, in building a temple on the holy site of Mount Takao. When we consider 
it, all-embracing is the Eternal Mind feql . Though we use the appellations of Buddha and Mankind, 
albeit there is no distinction between these things, yet, since the clouds of Illusion accompanying 
the Buddha nature spread thick over the mountain of the Twelve Causes of Existence hol . the 
Moon of the Pure Lotos of the mind is obscured and does not appear in the Great Abyss of the 
Three Poisons pul and Four 

[p- 236] 

Prides]^. Alas! how pitiable! The sun of Buddha quickly set, and dark and gloomy is the way of 
the revolving wheel of births and deaths. So men give themselves up to passion and wine. Who 
will be grateful for the delusion of the raging elephant and the capering monkey M ? How can 
they who hate mankind and the Law hope to escape the torments of Emma and his jailers? I, 
Mongaku, though I have put away the dust of this world and donned the robe of the recluse, find 
evil Karma still mighty in my heart; day and night it arises, and the virtue that sprouts up within 
me becomes unpleasing to my ear and is cast away. Alas! how painful! Returning again to the fire 
pits of the Three Ways bj^l , I must revolve through the grievous wheel of the Four Births hsl , so 
that, through the ten thousand times ten thousand volumes of the Sakya Sage, revealing in every 
volume the affinity of the Buddha seed, even the most true Law of Cause and Effect, it may not 
be impossible to attain to the Farther Shore of Perfect Enfightenment h6l . Thus I, Mongaku, 

weeping at the gate of this life of impermanence, to encourage priests and laymen, high and low, 
to make connection with the Paradise of the highest Lotus Throne, am intending to build a holy 
place for the Buddhas and Bodhisats. Takao-zan is a mount of high peaks, thick wooded like the 
Vulture Peak of Ghridrakuta, and of quiet valleys and mossy retreats like those of Shosando in 
China. The mountain streams gurgle and fall in foamy cascades, the apes scream in the crags and 
sport in the branches. Remote from the haunts of man, free from the dust and noise of the world, 
there is nothing to disturb our devotions: it is a very excellent site, most suitable for worshipping 
Buddha. The contributions are small; who is there who will not assist? Whoever gathers a little 
sand for a 

[p- 237] 

pagoda acquires merit in his Karma relation, how much more he who contributes even a small 
amount of money or property? So shall all both in city and country, far and near, rustics, priests, 
and laymen, sing of the Sovereign and this age and its contentment as the golden age of the rule of 
Gyo and ShunbjjL in China, and smile as those who meet after a long parting. And if these sacred 
rites and mysteries are performed in their entirety, all shall attain to the Terrace of the True Gate 
of the One Buddha, and enjoy, the immeasurable and innumerable blessings of the Three Buddha 
persons I38I . The above composed by me Mongaku with the purpose of obtaining subscriptions as 
stated. The third month of the third year of Jisho. 



Now it happened that at this time the Dajo-daijin Myo-on-in was playing the Biwa and reciting, 
while Azechi-no-Dainagon Sukekata-no-Kyo was playing the six-stringed Koto, and his son Uma- 
no-kami Suketoki was singing and dancing the Saibara, Morisada, an attendant of the Fourth Rank, 
keeping time meanwhile and singing various Imayo measures, so that the Palace resounded with 
musical strains and they were all very merry. The Ho-o himself had deigned to join in the singing 
also, when suddenly the loud and strident voice of Mongaku broke in on their melody, spoiling 
the harmony and entirely upsetting the rhythm. "What is this?" exclaimed the Ho-o in great 
wrath, "who is this boor who dares to interrupt Our Imperial Pleasure? Strike him down, 
someone!" At this the young and impetuous among the samurai in attendance rushed forward, 
each trying to be foremost, headed by one, Sukeyuki Hangwan by name, who 

[p. 238] 

shouted out, "Down with this villain who dares to disturb His Majesty's Amusement." "I don't 
move from here until I receive the grant of a manor towards the cost of my temple on Mount 
Takao," replied Mongaku calmly, and then as he saw that they meant to attack him, shifting the 
Kanjincho to his other hand, he gave Sukeyuki Hangwan a blow on the head that knocked off his 
eboshi, and then doubling his fist struck him another in the chest that sent him flying backwards, 
so that he took to his heels and fled into the interior of the Palace. He then drew from his bosom 
a dirk with the hilt wound with the hair of a horse's tail, and baring the blade stood waiting, 
ready to strike down any who approached. As he sprang round in all directions with the 
Kanjincho in his left hand and the blade gleaming like ice in his right, it looked as if he had a 
sword in each hand. Nobles and Courtiers, terrified at such an amazing scene, ran about in all 
directions, so that the party of the Ho was quite broken up and the whole Palace was in an 
uproar. Then one of the Palace Guard, Ando Musha Migimune by name, drew his sword and 
rushed upon Mongaku, who also sprang forward to meet him. Ando Musha, not wishing to shed 
blood, turned the edge of his weapon and struck him a heavy blow with the back of his sword- 
arm, and then, as he staggered back a little, dropping his sword sprang on him with a shout to 
grapple with him. Mongaku, falling undermost, gripped his opponent's right arm as he did so and 
held on tight, but in spite of this Ando managed to seize him by the throat, and so, being about 
equal in strength, they rolled about in their struggles, now one being uppermost and now the 
other, until the others, who had held back so far, summoned up courage to rush in and 
overpower Mongaku and bind him, after which he was dragged out and handed over to the 
underlings of the Kebiishi-cho. As they were taking him away, he drew himself up and glared at 
the Palace, crying out in a loud voice, the while he pranced up and down with anger: "Sol not 
only do I get nothing, but I am treated in this outrageous manner. Know that 

[p- 239] 

the Three Worlds are to be consumed by fire, and how shall even the Palace of the Sovereign 
escape this fate? Even if one is an Emperor who boasts of the Ten Virtues, will he not descend to 
the Yellow Springs of Death and be tormented by the Ox-headed and Horse-headed Jailers of 

Hell?" Then the order was given to put this insolent priest into prison and he was led off to be 
confined. Sukeyuki Hangwan, covered with shame at the ignominy of having his eboshi knocked 
off, did not appear at Court for a longtime. Ando Musha, however, was rewarded for boldly 
seizing Mongaku by being at once promoted to the position of Uma-no-jo over the heads of 
others senior to him. 

About this time it happened that Bifuku-mon in died and there was a general amnesty so that 
Mongaku was set free, but as soon as he was let out he set forth again with his Kanjincho to 
collect contributions everywhere; and not only so, but wherever he went he proclaimed that the 
age was corrupt and that both the Emperor and his subjects would be destroyed, with the result 
that, as such disrespectful words could not be permitted, he was not allowed to remain in the 
Capital but banished to Izu. Now Izu-no-Kami Nakatsuna, the eldest son of Gensammi Nyudo, 
was at this time Governor of Izu, and when this sentence was pronounced he gave orders that 
Mongaku should be brought to Izu by ship from the Tokaido, or Eastern Coast, and sent two or 
three inferior officials of the Kebiishi to take charge of him. These officers then said to him: "It is 
the custom for minor officials like ourselves to profit somewhat on these occasions; no doubt 
your reverence has many friends in various places, so when you are sent into exile to a far 
province, they will certainly wish to give you some presents, and food and necessaries for the 
journey; will you not then communicate with them?" "I have few friends of that sort," replied 
Mongaku with a laugh, "but there is someone who lives on Higashi-yama who might perhaps do 
something for me; I will write a letter." Then they produced some very cheap paper, whereat 
Mongaku became 

[p. 240] 

very angry, exclaiming: "How do you expect me to write on paper like this" and he threw it back 
at them. Then they got some good thick paper and handed it to him, but Mongakut laughed and 
said: "Unfortunately I cannot write, so please write the letter for me." So one of them wrote at his 
dictation as follows: "I, Mongaku, having the intention of building a temple on Mount Takao, 
have been traveling about the country to raise money by subscription, but the age being such an 
one as it is, it has pleased the Emperor not only to refuse me any assistance, but even to banish 
me to the distant province of Izu. This being so I am much in need of supplies and comforts for 
the long journey, and beg that you will assist me in the matter." When he had written it, he asked 
to whom he should address it. "To Kwannon at Kiyomizu," replied Mongaku. "Do you then make 
fools of minor officials like us?" they asked indignantly. "By no means," replied Mongaku, "I 
always rely on Kwannon of Kiyomizu in need, and indeed now I have no one else on whom to 

Then they took ship from the port of Ano in Ise, and when they came to Tenryu-nada in the 
province of Totomi a great tempest rose, and the ship seemed likely to be overturned by the 
mountainous waves. The helmsman and the sailors gave up all hope, and thinking their last hour 
had come, fell to praying, some calling on Kwannon and others repeating the Nembutsu of the 
dying. Mongaku, however, was all this time lying asleep in the bottom of the ship, snoring loudly, 
until aroused by the confusion he suddenly sprang up, went to the side of the ship, and glaring 
angrily at the waves, shouted; "Hoi Thou Dragon King of the Waters] What meanest thou by 
endangering the ship in which is so holy a sage bound to accomplish such a great vow. Knowest 
thou not, O most worthless of Dragon Gods, that such conduct will receive the punishment of 
Heaven?" Then the wind and the waves were suddenly stilled and they arrived safely at the 

shores of Izu. Since leaving Kyoto Mongaku had always kept vividly in his mind the hope of 
returning to build 

[p. 241] 

his temple on Mount Takao, and prayed fervently that he might not die until he had carried out 
this vow, but if it was impossible that it should be fulfilled, then he would die on the way to 
exile. With this intention he fasted all the way to Izu, a period of thirty-one days, for as the wind 
was not always favourable they had to touch at many havens and islands, but yet in spite of this, 
his natural vigour did not fail as he continued his meditations at the bottom of the ship. Verily 
there were many reasons for thinking he was no ordinary person. 



After this Mongaku was ordered to live in the inner recesses of Nagoya under the care of Kondo 
Shiro Kunitaka, a native of that part, and as Hiru-ga-kojima, the place where yoye-no-suke 
Yoritomo was exiled, was not far off, he led often to go there and talk over many things. On one 
of these occasions he said: "Among the Heike Komatsu Daijin is a man of strong mind and 
sagacious in counsel, but the downfall of that family seems to be approaching, for he was buried 
in the eighth month of last year. Now among the Genji and Heike there is no leader as 
distinguished as yourself, so now quickly raise a revolt and subjugate the country!" But Yoritomo 
answered: "That is not my wish; as you know, I was succoured by the late Ike-no-Zenni, and to 
show my gratitude I read through one part of the Hokke-Kyo every day on her behalf. That is all 
I can do." "He who will not accept the gifts of Heaven," continued Mongaku, "will be considered 
blameworthy, and he who does not act when the time arrives, will be overtaken by misfortune, 
as it is written. That you may think I speak thus only to tempt you, see by this how deep has 
been my regard for your house." And he drew from his bosom a bundle wrapped in white linen 
from which he took a skull. "This is the skull of your honoured father, the late 

[p. 242] 

Sama-no-kami Yoshitomo. After Heiji it was buried in front of his prison house and there was no 
one to say the prayers for him, so I begged his head from the warders, and hanging it round my 
neck, went round from temple to temple praying for his happy rebirth, and no doubt he is long 
since delivered from all evil. Thus you see that I have been a most loyal servant of your father." 
Yoritomo was not quite assured of the truth of all this, but anyhow, when he was told that it was 
his father's skull, he was moved to tears. After a while he restrained his tears and said; "How can I 
raise a revolt unless I receive the Imperial Pardon?" "That is easy to arrange," said Mongaku, "for I 
will go up and get it for you." Yoritomo smiled sarcastically. "Why you yourself are under the 
Imperial displeasure; how then do you talk of helping others? Even for such a wise priest it will 
not be easy." At this Mongaku flew into a rage and answered: "If it were my own pardon it might 
be so, but as it is for you, where is the difficulty? From here to the new capital of Fukuhara is not 
more than three days journey, and I shall have to spend a day there to get the Imperial Edict, so 
that the whole matter will not take me more than seven or eight days." So saying he took his 

Returning to Nagoya he told his disciples that he was going on a week's pilgrimage in the 
mountains of Izu, and set out. Sure enough in three days he arrived at Fukuhara, and as he had 
some connexion with Uhyoye-no-kami Mitsuyoshi, he went to him at once and said: "If I can 
obtain an Imperial Edict for the pardon of the former Uhyoye-no-suke Yoritomo, who is now in 
exile in Izu, we can gather together the men of eight provinces, and so overthrow the Heike and 
give peace to the land." "Indeed," replied Mitsuyoshi, "I am now in an awkward condition, for I 
have been deprived of my three offices, and as for the Ho-o, he is closely confined, so it may be 
difficult to do anything, but I will go and see." And he went and acquainted the Ho-o with the 
affair secretly. His Majesty was exceedingly pleased to hear it and granted the Edict forthwith. 

[p- 243] 

Then Mongaku, greatly rejoiced, hung it round his neck, and after three more days again arrived 
at Izu. Now Yoritomo was very anxious about it all, and was wondering what would happen to 
the reckless priest as the result of his rashness, when at the hour of the Horse on the eighth day 
he presented himself with the laconic remark; "Here is the Edict." Then Yoritomo with great 
respect put on a new eboshi and a white robe, and washing his hands and his mouth, took the 
Edict and raised it three times to his forehead, after which he opened it and read as follows: 

"For several years the Heike have set at nought Our Imperial Influence, and have not scrupled to 
govern the country according to their will. This Realm is the Land of the Gods, and their Virtue 
has descended to its Sovereigns from generation to generation. So that, since the establishment of 
the Imperial Line, for a thousand years and more, those who have dared to oppose Our rule and 
endanger the Empire have all perished without exception. Therefore with the ghostly aid of the 
High Gods, and relying on this Our Imperial Edict, do thou quickly destroy the Heike line, and 
subdue the enemies of Our House. Thus shalt thou continue the traditions of a warrior family 
and surpass the loyal service of thy ancestors, exalting thyself and all thy house. The fourteenth 
day of the seventh month of the fourth year of Jisho. Given through the former Uhyoye-no-kami 
Mitsuyoshi. To the former Uhyoye-no-suke Dono." 

This Edict Yoritomo put into a bag of brocade and hung it round his neck, and kept it on his 
person even at the battle of Ishibashiyama. 



Now when it was rumoured that Yoritomo had raised the standard of revolt, a council of 
Courtiers was held at Fukuhara, and it was decided to attack him immediately, before he could 
gather more of his adherents. The Commander in chief was 

[p. 244] 

Komatsu-no-Gon-no-suke Shosho Koremori, and the second in Command Satsuma-no-kami 
Tadanori, while Kazusa-no-kami Tadakiyo was Chief of the Samurai, the force numbering some 
thirty thousand horsemen in all. On the eighteenth day of the ninth month they set out from 
Fukuhara, and on the day after they arrived at Kyoto, from whence they started out on the 
twentieth day to go down to the eastern provinces. 

The Commander Gon-no-suke Koremori was at this time twenty-three years old, and his 
costume and bearing were beautiful beyond the power of brush to depict. His general's armour, 
an ancestral treasure laced with Chinese leather, was carried in an armour box before him, and on 
the road he wore a hitatare of red brocade with a light green body armour. He rode a dappled 
grey horse and his saddle was mounted in gold. Satsuma-no-kami Tadamori wore a hitatare of 
blue brocade and armour laced with black, and rode a large and powerful black horse with a 
saddle ornamented with powdered gold lacquer. With their horse trappings and armour and 
helmets, and even their swords and bows flashing and glittering as they rode, they were a splendid 
and martial spectacle. 

This Satsuma-no-kami Tadanori was accustomed to pay visits to a certain lady, the daughter of a 
princess, and it happened one night when he went to see her that a guest, a distinguished lady of 
the Court, had chanced to come also and did not go away until late. Tadanori, standing waiting 
under the eaves of the roof, fanned himself vigorously. Hearing this the lady in the room hummed 
softly to herself the line; "Ah, how loudly sounds in the field, the voice of the insects;" whereat he 
ceased his fanning and returned home again. Afterwards, when he happened to go again, she 
asked him why it was he had ceased fanning himself, and he answered: "Oh, it was because I 
thought that you meant to imply that the noise was troublesome to you." When this lady heard 
that Satsuma-no-kami was departing for the eastern provinces she sent him a suit of silk clothes 
and the following stanza, to show her grief at parting: 

[p- 245] 

"Tis not the garment that brushes the dew from the grass of the Eastland, 
But my stay-at-home sleeve, that is the wettest of all. " 

To which Satsuma-no-kami replied: 

"Surely it is not meet to show such regret at our parting, 
Is not the road that I take that which my ancestor trod?" 

Thus referring no doubt to the expedition of his ancestor Taira Sadamori, who went down with 
Tawara Toda Hidesato to subdue the rebel Masakado. Formerly, when a General went forth to 
subdue an enemy of the Throne, he was received in audience and received a Sword of 
Commission. The Emperor used to proceed to the Shishinden, the Bodyguards taking up their 
position at the foot of the Throne, while the Courtiers of the Inner and Outer Council ranged 
themself in order as for a Festival of the second grade. Then the Commander-in-Chief and the 
Second in Command, according to the prescribed ceremony, would approach and receive the 
Sword. But as it was now difficult to follow the precedents of Shohei and Tenkyo by reason of 
their antiquity, in this case they followed the procedure of the time when Sanuki-no-kami Taira 
Masamori set out for the land of Izumo against the former Tsushima-no-kami Minamoto 
Yoshichika, and a Courtier's Bell only was given. This was put in a leather bag and carried after 
the General, hung round the neck of a retainer. In ancient times when a General went forth from 
the Capital to subdue the enemies of the Emperor, there were three things he had to forget: his 
family on the day when he received the Sword of Commission; his wife and children when he 
departed from the Capital; and himself when he engaged the enemy on the field of battle. So now 
doubtless the two Generals Koremori and Tadanori must have borne these three things in mind, 
ill fated as they were. 

Thus leaving the Imperial Capital behind, they set forth by the highway that goes by the eastern 
sea. Even returning in peace by this road is not without danger, for the traveller must be soaked 
by the dew of the open plain, and make his bed on the mossy 

[p. 246] 

mountain peaks, crossing the passes and fording the rivers by way. So after many days, on the 
sixteenth day of the tenth month they arrived at Kiyomi-ga-saki in the province of Suruga. When 
they left the Capital their forces consisted of thirty thousand horsemen, but as other troops had 
joined them on the way they now had an army of seventy thousand, of which the vanguard 
reached as far as Fujikawa and Kambara while the rearguard was yet at Tegoshi and Utsunoya. 

Then the Commander Gonnosuke-no-Shosho Koremori summoned the Chief of the Samusai 
Kazusa-no-kami Tadakiyo and said: "It is my opinion that we had better cross over Ashigara and 
there give battle; what do you think?" "When we left Fukuhara," replied Kazusa-no-Kami, "His 
Excellency the Lay-priest Chancellor bade that all military matters should be entrusted to me, 
and though the forces of Izu and Tsuruga ought to have joined us by now, so far none of them 
have come up, and although we have an army of seventy thousand horses yet all our forces, both 
horses and men, are tired out; moreover as all the eastern provinces have taken the side of the 
Genji the last man, it is impossible to say how many tens of thousand they may muster. I think it 
wisest therefore to draw up an army on this side of the Fujikawa with the river in front of us and 
wait to see how matters turn out." And so, as there was nothing else to be done, he consented. 

Now Hyoye-no-suke Yoritomo pushed on, and, after crossing Mt. Ashigara, came to the 
Kisegawa, where the Genji of Kai and Shinano came hurrying up to join him. At Ukishima-ga- 

hara in the province of Suruga he drew up his forces in battle array, numbering in all some two 
hundred thousand horsemen. At this time Satake Taro of the Hitachi Genji sent a letter to one of 
his retainers to Kyoto, but the messenger was intercept by Satsuma-no-kami's men and the letter 
taken from him, but when they came to read it, it was only a letter to his wife, so there was no 
harm in it, they restored it to him. Then Tadaki asked him how many men the Genji had, 
whereupon he replied: 

[p- 247] 

"I have knowledge of only from four or five hundred to a thousand of them, but for these last 
seven or eight days they have been coming in, so that everywhere on plain, mountain, sea and 
river there is nothing to be seen but armed men, and yesterday at the Kisegawa they said that the 
whole force of the Genji amounted to some two hundred thousand men." "Ah," exclaimed 
Kazusa-no-kami, "if only I had not advised the Commander in Chief to delay! That is indeed 
regrettable; even if I had attacked a day sooner. But why do not the Oba brothers and 
Hatakeyama come up? If they join us all the forces of Izu and Tsuruga will come with them." But 
his regret now availed him nothing. 

Then Gon-no-suke Shosho Koremori summoned to him Nagai-no-Saito Betto Sanemori, who 
was their guide to the eastern provinces, and asked him: "Are there many samurai in the eight 
eastern provinces who are as mighty archers and as bold as you are?" "Do you then consider me a 
mighty archer?" answered Sanemori with a scornful smile, "I only draw an arrow of thirteen 
handbreadths, and in the eastern provinces there are any number of Bushi who can do that.. One 
who is really a famous archer never draws a shaft of less than fifteen, and his bow is so strong that 
it needs four or five ordinary men to bend it. When these shoot they can easily pierce two or 
three suits of armour at once. Those who have the title of Daimyo never ride with less than five 
hundred horsemen, and they are bold riders who know not how to fall, neither do their horses 
stumble even on the roughest ground. Moreover when they fight they do not heed even if their 
own parents or children are killed, but ride on over their bodies and continue the battle. The 
samurai of the western provinces are quite different. If their parents are killed they retire and 
perform Buddhist rites for the repose of their souls, and make the customary mourning; if their 
children are slain they are overcome with grief and can fight no more. When they grow the rice 
for the soldiers' rations they plant the fields in the spring and reap them in the 

[ P . 248] 

autumn and then go out to fight; they dislike the summer because it is hot and grumble at the 
cold of winter. This is not the way of the warriors of the eastern provinces. 

Moreover the Genji of Kai and Shinano, as they know the ground well, will most likely come 
round the plains at the foot of Mt. Fuji to take us in the rear. Perhaps you may think that I speak 
thus with the intention of causing apprehension in the mind of the General, but that is not so, for 
an army does not depend on the number of its men, but on the strategy of the Commander." 

Now the hour of Hare (6 a.m.) on the twenty-fourth day was the time fixed for the beginning of 
the fight between the two armies, so on the preceding evening the outposts of the Heike went 
forth to observe the disposition of the enemy. But the farmers and inhabitants of Izu and Suruga, 
in terror at the movements of the armies, had fled away, some to the moorland, some to the hills, 

and some in boats on the sea and river, and had kindled their cooking fires everywhere, so that 
the Heike, seeing them on all sides, were struck with consternation, exclaiming "Ah, seel the 
camp fires of the Genji are without number! Truly the mountains and sea and river and plain are 
all full of warriors. What is to be done? "Also about the middle of the same night the water fowl 
of the marshes of Mt. Fuji were startled by something or other, and rose suddenly all together 
with a whirring of wings like the sound of thunder or a mighty wind, and the Heike soldiers 
hearing it shouted out: "It is the army of the Genji coming on to attack us! Saito Betto warned us 
yesterday that the men of Kai and Shinano would come round the foot of Fuji to take us in the 
rear. There are hundreds of thousands of them. We must fall back to the Owari river at 
Sunomata or we shall be cut off." So, panic-stricken, they abandoned their positions and fled 
precipitately without even taking their belongings with them, for so great was their haste that 
some snatched up their bows without any arrows, or arrows without any bow, springing on to 
each other's horses, and even 

[p- 249] 

mounting tethered animals and whipping them up so that they galloped round and round the 
post to which they were tied. There were some too who had procured some singing girls and 
courtesans, and were banqueting and making merry with them when the alarm took place, and 
these women were hustled and thrown down and trampled on in the confusion, so that they 
were injured in the head or body and added their cries to the uproar. 

Then on the twenty-fourth day at the hour of the Hare, the Genji, numbering two hundred 
thousand horsemen, advanced to the Fujikawa and shouted their war cry three times so that the 
heavens reverberated and the earth shook, but on the side of the Heike there was nought but 
silence. When the vanguard approached their camp there was not a man to be seen, whereupon 
they raised a shout that the enemy had fled, while some went and gathered up the armour they 
had left behind, and others bore away in triumph the curtains of the camp that had been left 
standing. "There is not so much as a fly stirring in the Heike camp," they reported to their 

Then Hyoe-no-suke Yoritomo alighted from his horse, and, taking off his helmet, washed his 
hands and rinsed his mouth. Turning toward the Imperial Palace he reverently made obeisance 
and said: "It is not through any merit on my part that this victory has been gained, it is owing to 
the favour of Hachi man Dai-bosatsu and none other." 

Then the provinces that were captured were assigned, Suruga to Ichijo-no-Jiro Tadayori, and 
Totomi to Yasuda-no-Saburo Yoshisada, and as it was not advisable to extend the attack further, 
owing to the uncertainty of the situation in his rear, the leader of the Genji withdrew his forces 
again to Kamakura. At this time the singing girls and courtesans who dwelt by the sea shore 
mocked the Heike saying: "Ah, what a disgusting General to run away and avoid a battle; how 
mean spirited are these Heike, not only do they but look at the enemy and run away, they listen 
to our songs and run away without paying!" Besides this several lampoons were 

[p. 250] 

written on the Heike leaders, Munemori the Commander in the Capital, and Gon-no-suke who 
lead their armies in the field, Heike being read 'Hiraya': 

"Hiraya nam Munemori ika ni sawagurammu 
Hashira to tanomu suke wo otoshite. " 

"How will Munemori, the roof of the structure, be shaker, 
Now Gon-no-suke falls, pillar on whom he relied. " 

and also: 

"Swift flowing over the rocks runs the foaming flood of the Fuji; 
Swifter the Ise Heishi scamper away in their flight." 

These two also deride Kazusa-no-kami Tadakiyo for leaving his armour behind him at the 

"Fujikawa ni yoroi wa sutetsu sumisome no 
Koromo tada kiyo nochi no yo no tame. " 

"Leaving his armour behind by the banks of the river of Fuji, 
Only remains the black gown meet for a happier re-birth." 

"Tadakiyo wa nige no uma ni zo norite keru, 
Kazusa no shirigai kakete kai nashi. 

"Tadakiyo 's grey steed has fled like the wind with his master, 
Nought in the hour of need Kazusa's crupper avails. 

Note the wordplays on the different meanings of Heike ^M- read ^PM a one-storied house, and 
Munemori tk^, reading |if( roof. Suke means assistant or help, hence as a title, adjutant, Gon-no- 
suke= Assistant adjutant. In the third stanza Tadakiyo /S^ff suggests P^ tada only and kiyo fl 1 =fc 'only 
wearing. 1 The reference is to the black robe of a priest, for Tadakiyo will have no more use for the 
garments of this world in future. Nige in the fourth stanza may be read M flee, or IK, ^5 mouse- 
coloured; there is also a play on shirigai 3|f $\ crupper, i.e. presenting the back of his horse to the enemy, 
and !=P §c advantage. The commander, carried away on his flying horse, is of no use to his men. 



On the eighth day; of the eleventh month the Commander in Chief Gon-no-Shosho Koremori 
returned to Fukuhara. The 

[p- 251] 

Lay-priest Chancellor was exceedingly angry, and immediately ordered him to be exiled to Kikai- 
ga-shima and Tadakiyo to be put to death. On the next day the Heike retainers to the number of 
many hundred of all ages assembled to discuss whether the death sentence ought to be carried 
out, and Shume-no-Hangwan Morikuni stood up before the assembly and said: "I certainly do not 
consider Tadakiyo to be a man wanting in courage; for when he was only eighteen years old, and 
the two most desperate bandits of the whole Kinai took refuge in the treasury of the Toba Palace 
and no one dared to go in and seize them, alone he climbed over the wall in broad daylight, and 
after killing one brought the other out alive, an exploit that is celebrated to this day. So I think 
there was something mysterious about this disaster. We must at any rate consider this disorder 
among the army with great care." On the tenth day there was an investiture of officials and Gon- 
no-suke Shosho Koremori was promoted to be Ukonye-no-Chujo, whereat everyone wondered 
what the reason might be; since his expedition to the eastern provinces had not been exactly 

Long ago, when Taira Sadamori and Tawara Toda Hidesato started for the east country to subdue 
Masakado, and did not find the task at all easy, after a council of Courtiers it was decided to send 
another expedition under Uji-no-Mimbu Kyo Tadabun and Kiyohara-no-Shigefuji, and they, 
having been granted the rank of Gunken or Director of Operations, at once set out for the east. 
When they arrived at Kiyomi-ga-seki in the province of Suruga, Shigefuji, looking out over the 
surging billows of the sea at night, softly hummed to himself the Chinese poem of Hakurakuten: 

"The flares of the fishing boats throw a warm glow on the billows; 
The jingling of the Courtier's bell sounds over the hills at eve. " 

so that Tadabun was moved to tears by the feelings it evoked. Then the first two leaders, having 
in the meanwhile at last 

[p- 252] 

overcome Masakado, met the other two Generals there as they were returning with his head, and 
all went up to the Capital together. Sadamori and Hidesato were rewarded, and many thought 
that Tadabun and Shigefuji should also receive rewards, so the Courtiers held a council, at which 
Kujo Ujo-no-Sho Morosuke Ko spoke as follows: "As the expedition of last year was not able to 
overcome the enemy, Tadabun and Shigefuji were appointed to do so, but just as they had 
arrived at the eastern boundary he was at last taken, why then should they not be rewarded also?" 

But his elder brother Ono-no-Miya Saneyori, who presided, opposed it saying: "If there is any 
doubt, let the matter rest; everything must be according to the written precedent." And so 
nothing was done, whereupon Tadabun, greatly disappointed, swore that the descendants of Ono- 
no-miya should become servants, but that he would protect the family of Kujo Dono for ever; 
after which he starved himself so that he died. And to this day the family of Kujo Dono has 
enjoyed great prosperity, while none of the descendants of his elder brother are now to be found 
among the higher nobles, for they are wholly extinct. 

On the eleventh day of the same month the fourth son of the Nyudo, To-no-Chujo Shigehira was 
promoted to be Sakonye-no-Gon Chujo. On the thirteenth day the palace at Fukuhara was 
finished and the Emperor moved into it. The ceremony of Daijoe or Accession to the Throne 
should now have been held, but it was fixed for the end of the tenth month, and His Majesty 
proceeded to the eastern river for the Ceremony of Purification. The place for the Daijoe was a 
plain to the north of the Palace where the Imperial Vestures and other objects to be used in the 
ceremony were arranged. In front of the Daikyokuden at the foot of the dais in the enclosed path 
called Ryubi-do, or the Way of the Dragon's Tail, the Kairitsuden, in which the Emperor bathed 
and robed, was set up. By the side of the same dais was erected the Daijogu in which His Majesty 
made the offerings to the Im- 

[p- 253] 

perial Ancestors, where the Deities were feasted and entertained. In the Daikyokuden also a great 
ceremony was held, not to speak of the Kagura, the Sacred Dance in the Seishodo, and the 
Imperial Banquet in the Burakuin. But in this new capital of Fukuhara there was no Daikyokuden, 
so that the ceremony could not be performed; there was no Seishodo, so that the Kagura could 
not take place, and there was no Burakuin for the Banquet, so it was decided to celebrate only the 
Shinjosai, or Offering of the New Rice, and the Gosetsu this year, but after a council of Courtiers 
it was decreed that this also should be performed by the Shrine officials in the old Capital. Now 
the origin of the Gosetsu dance is that in the time of Temmu Tenno, one night, when there was a 
keen breeze and a clear moon, they were playing the Biwa in the Palace of Yoshino to calm the 
mind of the Emperor, when a Celestial Maiden came down from Heaven and waved her sleeves 
five times. 



The removal of the capital to Fukuhara had displeased everyone from the Emperor downwards, 
and all the Courtiers had made great lamentation and complaint, appealing to all the shrines and 
temples of Hieizan and Nara and every other place against this arbitrary outrage, so at length even 
the Nyudo, who would try to tear paper crossways, had to give way, which he did by issuing a 
Court Order to return to Kyoto immediately. 

So on the second day of the eleventh month the capital was suddenly changed again. The new 
capital was situated in a place where the mountains towered up steeply above it on the north, 
while the sea washed close up on the south, and the incessant roar of the waves and the salt spray 
made it unendurable, so that Takakura Shinin was always ailing and was delighted to leave as 
soon as possible, so he quickly departed with the Empress and the Ho-o, while the Sessho, the 
Dajo-daijin and the rest of the 

[p- 254] 

Courtiers eagerly accompanied them. Then the Dajo Nyudo and all the Heike followed, and as no 
one wished to remain there even for a short time, so great was their desire to return to the old 
Capital, it was soon quite deserted. Ever since the sixth month the buildings had been falling into 
ruins, since they were but frames only, and now, when the order to return to Kyoto was issued, 
everyone was so anxious to go away quickly that they left everything standing as it was and 
hurried off. On returning both the Retired Emperors proceeded to the Ikedono at Rokuhara, 
while the Reigning Emperor took up his abode at the Gojo Palace. The Courtiers, as they had 
nowhere to lodge, took refuge in the temples and shrines of Hachiman, Kamo, Saga, Uzumasa, 
and all the others that were scattered about over Nishiyama and Higashiyama, and even the 
greatest of them did not scorn to take up their quarters in the corridors of the temple or the 
storehouses of the shrines. 

Now as to the reason for changing the capital to Fukuhara, it was because Kyoto was so near to 
Hieizan, and the slightest thing was sufficient to make the monks bring the sacred car of Hiyoshi 
or the sacred tree of Kasuga into the city and cause a tumult, so no doubt the Nyudo thought that 
the site of the new capital would not be so easy for them to threaten, since it was some distance 
away with mountains and rivers between. 

On the twenty-third day an expedition was begun against the Genji of Omi, and Sahyoe-no-kami 
Tomomori and Satsuma-no-kami Tadanori started for that province with an army of thirty 
thousand horsemen, and after having defeated Yamamoto, Kashiwagi, Nishigori and other rebel 
bands, they crossed over to Mino and Owari. 



Now Nara was regarded as a rebel against the Throne because it had sided with Miidera and 
received Prince Takakura when he led the revolt, and when the priests of the Kofukuji heard that 
an attack on them was being considered, they rose like a swarm of angry bees, and when the 
Kwampaku sent them a message by Ukwan-no-Betto Tadanari to the effect that he would report 
to the Emperor anything that they had to say, they tore the messenger from his palanquin, threw 
him down, and cut off his hair, so that he fled back to the Capital pale and terrified. Then 
Saemon-no-kami Chikamasa was sent a second time, whereupon they treated him in the same 
way, while two retainers of the University of the Kwangaku in had their queues cut off at the 
same time. 

Beside this the priests of Nara made a great wooden head which they struck and kicked about, 
calling it the head of the Nyudo. Now the rapid spreading of rumour is a thing that invites 
misfortune, and want of caution in speech is the way that leads to destruction, and this Lay-priest 
Chancellor, we speak it with the deepest reverence, was the maternal grandfather of the Reigning 
Emperor, so that these things that the priests of Nara did seemed to everyone like the acts of 
devils. Now the Nyudo had attached Seno-no-Taro Kaneyasu to the Kebiishi of the province of 
Yamato with the intent to calm the turbulence of the priests, and Kaneyasu rode off thither with 
five hundred horsemen. Kiyomori charged him, however, on no account to display any force, and 
not to use arms even if they offered violence, but the monks, unaware of this, seized some sixty 
of his men, cut off their heads and stuck them up all round the Pool of Sarusawa. On hearing this 
the Nyudo declared in great anger: "Now I will certainly attack the South Capital," and forthwith 
ordered To-no-Chujo Shigehira and Chugu-no-suke Michimori to set out thither with an army of 
about forty thousand horsemen. At Nara about seven thousand monks, young and old, without 
distinction, put on their armour and took up their position at Narasaka and Hannyaji, digging 
ditches across the road and making breast works and palisades. The Heike, dividing their forces 
into two, raised their warcry and attacked both these 

[ P . 256] 

places. The monks fought on foot while the Imperial Army fought on horseback, and as they 
kept on riding up continuously to the attack, the ranks of Nara were thinned and they began to 
give ground, so that by nightfall, after fighting from early morning, both of their positions were 
broken through. Now among the retiring priests was a warrior-monk named Saka-no-shiro 
Yogaku, who for strength and valour was equal to all the temples of Nara put together: he wore 
two suits of armour one over the other, a black body-armour over another suit with lacings of 
light-green silk, and two helmets likewise, one of five plates over a steel cap, while he brandished 
a white-handled halberd, curved like a reed, in one hand and a huge tachi with black mounts in 
the other. Gathering some ten of his comrade of the same temple round him, he held the enemy 
at the Tengai gate for some time and slew very many, but as fast as they fell others came on, so at 
last when his comrades had all fallen though his heart was still undaunted, being in danger of 
being surrounded, he escaped by flight to the south country. 

Then the Commander To-no-Chujo Shigehira, standing in front of the gate of Hannaji, as it had 
now become dark, ordered fires to be lit, when a certain lower provincial official of Harima 
named Jirodaiyu Tomokata split up his wooden shield into torches and set fire to the houses near 
by. It was the hour of the Dog [5 p.m.) of the twenty-eighth day of the twelfth month and the 
wind was blowing strongly, so that although only one place was set on fire, owing to the wind 
veering about in all directions, the flames spread hither and thither and most of the temple 
buildings were soon in a blaze. By this time all the warrior monks who scorned to surrender for 
fear of dishonour had fallen fighting at Narasaka and Hannyaji, and those who remained fled 
towards Yoshino and Totsugawa. Those who were too old to flee, and the unattached laymen, 
children and girls, thinking to save themselves, went up into the upper story of the Daibutsu-den 
or fled into the interior of Yamashinadera in their panic. About a thousand of them crowded into 
the Daibutsu- 

[p- 257] 

den and pulled up the ladders behind them so that the enemy could not follow, but the flames 
reached them first, and such a great crying arose as could not be surpassed even by the sinners 
amid the flames of Tapana, Pratapana and Avitchi, the fiercest of the Eight Hot Hells. 

The Kofukuji, alas 1 the ancient tutelary temple of the Fujiwara house, founded by Prince Fuhito, 
was burned; the Tokondo with its famous statue of S'akya Muni the Founder of the Buddhist 
Doctrine, the Saikondo with its Kwannon of the Bubbling Springs, the Emerald Gallery, the 
Vermilion Hall of Two Stories, the two Pagodas that lifted their shining spires to heaven, all were 
consumed to ashes in a moment. The Todaiji, which was built by Shomu Tenno himself, who 
was considered as one who on this earth had entered into the domains of the third and fourth 
Buddha-fields, was destroyed also, and the colossal statue of Vairochana Buddha of copper and 
gold, whose domed-head towered up into the clouds, from which gleamed the jewel of his lofty 
forehead, fused with the heat, so that its fullmoon features fell to the pavement below, while its 
body melted into a shapeless mass. The myriad beauties of his Buddha Presence were hidden in 
the smoke like the autumn moon among the clouds, and the jewelled ornaments of the Bodhisat 
shone fitfully like the drifting stars on a stormy night. The whole sky was filled with smoke, and 
the flames roared upward continually. Those who stood looking on averted their gaze, and even 
those who heard it related felt faint with awe. Of the Holy Sutras of the Hosso and Sanron sects 
not one volume survived; surely never before had there been such a destruction of Holy Writ, 
not only in our country but even in India or China. Even the statue of Buddha that Udayana Raja 
made of fine gold, and that which Vis'varkarman carved from red sandal wood, were scarcely life- 
size, much less likely did it seem then that this, the greatest Buddha in all the Djambudvipa, 
would thus fall to ruin. Now, mingled with dust and smoke, it lies low, an abiding sorrow to all. 

[ P . 258] 

must the Four Deva Kings, the Eight Dragon Sea-gods, and the Judges and Custodians of the 
Underworld have been struck with amazement, and what must have been the concern of Kasuga 
Daimyojin, the Tutelary Deity of the Fujiwara house? Even the dew of Mt. Kasuga changed its 
hue and the wind howled mournfully on Mt. Mikasa. Of those that perished in the flames there 
were seventeen hundred in the Daibutsu den and eight hundred in the Yamashinadera; in another 

temple there were five hundred and in yet another three hundred; in all some three thousand five 
hundred souls. A thousand monks fell in the fight, some of whose heads were stuck up on the 
gate of the Hannyaji, while some were carried back to Kyoto. The Nyudo alone was greatly 
rejoiced at the news, for the Empress, the Ho-o and the Retired Emperor all sorrowed 
exceedingly at the destruction of so many temples, though willing that the turbulent monks 
should be exterminated. The Courtiers had decided in council that the heads of the monks 
should be carried through the streets and exposed on the public gibbet, but concerning this 
deplorable destruction of the Todaiji and Kofukuji nothing was determined. The ruins lay as they 
were scattered everywhere in the moats and ditches. Now in the Imperial writing of Shomu 
Tenno is this sentence: "When my temple of Kofukuji is prosperous the whole Empire shall be 
prosperous, and when my temple falls to ruin the Empire will decline also." And now it seems 
that we are indeed to behold the fall of the Empire. Thus this ill-omened year came to an end and 
the fourth year of Jisho began. 


[I] Twelve generations. I.e. seven generations of Heavenly Deities and five of Earthly. 

[2] Hiko-nagisa. The fifth generation from Ama-Terasu, who was considered the first of the 
Earthly Deities. 

[3] Kanoto. cf. also Tsuchinoto, two of the ten expressions used for naming days and years in the 
ancient Japanese calendar, taken from the five elements, ki, wood; hi, fire; tsuchi, earth; kane, 
metal; mizu water; kinoe kinoto, hino hinoto, tsuchinoe tsuchinoto, kanoe kanoto, mizunoe 

[4] Toyo-ashi hara, The Middle Country of fertile Reed Plains, appar. Mid-Japan. 

[5] Seimu Tenno. This happened in the reign of Keiko Tenno, and seems to be a mistake of the 

[6] Keitan. The northern part of Korea. This is somewhat exaggerated, for Jingo Kogo did not 
reach so far. 

[7] Shoryo etc. a Chinese idea quoted from Goshi. |=j ffj| Shoryo means a great river, the 
Kamogawa, H J^E Byakko, a great road, the Shujaku road, yf.'W. Shujaku a marsh land, the fields 
near Toba, 2C JEK, Gembu a high mountain, Hieizan. 

[8] Wind-swept-shore. Kaze fuku hara, a word-play on the name Fukuhara IbHC Luck-field. 

[9] A certain most revered Sovereign. Nintoku Tenno is referred to. 

[10] The people ^pc lit, the black or black headed people. 

[II] A-ho. the famous palace built by the first Emperor of Shin. 

[12] Uji. This passage occurs in the volume entitled Agemakil' It is thus referred to because the 
section of which it forms a part is called 'Uji-jitcho'. 

[13] Lay-devotee Prince. Ubasoku-no-Miya. Ubasoku is the Sansk-Upasaka, a layman who 
promises to keep the principal commandments, but without becoming a monk. 

[14] Tengu. A flying demon, half man, half bird; the Japanese Harpy. 

[15] Sword of Commission. Setto pP 7] The sword presented by the Emperor to a general with 
which to subdue the enemies of the Throne, and thus the sign of the supreme military authority 
in the Realm. 

[16] Hachiman Daibosatsu. Tutelary deity of the Minamoto family, as Kasuga Daimyojin was of 
the Fujiwara. After the line of Yoritomo became extinct a prince of the Fujiwara family was 
made Shogun, and as this passage is doubtless a 'vaticinium post eventu,' it gives a terminus a quo 
for the date of this part of the work. 

[17] Three enlightenments. ^n fyj Sk. Trividya, or Three clear conceptions i.e. as to (a) the 
impermanence of all existence, (b) the wretchedness of all beings, (c) the unreality of bodily 

[18] Six supernatural powers. /\3J=L Sk. Abhijina. Acquired by S'akya Muni on the night before he 
became Buddha, and which all Arhats possess. They are (a) The power to see instantaneously any 
object in the Universe, (b) Power of understanding every sound of the Universe, (c) Power to 
assume any shape or form and to be exempt from the laws of gravitation and space, (d) 
Knowledge of all forms of preexistence of oneself and others, (e) Intuitive knowledge of the mind 
of all other beings, (f) Supernatural knowledge of the finality of the stream of life. 

[19] Myo-on Bosatsu. Sk. Gadgadasvara. A ficticious Bodhisat who resides in the fabulous universe 
called Vairotchana Ras'mi Pratimandita, and appeared in thirty eight different transformations to 
save mankind. 

[20] Ryosen. v. sup. 

[21] Koshi, Genkai. Confucius and Yen-hui. 

[22] Tan. R En. M Emperor of Shin M^tn^L^ 

[23] Keika JHjfSJ Denko. EB 7C . In the original Chinese history it is Denko who is first summoned 
and who recommends Keika. 

[24] Invoking the magic power. Lit. the Mantras or magic words of the Dharani practised by the 
Shingon Sect. 

[25] Fudo Myo-o. One of the Five Mystic Kings, represented with a ferocious expression, and 
surrounded with a halo of flame; he holds a sword in one hand and a rope in the other with 
which to subdue evil influences. 

[26] Kongara Doji and Seitaka Doji stand at the left and right hand of Fudo Myo-o. 

[27] Tosotten. Sk. Tuchita, the fourth Devaloka, where all Bodhisattvas are reborn, there to 
promote the Way until they are reborn as Buddha. 

[28] Kwanjincho. A book in which contributions for religious purposes were recorded. 

[29] Eternal Mind. Shinnyo, the Eternal Reality that underlies the Universe. As this is the only 
reality, it follows that the difference between phenomena is only apparent, and the enlightened 
person knows that it does not exist. 

[30] Twelve Causes of existence. Ju-ni-Innen. Sk. Nidana. 

[31] Three Poisons. Lust, Anger, and Folly. 

[32] Four Prides. Usually Seven are mentioned, perhaps four of these are meant; another reading 
here gives, the Three Mysteries and the Four Mandaras. 

[33] Elephant and Monkey, Prob. Anger and Folly. 

[34] Three Ways. Hell, Pretas and Animals. 

[35] Four Births. Sk. Tchaturyoni, i.e. (a) Placental birth, as man or animal, (b) from an egg, as 
birds, (c) from moisture, as fish or insects, (d) by transformation, as Bodhisattvas. 

[36] Farther Shore, i.e. Nirvana, which is reached across the 'great ocean of births and deaths' 

[37] Gyo and Shun. The golden age in China. 

[38] Three persons, Sk. Trikaya. i.e. Nirmanakaya, Buddha in human form, Sambhogakaya, Buddha 
as a personification of some virtue; Dharmakaya, Buddha as the Eternal Reality. 



On account of the rebellion in the eastern provinces and the burning of the temples of the South 
Capital, the customary ceremonies of the first day of the New Year were not performed in this 
fifth year of Jisho, so that the Emperor did not hold any reception, there was no music or Bugaku, 
the envoys from Yoshino did not come, and not one of the Courtiers of the Fujiwara family 
appeared. This was because of the burning of their tutelary temple. On the second day no 
banquet was given at the Court and no one either of the Courtiers or Ladies-in-waiting was to be 
seen; the whole Palace was deserted and forlorn. It was most grievous to see that both the Law of 
Buddha and the Throne had quite lost their influence. "There are four generations of Emperors 
now living at the same time," complained the Ho-o bitterly, "and since they are all deprived of 
any hand in the administration, there is nothing else for them but to pass their lives uselessly." 

On the fifth day the high ecclesiastics of Nara were all relieved of their official rank and 
prohibited from entering the Palace, both their place and office being sequestrated. Now as it was 
necessary that some of these priests should take part in one of the Services held at this time of 
year, and all those of Nara had been degraded, it was proposed that the priests of Kyoto should 
act instead, but after the Courtiers had discussed it they discovered a certain priest of the Sanron 
Sect experienced in the required procedure, who had escaped and concealed himself in 
Kwanshuji, and him they summoned to go through the bare form of the ceremony. Now there 
was not a single priest to be found in Nara, for the very few that had 

[p. 260] 

escaped being killed with arrow or sword or burnt to death or suffocated in the smoke had fled 
to the mountains and woods. Among these was the Betto of Kofukuji, Gerin-in-no-Sojo Yoen, 
who was so overcome at seeing all the precious statues and holy books go up in smoke that he 
fell ill and eventually died. This Yoen was a person of very delicate taste, and once, on hearing the 
cuckoo, he made this verse: 

"Charming always it is to hear the voice of the cuckoo, 
Every time it is heard, always it seems like the first." 

Therefore he was ever after called 'Hatsune-no-Sojo' (first note Sojolbl. 

Now the trouble of the last few years, that is, the confinement of the Ho-o in the Toba Palace 

the year before last, the execution of Prince Takakura the year after, and the troubled and critical 
state of the Empire generally, not to speak of the changing of the Capital, so wrought on the 
health of the Retired Emperor Takakura that he sickened and become very ill, and now, when he 
heard of the destruction of Todaiji and Kofukuji, his condition grew serious, and at length on the 
fourteenth day of the same month he passed away at the Ikedono of Rokuhara, to the intense 
grief of the Ho-o, after a reign of twelve years. His virtuous rule raised up the ways of 
benevolence and justice that had been abandoned, and continued the way of equity and happiness 
that had been interrupted, and although in this world of vicissitudes and impermanence death is a 
thing that cannot be avoided, even by an Arhat who possesses the Three Clear Conceptions and 
the Six Supernatural Talents, or by an Incarnate Deity who can assume all forms, yet in his case it 
seemed indeed contrary to reason. Yet that night he was borne to the temple of Seiganji at the 
foot of Higashiyama, and was wafted upwards like the smoke of evening or the mist of spring- 
time. Now Choken Hein was hastening down from Hieizan to attend 

[ P . 261] 

the funeral ceremony, but while still on the way he saw the smoke ascending, and immediately 
bursting into tears he made this stanza: 

"If today we enquire of the journey our Sovereign travels, 
Mournful will be the reply; whence he shall never return. " 

This verse too was composed about the Emperor's death by one of his ladies. 

"Like to the moon that passes above the clouds from our vision; 
What is our grief to see darkened the light of our life. 

During the twenty-one years of his life His Majesty had always observed the Ten Precepts, and 
had been especially compassionate; never had he transgressed the Five Virtues and his courtesy 
was unfailing. A wise Monarch in this degenerate age, the regret of his subjects was extreme, even 
as though the sun and moon had ceased to give their light. Thus the people's wish was not 
granted, and this ill-fortune came upon his subjects, so that sadness brooded over the whole 



While Takakura Tenno was on the Throne everybody declared that his consideration for others 
surpassed even that of the Mikados of the periods Enki and Tenryaku, and though generally 
speaking it was after he had attained to years of discrimination that he obtained his reputation for 
wisdom and benevolence, yet his disposition was kind and gentle from his earliest childhood. 

During the period Shoan, when His Majesty was only about ten years old, being extremely fond 
of the tinted leaves of autumn, he had a little hill-garden made in the north enclosure of the 
Palace, and planted it with maple and 'haze' trees 

[ P . 262] 

that redden beautifully in that season, calling it 'The Hill of Autumn Tints' and from morning till 
evening he never seemed to tire of looking at it. But one night a late autumn gale blew violently 
and scattered the leaves everywhere in confusion, so the next morning, when the Palace servants 
went round early as usual to clean the grounds, they swept up all the fallen leaves and the broken 
branches as well, and as it was a bleak and cheerless morning they made a fire with them in the 
court of the Nuidono, and heated some sake to warm themselves. Soon afterwards the Kurando 
in waiting, hastening to inspect the garden before the Emperor should see it, and finding nothing 
there, enquired the reason and the servants told him. "What?" he exclaimed, "how could you dare 
to treat the garden that the Emperor is so fond of in such a way? You deserve to be imprisoned or 
banished at least, and I too may very likely incur the Imperial displeasure." Just then the Emperor, 
coming out to see his favourite trees as soon as he had left his bed chamber, was surprised to find 
they had all disappeared, and the Kurando told him what had happened. To his surprise His 
Majesty was not at all angry, but only laughed and quoted a Chinese poem by Haku-raku-ten 
about warming sake in the woods by burning maple leaves. "I wonder" he said, "who can have 
taught it them. Really they are quite esthetes." 

Again in the period Angen, one night when the Emperor was sleeping in a strange part of the 
Palace according to the advice of the diviners, being naturally wakeful, he could not get to sleep. 
Perchance it may be that, as the poem says, the voice of the Palace watchman makes a Monarch 
wakeful, or as the night was very cold he may have been thinking of the occasion when Saga 
Tenno, on just such a frosty night, feeling compassion for the suffering of his people, stripped off 
his own bed clothes and exposed himself to the cold, and regretting that he himself could not 
emulate the virtue of such an Emperor. Thus being more wakeful than usual, he heard late at 
night the sound of someone crying out some distance away, and im- 

[p. 263] 

mediately summoned an attendant and ordered him to go and find out what it was. When the 
Courtier on guard went out and searched, he discovered a poor girl in one of the lanes near 
carrying the lid of a clothes-chest and weeping bitterly. On his enquiring the cause, she told him 

that she was carrying home some clothes which her mistress, who was a lady-in-waiting at the 
Palace of the Ho-o, could barely afford to have made, when two or three ruffians suddenly 
robbed her of them, and that her mistress could not continue to serve unless she had the proper 
clothes, and she did not know anyone who could help her, and so she was crying. On hearing this 
the Courtier brought the girl back; with him and reported the whole affair to the Emperor, who 
was moved to tears at the story. "Alas! how cruel" he exclaimed," who could do such a thing? In 
the days of the Emperor Gyo in China the people reflected the goodness of their Ruler and were 
good too, but now in this age the people have only me to imitate and so they are very wicked. 
When wrong is done in the Empire, ought I not to be ashamed?" Then he asked what kind of 
garment it was, and on being told, he bade the Imperial Consort Kenreimon-in give her one of 
same kind, whereupon they brought a dress far more beautiful than the former one and gave it to 
the girl. Then the Emperor, fearful lest she might again be molested, as the hour was so late, 
ordered several of the Imperial Guards to escort her as far as the house of her mistress. It was not 
strange then that everyone, even the poorest and meanest of his subjects, should pray for the long 
life of this virtuous Sovereign. 



Another story that has a certain pathetic interest is this. There was a certain little maiden who 
served one of the Empress's ladies in waiting, who was much beloved by the Emperor, and it was 
no ordinary passing fancy but a true 

[p. 264] 

and deep affection, so that her mistress no longer allowed her to wait on her, but rather treated 
her as her superior and paid her great deference and attention. An ancient poem says; "Do not 
rejoice when a son is born, and do not despair when you have a daughter, for a son does not 
always become a Prince, while a daughter may become Imperial Consort and Empress." What a 
happy future might be before this little maid. She might become Nyogo and Imperial Consort, 
then Mother of the Emperor and at last Retired Empress. Her name was Aoi-no-mae, but the 
ladies of the Court already spoke of her confidentially among themselves as Aoi-no-Nyogo. 

But when the Emperor heard of this he ceased to summon her to his presence: this was not 
because he had become tired of her, but because he feared the censure of the world, and being 
naturally of a brooding disposition he lost all taste for food, and falling sick became unable to 
leave the Imperial Bedchamber. Then the Kwampaku Matsudono, hearing that His Majesty was 
thus depressed, hastened to the Palace to comfort him. "Why does Your Majesty thus fret about 
this affair?" he said, "for there is nothing to worry about. Let the maid be summoned again; her 
low rank need be no obstacle, for I will make her my adopted daughter and then she need fear no 
comparisons." "Ah no," replied the Emperor, "that cannot be; after I have retired from the Throne 
such a thing might be done, but the actions of a Reigning Emperor must be above the criticism of 
posterity." So, as his Master would not at all entertain the idea, the Kwampaku could do no more, 
but with tears in his eyes retired from the Palace. Afterwards the Emperor wrote this verse on a 
sheet of paper tinted in light green: 

"Plain indeed is my love, for though I try to conceal it, 
All my friends enquire what I am brooding about. " 

This was an old poem written by Taira Kanemori, but as it expressed his feelings the Emperor 
gave it to Reizei-no-Shonagon Takafusa to convey to Aoi-no-Mae, who, when she had received it 
and read it, blushing deeply put it away in her her bosom and 

[ P . 265] 

then, overcome by the violence of her feelings, immediately left the Court and returned to her 
home, where she took to her bed and died after about a week. Very applicable to a case like this 

are the lines of Haku-raku-ten; "The hand-maid will rue one day of her lord's favour for a 
hundred years," and everyone said that the Emperor's feeling was just like that of the Emperor 
Taiso of To who wished to introduce the daughter of Tei-jin-ki into the Genkwanden, but when 
Gicho reproved him, and told him that she was already betrothed to Rikushi, he gave up his 



As the Emperor was so much grieved by this unhappy love episode the Empress sent one of her 
own ladies to him to console him. Her name was Kogo and she was the daughter of Sakuramachi- 
no-Chunagon Shigenori Kyo, and not only was she the greatest beauty in the Palace but she was 
also without equal for her skill in playing the Koto. She had been beloved by Reizei-no-Dainagon 
Takafusa Kyo, and while he was only Shosho he sent her many poems and letters, but for some 
time they only accumulated without producing any effect, until at last she was moved to take 
pity on him and yielded. But now she was summoned to the side of the Emperor they could not 
but part, and for long her sleeves were moistened with tears of regret. The Shosho too was always 
going to the Palace to try if by any means he could see her once again, and used to loiter about in 
the neighbourhood of her apartment, but as she was now in the Emperor's household she would 
not exchange a word with him, or show, however indirectly, that she still had any tender feelings 
for him. Then the Shosho wrote a stanza and threw it so that it fell within the curtain of the 
room where she was. The lines ran as follows: 

"Near though I am to my love she is far removed as the Northland: 
[ P . 266] 

Were she in Mutsu indeed, how would it differ from this?" 

Though in her heart Kogo would have liked to answer it, yet for the Emperor's sake and to avoid 
causing him any pain she did not even touch it, but bade one of her maids pick it up and throw it 
out into the courtyard. Takafusa could hardly contain his anger and disappointment at this 
treatment, but, remembering that if he were seen the results would be serious, he hastily picked 
up the paper, and, putting it in his bosom, returned to his house and gave vent to his feelings in 
these lines: 

"Cruel 1 , she designs not even to take my poor verse in her fingers, 
Yet however she feels, never my heart can forget. " 

And he prayed that he might die rather than continue to live on in the world when he could no 
longer see her. 

But when these things came to the ears of the Lay-priest Chancellor he burst forth: "What a 
condition of things is this! The Empress is my daughter and the wife of Reizei Shosho is my 
daughter also, and how does this Kogo dare to take the husband of both? Let her be put out of 
the way forthwith! "Then Kogo, caring nothing about her own fate, but, anxious lest the Emperor 
should in any way be troubled, fled away one night from the Palace so that no one knew whither 
she had gone. This grieved the Emperor exceedingly, and he would not leave his bed chamber, 
but spent his days moping and in tears. When the Nyudo heard of this he remarked: "Ah, His 
Majesty is distressed about Kogo I see, then something must be done," and he gave orders that 
none of the Ladies-in-waiting were to be allowed to attend the Emperor, and as he even frowned 
on other people who paid visits, no one went to Court at all, since they did not care to risk 
offending him, and all the Palace was gloomy and deserted. Now on the tenth day of the eighth 
month there was a most beautiful moon without a trace of clouds in the sky, and His Majesty 
was gazing at it, but as his eyes were full of tears even the moon looked 

[ P . 267] 

misty, and as the hour grew late he called for one of his attendants, but for some time no one 
answered, so deserted was the Palace. But a certain officer of the Palace Guard named Nanjono 
Daihitsu Nakakuni, who happened to be on duty that night, though in a remote part of the 
Palace, heard his master's voice through the silent halls and made reply. Then the Emperor bade 
him come near, for he had something to ask, whereupon Nakakuni, wondering what it could be, 
entered the Imperial Chamber, and His Majesty enquired of him if he knew where Kogo had 
hidden herself. "How should I know such a thing?" replied the retainer. "I have heard that she is 
living in a cottage with a single folding door somewhere near Saga," said the Emperor, "but I do 
not know the name of the person with whom she is staying. Do you think you could find her?" 
"If I do not know the name of the master of the house, how can I find her?" replied Nakakuni in 
perplexity, whereat the Emperor in despair wept bitterly. 

After some further thought Nakakuni remembered Kogo's skill on the Koto and said to himself: 
"Ah, on a moonlight night like this she will surely be thinking of His Majesty here in the lonely 
Palace, and no doubt she will play on the Koto; now when she played in the Palace I used to be 
the one to accompany her on the flute, so none knows her playing as well as I, and if I go round 
about all the houses in the neighbourhood of Saga, why should I not find out where she is?" 
"Then" he said at last, "though I do not know in whose house she is lodging, I will go and search 
for her in that part, but if I find her and have no letter, perhaps I shall not be believed, so let 
Your Majesty write one that I may take it with me." Then the Emperor gave him the letter and 
ordered him to take a horse from the Palace Stables, and he started off at a gallop, whipping up 
his horse under the clear light of the moon and singing as he rode the verse that begins: " The 
mountain village where the wild stag cries," feeling, no doubt, the pathos of the autumn scenery 
of Saga. So he rode on, stopping his horse to listen 

[ P . 268] 

whenever he came to a cottage with a single folding door, and wondering if the lady he sought 
was within, but no sound of a Koto broke the silence. Then, wondering whether she had perhaps 
retired to some temple, he went to all the temples in that part, but still could find no trace of her. 
Thinking it better not to return at all than to return without any tidings, he wondered if there 
was anywhere he could flee to, but as every place near was the Imperial Domain, there was 

nowhere that he could go to hide himself. Thus perplexed and knowing not what to do, he 
recollected that the temple of Horinji was not far away, and thinking that perhaps Kogo might 
have gone thither to gaze at the moonlight, he turned his horse in that direction. Then in a hamlet 
among the pines near Kameyama faintly he heard the sound of a Koto; straining his ears he was 
uncertain whether it was not the blasts from the mountain tops, or the soughing of the wind in 
the pine trees. Urging on his horse he rode on further and became aware that the sounds were 
indeed those of a Koto, and that they proceeded from a cottage with a single folding door, and 
stopping to listen awhile he perceived that without doubt the player was Kogo, and that the 
piece she was playing was one called 'Sofuren,' which expresses the longing felt by a wife for her 
absent husband. Nakakuni was touched at her tender feeling for His Majesty that prompted her 
to select this piece from the many that she played, and drawing his flute from his girdle joined in 
the tune for a few bars, and then knocked softly at the door. The, music immediately ceased, 
whereupon Nakakuni called out: "It is Nakakuni who has come from the Palace with a message 
from the Emperor;" but though he knocked several times no one answered from within. After 
some time there was a sound as of someone coming to the gate, and as he stood there in joyful 
anticipation, the lock was unfastened, and the gate opened a very little and disclosed only the face 
of a beautiful young girl. "Have you not mistaken the house?" she asked, "for a Palace Messenger 
can have no errand here," whereat Nakakuni, since he feared that if he made 

[p. 269] 

answer the gate would be shut and locked again, pushed it open by force and entered. Standing 
on the verandah of the house he told his story: "Why has she come to live in a place like this? 
The Emperor is grieving for her absence and his melancholy may endanger his life, and that it may 
not be thought that I speak falsely, see, I have brought you a letter written by His Majesty's own 
hand;" and he took out the letter and handed it to her. The girl took it to Kogo, who opened and 
read it, and found that it was indeed His Majesty's writing. In a short while she had written an 
answer and sent it to Nakakuni with a lady's suit of Court dress as a present. On receiving the 
answer he said: "Although perhaps I ought not to ask for more than this letter, yet as I was 
specially sent hither by my Lord, and am not unknown to your mistress, how can I return 
without a message from her own lips?" Then Kogo, consenting to his wish, came forth and 
excused herself saying "As you know, in fear of the threatening and angry words of the Nyudo, I 
fled away secretly one night from the Palace, and as I have been staying in a place like this I have 
not played the Koto at all, but as I am going away tomorrow into the recesses of Ohara, and this 
night is my last, the mistress of this house persuaded me to play, saying that it was late and there 
would be none to hear, and so I yielded, for the remembrance of former days stirred within me 
and my fingers yearned for my beloved instrument," and as she spoke her tears flowed freely, 
while Nakakuni too hid his face in his sleeve. After a while Nakakuni calmed his emotion and 
said: "Doubtless your intention in going into the recesses of Ohara is to become a nun; this, I 
think, is not a proper thing to do, for how will the Emperor feel about it? Nay, I can by no means 
allow it?" and turning to his attendant he added; "See that this girl does not leave this place;" and 
leaving him there to guard the house, he sprung upon his horse and rode back again, reaching the 
Palace just as the dawn was beginning to break. 

Tying up his horse and throwing the lady's dress over the 

[p. 270] 

Palace doors, he went toward the Shishinden, thinking that the Emperor would surely be sleeping 
by this time, and wondering who to send to him, but as it happened His Majesty was still sitting 
as he had left him the night before in melancholy abstraction, as the Chinese poet says: 

"Soaring up to the southward and wheeling round to the northward, 

Vainly in autumn the goose seeks for the heat or the cold; 

Flying forth to the eastward and sweeping round to the westward, 

Ever its lonely eye stares at the moon of the dawn. " 

So Nakakuni came and gave him the letter of Kogo and reported all he had done. The Emperor's 
joy was extreme, and; he ordered him to go again that night and bring her back with him. 
Nakakuni, though he feared the wrath of the Nyudo if he should hear of it, yet as it was the 
Emperor's order, borrowed an ox car from somebody and went down that night to Saga, and 
although Kogo at first refused to accompany him, at last he prevailed on her and brought her 
back to the Palace. There she lived secretly in a remote chamber, and used to visit His Majesty 
every night, so that in the course of time a Princess was born to her, and this is the Princess who 
is known as Bomon-no-Nyoin. Then the matter came to the ears of the Nyudo and he was very 
angry, exclaiming: "Then it was all a lie that I was told that Kogo had been got rid of; but at all 
events she shall be removed now," and somehow or other they decoyed her from the Palace and 
forced her to shave her head and become a nun. She was then only twenty -three years old, and 
though she had wished to retire from the world before, how sad a fate was it to be compelled to 
do so in this peremptory manner, and to put on black robes and go and live in the wilds of Saga. 
It was these painful events that aggravated the illness of the Emperor so that he died. The Ho-o 
had nothing but troubles, one coming fast after the other. 

[p- 271] 

In the period Ei-man his eldest son Nijo Tenno died, and then in the seventh month of the 
second year of Angen his grandson Kujo Tenno passed away. In the sky the Hiyoku, and on earth 
the two branches that grow together are proverbial for connubial affection, neither must we 
forget the Lover stars by the River of Heaven. Not less deep was the affection that existed 
between the Ho-o and his consort Kenshun-mon-in, and one evening in autumn she fell sick and 
passed away with the dew of the next mornings; and though months and years had gone by since 
then, it seemed to him like a parting of yesterday and his tears were not dry even now. Then in 
the fifth month of the fourth year of Jisho his second son Prince Takakura was killed, and now 
that the Emperor Takakura, on whom only he could rely for help in this world and prayers in the 
next, had died before him, he had no one left to turn to in his affliction, but could only shed 
lonely tears. "The greatest grief to which no other can compare is that of a father left behind by 
his son in his old age, and the greatest regret above all others is that of a child deprived of his 
parent in his youth," wrote the Prime Minister Tomotsuna when his son Sumiakira pre-deceased 
him. So, when the Empire and the Imperial Family suffered such a bereavement, not only the 
Ho-o, who had acquired great merit by his study of the Hokke Sutra as well as by his admirable 

knowledge of the mysteries of the Shingon, but all those who dwelt in the Palace, veiled their 
brocaded robes. 



But this Lay-priest Chancellor, seeing the Ho-o thus overwhelmed by his troubles and wishing to 
comfort him, sent him a daughter that he had had by a certain Naiji of the shrine of Itsukushima 
in Aki, a beautiful girl of eighteen, that he might console himself with her; and as all the Heike as 
well as the other Courtiers brought her to the Palace in state it was 

[p- 272] 

quite as festive as the procession of an Emperor's Consort; but as this took place twenty-seven 
days after the death of the Emperor everyone thought it most unseemly. 

Now there was in Shinano a certain Minamoto called Kiso Jiro Yoshinaka. He was the second son 
of the late Tatewaki Senjo Yoshikata, and when his father was killed at Kamakura on the twelfth 
day of the eighth month of the second year of Kyuju by Akugenda Yoshihira, he was but a child 
of two years old. His mother, in her grief, fled with him to the province of Shinano to Kiso 
Chuzo Kaneto, and begged him to take the child and bring him up. So Kaneto granted her request 
and took him and reared him, and now he had grown up to be a young man, distinguished among 
all for his beauty and noble bearing as well as for his matchless boldness and mighty strength. So 
powerful and skilled in the use of all weapons of war was he that people ranked him with the 
great warriors of old, with Tamura Maru, Fujiwara Toshihito, Taira Koreshige, Taira Muneyori, 
Fujiwara Yasumasa, and his own ancestors Minamoto Yorimitsu and Yoshiie. At the age of 
thirteen when his Genpuku took place he went to the shrine of Hachiman and spent the night 
there as the custom was, and offering his queue of hair before the god he prayed: "As my ancestor 
in the fourth generation, Yoshiie Ason, became the son of this Deity and was called 
Hachimantaro Yoshiie, so may I also follow in his footsteps;" and he took the name of Kiso Jiro 

As he often used to go up to the Capital with his foster-father he observed the proud behaviour 
of the Heike and meditated over it. So it happened that one day he said to Kaneto: "I hear that 
Hyoe-no-suke Yoritomo has gone up from the Tokaido with eight of the eastern provinces to 
smite the Heike; now let me haste and join him with the men of the Tosando and Hokurikudo, 
and when they are destroyed we two will be the greatest leaders in all the land of Nippon." 
When he heard this Kaneto was overjoyed: "It was for this" he said "that I have brought you up 
these twenty years, and 

[p- 273] 

when I hear you speak thus I know you will be a worthy scion of Hachimantaro." Thus 
Yoshinaka started to stir up a rebellion, and sent round letters instigating his neighbours to rise, 
and, as in the province of Shinano Nei-no-Koyata and Shigenono Yukichika were persuaded to 
support him, all the rest of the warriors of that province came in on his side. The samurai of the 
district of Tago in Kozuke also, because of their good will to his father Yoshikata, hastened to 

offer themselves. Thus it seemed that the hour of the doom of the Heike had come, and the 
Genji were about to accomplish their long cherished desire. 



Now Kiso was in the extreme south of Shinano on the boundary of Mino and so was very near to 
the Capital, and great fear came upon the Heike, for they wondered what they should do now 
that the North had rebelled as well as the East. 

But Kiyomori was not perturbed: "Even if all the men of Shinano do follow Kiso," said he, "in 
Echigo there are the two brothers Jo-no-Taro Sakenaga and Shiro Sukeshige, the descendants of 
Taira Koreshige, who can muster no small force between them, and if I give the order they will 
soon fall on Kiso and destroy him." Some of his family were satisfied at this, but others still 
maintained that the situation was critical. 

On the first day of the second month an investiture of officials was held and Jo-no-Taro Sukenaga 
was appointed Echigo-no-kami. This was done with a view to his attacking Kiso Yoshinaka. On 
the seventh day all the families of the Ministers and Courtiers assembled and wrote out and 
offered the Sonjo Darani and the Fudo Darani, most potent litanies to overcome evil, by which 
they trusted to subdue the revolt. On the ninth day news was brought that Musashi-no-Gon-no- 
kami Nyudo Yoshimoto, of the district of 

[p- 2 74] 

Ishikawa in Kawachi, with, his son Ishikawa-no-Hangwan-dai Yoshikane had renounced their 
allegiance to the Heike and were going down to the east to join the Genji. The Heike Generals 
Gendaiyu-no-Hangwan Suesada and Setsu-no-Hangwan Morizumi immediately set out against 
them with a force of three thousand horses, and caught them in their stronghold with only about 
a hundred retainers, and in the fight which ensued, lasting from early morning to late at night, 
Yoshimoto was killed and his son wounded and captured. On the eleventh day the head of 
Yoshimoto was paraded through the streets of the Capital. The precedent for exposing the head 
of a rebel during a time of National Mourning was taken from the time when, after the death of 
Horikawa Tenno, the head of the former Tsushima-no-kami Minamoto Yoshichika was thus 

On the twelfth day a courier came from Usa-no-Daiguji Kinmichi of Kyushu with the news that 
all that country; from Ogata Saburo Koreyoshi to the men of Usuki, Hetsuki and Matsuura, had 
revolted and thrown in their lot with the Genji. These tidings caused the greatest surprise and 
consternation among the Heike, for now that the West Country had forsaken them, as well as, 
the south and North, they were at a loss how to act, and smote their palms with rage and 
perplexity. On the sixteenth day another courier arrived from Iyo in Shikoku, telling how that, 
since during the last winter Kono-no-Shiro Michikiyo of that province had renounced his 
allegiance and made common cause with the Genji, Nuka-no-Nyudo Saijaku of Bingo, a strong 
adherent of the Heike, had crossed over to Iyo and attacked him in his stronghold at Takanao on 
the boundary of Dogo and Dozen. In the fight, Kono Michikiyo had been killed, and his son 

Kono-no-Jiro of Aki, who was his uncle on the mother's side, and stayed there awaiting an 
opportunity to kill Saijaku and thus avenge his father's death. 

After putting down this outbreak in Shikoku, Saijaku crossed over to Tomo in the proivince of 
Bingo on the fifteenth day of 

[p- 275] 

the first month of the new year, where he called together a number of singing girls and strumpets, 
and proceeded to make merry and carouse with them. Then Kono-no-Shiro Michinobu too with 
him a hundred men-at-arms, and suddenly burst in on him as he was drinking and revelling, and 
though Saijaku had some three hundred retainers, they were so surprised at this unexpected 
attack that they lost their heads and were quickly shot or cut down. Saijaku was thus taken alive 
and Michinobu brought him back to Takanao in Iyo, where his father had been slain, and there 
put him to death. And some said that his head was sawn off and others that he was 
crucified. After this the men of Shikoku submitted to Michinobu and followed him. Then too 
Tanso, Betto of Kumano in the province of Kii, forgot his great obligations to the Heike and 
suddenly changed his front and went over to the Genji. Thus did the South and East Sea districts 
follow the example of the East and the North Country, and men's ears were assailed continually 
with reports of fresh defections, and as these hordes of savage rebels swarmed out on all sides like 
angry bees, and the dominion of the Heike began to totter, all serious people, even those outside 
the ruling family, lamented at the gloomy prospect. 



On the twenty third day a Council of Courtiers was suddenly called at the Palace of the Ho-o, the 
Sento Gosho, and the former Udaisho Munemori addressed them thus: "The expedition we made 
into the East Country did not effect anything very much, so now I myself should like to take 
command and lead an army to chastize these rebels in the East and North." This bold speech was 
received with applause by all the rest, and they praised Munemori for his decisive action; the Ho- 
o too seemed quite delighted, and everyone who had the least experience of martial exercises, 
even though he might be 

[ P . 276] 

a Courtier or Noble, declared himself ready to follow Munemori. On the twenty-seventh day 
they intended to set out, but as Kiyomori had been taken ill during the night they did not 
move. On the twenty-eigth day it was reported that his condition was grave, and all Rokuhara 
and the Capital was in an uproar, every one running about and whispering together. From the 
day that the Nyudo was taken ill, he could not drink even hot water, and the heat of his body 
was like a burning fire, so that if any one came within eight or ten yards of him the heat was 
unbearable. All he could do was to mutter 'Atal Atal' (Hot! Hot!): it was a most extraordinary 
sickness. To relieve him somewhat they brought water from the well of Senshuin of Hieizan and 
filled a stone tank with it, into which they lowered him, but the water began to bubble and boil 
and immediately became like a hot bath. When water was pour on him a pipe, it flew off again 
hissing in clouds of steam and spray as though it had struck red hot iron or stone, and the water 
that did strike him burst into flames so that the whole chamber was filled with whirling fires and 
thick black smoke. It must have been just such a sight that Hogyo Sozu saw formerly when he 
entreated Emma, the King of Hades, to show him the place where his mother was; for Emma 
moved by his prayers, sent his jailers to guide him to the Shonetsu Hell, and when he had passed 
through the iron gate he saw the flames shooting up like meteors, thousands of miles high. 

Moreover the wife of the Nyudo, Hachijo-no-Nii-dono, had a terribly dream. She dreamed that a 
flaming chariot entered the gate of her mansion without any driver, and in front and behind it 
stood two creatures, one with the head of an ox and the other with that of a horse, while on the 
front of the chariot appeared an iron tablet inscribed with the single character MU,[2[ signifying 
Not. The Nii-dono, in her dream, asked whither it had com, and the answer was: "Because the 
evil Karma of the Priestly Chancellor of the Heike is so great, this chariot has 

[p- 2 77] 

come to fetch him front the Palace of Emma-O the Dread King." "Then," said she, "what is the 
meaning of that tablet?" "Because of the crime of the burning of the great bronze image 
Vairochana a hundred and sixty feet high, it has been decreed at the tribunal of Emma-O that he 
shall go down to the Avichi Hell, the hottest of the hot hells where rebirth is unceasing, and so it 
is that the character Not has been written: but the character signifying 'Cease' has not yet been 

written." Then the Nii-dono awoke, bathed in a cold sweat; and when she told what she 
had seen the hair of all that heard it stood up with affright. Then they hastened to offer gold and 
silver and all manner of precious things to the shrines and temples of the gods and Buddhas, 
and fetched thither their horses and saddles and armour and swords and bows and arrows, and 
prayed with might and main, but no sign vouchsafed them; and the Courtiers and their 
wives assembled around the bed of the Nyudo and mourned and lamented bitterly. 

On the second day of the second month, this year being leap-year, the Nii-dono came to the 
bedside of the Nyudo, in spite of the intensity of the heat, and said; "Though my visits enquire 
about you every day may seem few, yet perchance, while still you are able, you may tell me of 
something that you desire." Then, Kiyomori, though his sufferings were so great, summoned up 
his fast-failing strength and said in a weak voice: "Since the time of Hogen and Heiji my 
unworthy house subdued the enemies of the Emperor many times and thereby gained great 
rewards, for which we are most grateful, and I, having been permitted to become the maternal 
relation of the Heavenly Sovereign and to reach the office of Dajodaijin, am about to hand down 
my glory to my descendants, wherefore in this world I have nothing else left to desire. The only 
thing I have to regret is that I cannot see the head of Hyoye-no-sukeYoritomo. When I am dead 
do not perform any Buddhist services or make offerings for me, or build temples or pagodas; only 
make haste and slay Yoritomo and cut off his head and lay 

[ P . 278] 

it before my tomb. That will be the best offering you can make me either in this world or the 
next." So deep indeed was his guilt. Then they put water on a board and rolled him on it to ease 
him, but it did no good, and on the fourth day of the same month he at last expired in great 
anguish. When it was known the commotion and galloping to and fro of horses and carriages was 
such as to make the sky echo and the earth tremble. Even if he had been the Heavenly Sovereign, 
the Lord of ten thousand chariots, it could hardly have been greater. 

He was sixty-four years old this year. He cannot be said to have died of old age, for when the 
result of man's Karma comes upon him the most potent Sutras have no efficacy, nor can the 
power of the gods and Buddhas avail anything; yea, all the deities of heaven cannot protect him, 
so what can ordinary men do? Even if tens of thousands of loyal warriors, all willing to lay down 
their lives for him, were ranged around both above and below, they could notfight with the 
unseen and invulnerable powers of the underworld. And so alone and without a companion he 
must go down to the Yellow Springs of Death, across the Sanzu-no-kawa, the river of Hades, and 
ascend the Mountain of Shide whence no traveller returns. And the evil Karma that he has made 
will take shape as the jailers that come to meet him. 

And so, as it must be, on the seventh day his funeral pyre was lighted at Otaki, and Enjitsu Hogen 
took his bones and brought them down to the province of Settsu, where they were deposited at 
Kyogashima. Thus though he wielded such great authority that his name was feared through the 
whole Empire, his body rose up in smoke to the sky of Kyoto, and his bones mingled with the 
sand of the shore. 












Note: The preceding part of the translation of the Heike Monogotari was issued in 1918. It forms Vol. 

XLVI, Part 11 of the Transactions. 


The present volume completes the translation of the Heike Monogatari from the events that 
followed the death of Taira Kiyomori down to the complete destruction of his house at the battle 
of Dan-no-ura, and the fate of those who survived that defeat. With this the main work ends, and 
the Kancho Maki which follows is an appendix describing the after adventures and death of the 
Former Empress Kenrei-mon-in. Its style seems to be of a later age than the principal work, and 
approaches somewhat to that of the No plays of more than a century later. 

The Book of Swords is another appendix found only in some MSS of the book, and is, no doubt, 
also of comparatively late date. Its inspiration is of Shinto, and not of Buddhism, as is perhaps 
natural, and its purpose seems to be to point out how the history of the country was shaped by 
the deities through the supernatural power that resided in these swords. 

The stories of the origin of the name Nippon, and of the Sacred Seal, are interesting examples of 
that combination called Ryobu Shinto. Another object was to show that the sword that was lost 
in the sea at the drowning of the Emperor Antoku was not the real Sacred Sword, but a copy, 
which deceived the Dragon King of the waters as well as the Heike. The Sea Deity, who has 
usually distinct Buddhist characteristics, is here identified with the Orochi in whose tail the 
Sacred Sword was found. The derivation of place-names from various mythological incidents 
found in this book is curiously reminiscent of Old Testament methods. The author seems to 
regard the Sacred Treasures as the Urim and Thummim or Tablets of Destiny of his country. 

The list of Sanskrit and Chinese words is added as a further 


explanation of the Japanese equivalents used in the text, and to show the direction in which the 
literature of the Kamakura age borrowed from these sources. Eitel's Chin. Sansk. Dictionary and 
Rosenberg's Jap. Chin. Sansk. Dictionary have been used in its preparation as well as Mayer's 
Chinese Reader's Manual. 

In conclusion I wish to express my thanks to Mr. Fukui, Professor of Japanese Literature, and to 
Dr. Okada, Professor of Chinese Literature, in the Peers' College for their kind explanation of 
some obscure passages. 

A. L S. 




After the funeral of Kiyomori a strange thing happened. His Palace of Nishi-Hachijo with all its 
splendid adornment of precious stones and fretted work of gold and silver suddenly went up in 
flames the same night; and though it was no uncommon thing for houses to catch fire, it was 
rumoured that it was the work of incendiaries. Also on the south side of Rokuhara there was 
heard the sound as of some twenty or thirty men, if they were men, dancing and singing the 

"Hurrah! the water 1 Hark to the sound of the waterfall!" mingled with bursts of uncanny 
laughter. As the Retired Emperor had passed away in the first month of this year and the Empire 
had been plunged into mourning, and now within scarcely a month or so the Nyudo had died also, 
even the common people without understanding were overcome with apprehension and gloom. 
Some of the bold spirits among the Heike retainers, declaring these strange occurrences to be the 
work of Tengu, set out in a band of about a hundred to investigate this weird laughter, and found 
that it proceeded from the Hojujiden, the Palace of the Ho-o. As the Ho-o had not been in 
residence there for some three years, a certain Motomune, former Governor of Bizen, had been 
sent there to look after it, and some of his friends had repaired thither that night, bringing liquor 
with them to carouse on the sly, and although they started their banquet with the intention of 
making no noise, seeing the nature of the occasion, yet before long they all became drunken; so 
that their discretion forsook 


them, and they began to sing and dance without restraint. When the Heike samurai perceived 
this they rushed in on them and seized and bound the whole twenty or thirty of them, inebriated 
as they were, and brought them into the courtyard of Rokuhara. Then the former Udaisho 
Munemori came out on to the verandah, and they related the whole matter in detail, but he only 
said : " There seems no need to execute a lot of drunkards like this," and dismissed them. 

It was the custom for all, high and low, to have the bell rung after a death, and the proper prayers 
and offerings Made at stated hours, but after this Lay-priest died no one made the least offering 
either to priests or Buddhas, but all were occupied day and night with nothing but preparations 
for iwar. The painful manner of his death too was repulsive, but this also inclined many to thin' 
that he was not as other men. When his family went to the Shrine of Hiyoshi accompanied by all 
the other families of Court Nobles, people used to say how much grander was the procession 

than that of the Kwampaku when he went to worship at his family shrine of Kasuga. 

Concerning the making of the island called Kyonoshima at Fukuhara ; it was ,a very successful 
undertaking, for even unto this day all kinds of vessels are able to enter the harbour without 
mishap. The work was begun in the early days of the second month of the first year of the period 
Oho, but on the second day of the eighth month a great tempest suddenly rose and the mighty 
waves swept it all away, Then toward the end of the third month of the third year Awa-no- 
Mimbo-no-Kyo was entrusted with the work of rebuilding it, and a Council of Courtiers was 
held to consider the question of following the ancient custom of exposing someone in the sea as a 
sacrifice to the sea-gods, but they decided that such a wicked thing should not be done, and so 
texts from the Holy Sutras were cut on the face of the stones instead, and this is why it is called 
Kyonoshima (Sutra Island). 


It was said, as has been related, that Kiyomori was not an ordinary man at all, and it was 
rumoured that he was an incarnation of Jie Sojo. jVL The reason for this was the following story. In 
the temple of Seichoji in the province of Settsu there lived a certain saintly monk named Jishin 
Bo Sonei. He had formerly been attached to Hieizan, where for many years he had meditated on 
the Hokke Sutra, but at last his religious zeal drove him to leave that mountain and come and live 
in this temple, so that all believed on him and were converted. 

On the twenty second day of the twelfth month of the period Shoan, Sonei went as usual to the 
altar of Buddha to perform the evening service, and was sitting supported by his arm-rest reading 
the Hokke Sutra, when, it seemed neither in a dream or reality, there entered two men clad in 
white Kariginu and Eboshi and wearing leggings and straw sandals, carrying an open letter. When 
Sonei, as in a dream, asked them from whom they had brought it, they replied: "From the Court 
of Emma-O," whereupon he received it from their hands and opening it read as follows: "To the 
Priest Jishin Bo Sonei, residing in the temple of Seichoji, in the province of Settsu, in the Country 
of Dai-Nihon which is in the Djambudvipa. On the twenty sixth day at the Palace of Emma Raja 
there will be held a recitation of the ten myriad portions of the Hokke Sutra, and ten myriad 
priests from ten myriad countries will be entertained. As you have been included in the number 
do you proceed hither as appointed. The above given at his Court, at the command of Emma-O. 
Twenty second day of the twelfth month of the second year of Shoan." 
As Sonei could by no means refuse the dread command, 


he wrote an acknowledgement, after which he awoke, and when he related the vision to Ko-ei, 
the chief priest of the temple, the hair of all that heard it stood up with affright. Thinking that his 
end was near he gave himself up to prayer, repeating the Nembutsu continually, and trusting that 
Buddha would have compassion on him and receive him into his Paradise. On the twenty fifth 
day he went as usual to the altar of Buddha and recited the Sutras, and at the hour of the Rat (12. 
p.m.), feeling sleepy, he returned to his room and lay down to rest, At the hour of the Ox, (2. 
a.m ) the two men came again and urged him to start with them, but when Sonei was preparing 
to go, he found that he had no proper garments or begging-bowl. While he was wondering what 
was to be done, for it would be a dreadful thing to disobey the mandate of Emma-O, a priest's 
robe suddenly wrapped itself round his body, while a begging-bowl of gold descended from 
heaven into his hand; at the same time two attendant priests, two acolytes and ten lower priests 
appeared before his apartment with a chariot adorned with the seven precious things. Sonei 
joyfully mounted the chariot, which soared away through the sky toward the north west and soon 
reached the Palace of Emma. Around it spread on all sides an immense courtyard, and the 
vastness of its spaces within was indescribable. The Palace buildings were all of gold and jewels, 
and shone with a brightness scarcely to be borne by mortal eyes. The service of that day had 
already been finished and the priests had all departed, so Sonei stood waiting in the middle gate 

on the south side of the Palace, viewing the buildings from far off. While he stood thus, all the 
officials and attendants of Emma's realm came to make their obeisance to the Dread King in a 
procession of extraordinary magnificence, and Sonei, wishing to enquire about his sins and his 
future life, proceeded in the same direction. As he did so the ten attendants formed into line and 
the two priests carried boxes, while the acolytes held up an umbrella over him, and in this way 
they approached the presence of Emma; whereupon 


the King and all his officials and Courtiers rose up to greet them, for the two priests now 
appeared in their real form as Yakuo Bosatsu and Yusei Bosatsu, and the two acolytes as 
Tamonten and Jikokuten, the ten attendants being metamorphosed into ten female demons who 
ministered to him. "Why have you come thus when all the other priests have departed?" asked 
Emma "From my childhood," replied Sonei, "I have never neglected daily to recite the Hokke 
Sutra, but even so I am not sure of my fate in the after life, so it is of that that I wish to enquire. 
"Rebirth in Paradise," answered Emma, "is granted according to faith, but the Hokke Sutra is the 
straight way for man to attain Buddhahood, for which purpose all the Buddhas of the Three 
Worlds appeared on this earth. The merit of earnest faith and understanding of it is greater than 
that of practise of the Five Paramitas, while the virtue of preaching it five times is more potent 
than eighty years charity. According to your abounding merit you will be reborn into the highest 
circle of the Tuchita heaven." Then, turning to an attendant, the Dread King said; "The deeds of 
this man's life are in the casket of good works; go and fetch them, and show him what is written." 
Then the ministering demon went to the store-house on the south side and brought the casket, 
and when he opened it and read what was written therein, every act and every thought that he 
had done or meditated in his whole life was revealed; not one was lacking. "One request only I 
have to make," said Sonei, bursting into tears, "show me, I beseech thee, the way by which I may 
escape from the endless circle of births and deaths, and attain to the highest state of 
Enlightenment." So, as he ceased not from his tears, Emma, moved by compassion, instructed him 
in these sacred words of doctrine 

"Wife and child and kindred, rank and wealth, 
Accompany no mortal after death, 
But devils formed from the ill deeds he did, 
Torment him that he scream for evermore." 


Sonei was exceedingly rejoiced and said: "In the country of Dai-Nihon in the Djambudvipa, at 
Wadamisaki in the province of Settsu, the Lord High Chancellor of the Heike has built cells 
extending over a distance of ten cho square, and invited many priests to come and recite the 
Sutras and pray earnestly, even as it might be at the meeting of today." On hearing this, Emma in 
great admiration and gladness exclaimed: "That Nyudo is no ordinary person; he is the 
reincarnation of Jie Sojo, and it was because he kept the law of Tendai Buddhism that for a while 
he was born again in Japan. Three times a day we pray for him here in these words which you 
will remember to repeat to the Nyudo. 

"Jie Dai-Sojo greatly we revere, 
Protector of the Tendai Buddhist Law. 
Revealed on earth as the Great Chancellor, 
His evil Karma even will help mankind." 

So, being entrusted with these holy words, Sonei went out from the presence of the King of the 
Underworld, weeping tears of joy, and when he came to the middle gate of the south side, his ten 
priestly attendants again brought the chariot and soared away with him toward the south-west, so 
that he seemed to have returned in the twinkling of an eye, whereupon he awoke as from a 
dream. Afterwards, going up to Kyoto, he went to the mansion of the Nyudo at Nishi-Hachijo 
and told him all that he had seen. Kiyomori was greatly rejoiced, and after entertaining him 
royally, sent him away with many presents, beside raising him to the rank of Risshi. And this is 
how it came to pass that all knew that the Nyudo was the reincarnation of Jie Sojo. Jikyo Shonin 
was also the reincarnation of Kobo Daishi, while the Retired Emperor Shirakawa was the 
reincarnation of Jikyo Shonin. This Emperor accumulated many meritorious actions and piled up 
many virtuous deeds, and in this degenerate age also Kiyomori, as the reincarnation of Jie Sojo, 
both by his evil deeds and his virtuous actions acquired great merit, and thus conferred much 


on himself and mankind. Not otherwise was it that S'akya Muni and Devadatta both greatly 
helped the world of men. 


But the old men who remembered the former days said that Kiyomori was not as other men 
because he was really the son of the Emperor Shirakawa. And the reason was this. In the period 
Eikyu there was a lady, who was much beloved by the Emperor, who lived near Gion at the foot 
of Higashiyama, so that she was known as Gion-no-Nyogo; and the Emperor used to visit her 
there continually. 

One evening, it was the twentieth day of the fifth month, His Majesty went to see her privately, 
attended only by one or two Courtiers and a few Palace Guards. As it was the season of heavy 
rain the night was dark and gloomy, and no moon shone through the clouds. Now there was a 
temple near the house where the lady was living, and as they approached it they saw something 
that shone strangely come forth from the side of the buildings. Its head seemed to be covered 
with needles of burnished silver that glittered as they stood erect, while in one hand it carried 
what looked like a hammer, and in the other a shining object. The Emperor and Courtiers were 
panic-stricken; "See," they cried, "it is without doubt a demon! They always carry a hammer in 
their handl What is to be done?" At this time Tadamori, the father of Kiyomori, was there as one 
of the lower Palace Guards, and the Emperor called him and said; "You are the boldest of all my 
attendants; go shoot that thing to death or cut it down before it falls upon us." Tadamori 
immediately advanced towards the creature in obedience to the Imperial Command, but when he 
considered it closely it did not seem such a terrible object. "If it is nothing but a fox or a badger I 
should look rather a stupid fellow if I shot at it or cut it down," he thought, so he 


determined to take it alive if possible. As he crept nearer he noticed that the light flashed and 
then went out intermittently, and after watching this two or three times he sprang upon it and 
grappled with it. Immediately a voice cried out in alarm, and he found that it was no monster but 
a man. 

Then they all kindled lights and looked, and found that it was a priest about sixty years old, 
whose business it was to look after the temple, and he was going to light the lamps before the 
Buddhas, so he carried in one hand a vessel of oil and in the other an earthenware lamp, and as 
the rain was falling heavily he had thrown a kind of cape made of wheat straw over his head, and 
it was this that glittered in the light and had the appearance as of steel needles. 

Thus when they discovered this, they perceived how foolish it would have been to have shot or 
drawn sword on him, and the conduct of Tadamori was proved to have been most reasonable and 
prudent. "How gentle can a samurai be on occasion;" said His Majesty, and as a reward he 
bestowed on him the lady of Gion whom he so greatly loved. Now the lady was at this time 
pregnant, and the Emperor said; "If it be a girl that is born, I myself will take it, but if it be a boy, 
then it shall be given to Tadamori and be educated as a samurai." In due time the lady gave birth 
to a son, and though nothing was said about it in public they treasured him with the greatest care. 

Tadamori greatly wished to report the matter to the Emperor, but could not find a suitable 
opportunity. After a while, however, when His Majesty was on his way to the Shrine of Kumano, 
it chanced that the Imperial Palanquin was set down at a place called Itogasaka in the province of 
Kii that the Emperor might rest, when Tadamori gathered some shoots of 'Nukago' [2] that was 
growing profusely in the bamboo thicket, put them into his sleeve and showed 


them to the Emperor with an obeisance, at the same time reciting this line: 

"See this plant that creeps and crawls like a child in the woodland; " 

Immediately His Majesty, understanding the reference, added the second line of the couplet, thus: 

"Then let Tadamori cherish and nurture it so. " 

So he brought him up as his own child. The Emperor happening to hear that the baby cried very 
much at night made another stanza, and sent it to Tadamori. 

"If he cries at night you have only to get up and nurse him, 
In the future age, pure and successful he'll shine. " 

Whereupon they gave him the name Kiyomori or Pure Success. 

When he was twelve years old he came of age, and was appointed Hyoye-no-suke, and at the age 
of eighteen he was promoted to the third rank, so that people who did not know these things said; 
"Indeedl he is treated like the son of a great noble," whereat the Emperor Toba, who was aware 
of origin replied: "He is inferior to none of the noble families." 

In former ages too, Tenchi Tenno presented one of his consorts who was in the same condition to 
the Taishokkwan Kamatari, telling him that he would adopt the child if it were a girl, but that if 
a boy were born the Minister should bring it up; and a boy was born who eventually became Joei 
Kwasho the founder of the temple of Tabu-no-Mine. Considering this precedent in ancient days, 
so in these latter days also it was not strange that Kiyomori, being really the son of the Emperor 
Shirakawa, should plan such great political changes as the change of capital. 


On the twentieth day of the same month Gojo-no-Dainagon Kunitsuna Kyo departed this life, He 
had been on particularly intimate terms of friendship with the Nyudo, so that it was strange that 
he should have been taken ill on the same day, and have died in the same month. On the twenty 
second day Munemori paid a visit to the Ho-o and informed him that his Palace was to be moved 
back to the Hojujiden. This Palace had been built on the fifteenth day of the fourth month of the 
first year of Oho, and His Majesty had personally directed the laying out of the gardens with 
landscapes of trees and hills and ornamental water according to his taste, as well as having new 
shrines constructed near it to the deities of Hiyoshi and Kumano. In consequence of the ill- 
treatment of the Heike, however, he had not lived there for the last few years, and so it had fallen 
into disrepair, so now they proposed to have it put into order before he returned there to reside. 
But the Ho-o was so pleased at the thought of going there again that he did not wish to wait for 
this, and insisted on moving immediately. He at once went to see the apartments of his late 
consort Kenshun-mon-in, and found that in this short time the pine-tree by the bank and the 
willow that grew by the edge of the lake had both become quite big trees; and when he looked at 
the mallow tree by the pond, and the willow at the palace eaves, that stood opposite to them, the 
remembrance of old times overcame him so that he was affected to tears. 

On the first day of the third month all the priests of Nara were pardoned and restored to their 
offices, and a proclamation was made that they should be confirmed in the possession of their 
tributary temples and manors as before. On the third day was held the ceremony of inauguration 
of the rebuilding of the Dai-Butsuden, and the former Sashoben Yukitaka was appointed to direct 
it. This Yukitaka had made a pilgrimage 


to Yahata the year before and spent the night praying in the shrine, where he had a dream in 
which he saw the doors of the inner sanctuary open and an angelic messenger with hair tightly 
bound up come forth and announce: "I am the messenger of Hachiman Dai-Bosatsu; when you go 
to direct the inauguration of the rebuilding of the Dai Butsuden take this with you;" and he 
handed him a Courtier's baton. Afterwards when he awoke he found the baton by his pillow, 
whereat he was greatly astonished, wondering what was likely to happen that he should have to 
undertake such an office, but as it was a supernatural dream he put the baton in his bosom and 
took it home with him, where he put it away most carefully. Soon after it came to pass that the 
temples of Nara were burnt through the wickedness of the Heike, and Yukitaka had the good 
fortune to be chosen from many officials of the same rank to preside at the inauguration of their 
rebuilding: a most auspicious connexion for him. 

On the tenth day the governor of the province of Mino rode hard to Kyoto with the news that 
the Genji had pressed their attack as far as the province of Owari, where they had blocked the 
roads so that none could pass, and the Heike chiefs determined to set out against them. The 

Commander-in-chief on this occasion was Sahyoye-no-kami Tomomori, and with him were 
Sachujo Kiyotsune, Shosho Arimori and Tango-no-Jiju Tadafusa, while in command of the 
samurai were Etchu-no Jirohyoye Moritsugu, Kazusa-no-Gorohyoye Tadamitsu and 
Akushichihyoye Kagekiyo, and these marched against Owari with a force of some thirty thousand 
horsemen. As it was only about fifty days since Kiyomori died, everything was in a sad state of 
confusion. On the side of the Genji Juro-no-Kurando Yukiie with Yoritomo's younger brother 
Gien and about six thousand horsemen pitched camp by the Owari river, so that both armies 
faced each other on opposite sides of the stream. Then, during the night of the sixteenth day the 
Genji force crossed over and made a sudden assault with the intention 


of taking the Heike by surprise, but the latter, quite undismayed, allowed them to penetrate 
deeply with their small force, and then closed in and surrounded them, and as they were all 
dripping with water after fording the river this served to distinguish friend from foe. The fight 
began at the hour of the Tiger (4. a.m.) and continued till day broke, when Juro-no-Kurando 
Yukiie, finding that Gien had met his death among the foe, and that most of his retainers too had 
fallen, after fighting bravely gave way and fled back eastward of the river. Then the Genji, 
crossing the river in their turn, took the remnant of the enemy in the rear and shot them down 
from behind, so that, though a few here and there stood on the defensive and made some 
resistance, in a short time the whole force was destroyed. All condemned this attack of the Genji 
as foolish, and contravening the well-known maxim, "Never fight with water or swamp behind 
you." Yukiie fled to the province of Mikawa where he destroyed the bridge over the Yahagigawa, 
and threw up a breastwork of shields on the further side in an effort to hold the enemy, but the 
Heike pursued him vigorously and dislodged him. Thus keeping up the pursuit, the men of 
Mikawa and Totomi would certainly have come in on the side of the victors, when at this 
juncture the Commander Sahyoye-no-kami Tomomori fell sick and retired with his army to the 
Capital. As he had only driven the enemy out of one position and had not been able to complete 
the destruction of the remainder, he could not be said to have done great things. 

Now since Komatsu Shigemori had died the year before last, and the Nyudo Kiyomori this year, 
it appeared to all that the doom of the Heike house was drawing on apace, and so there were few 
who would support them except those whose fortunes had been linked with theirs for many 
years, while in the eastern provinces even the grass and trees inclined to the will of the Genji. 


Now Jo-no-Taro Sukenaga of the province of Echigo had been appointed Echigo-no-kami, and 
out of gratitude for the Imperial Favour he set out with an army of thirty thousand to the 
province of Shinano to attack Kiso Yoshinaka. On the fifteenth day of the sixth month he was to 
start, but about the middle of the night before, the sky suddenly clouded over, and there was a 
mighty clap of thunder and a great downpour of rain, and then, when the heavens had cleared, a 
hoarse voice shouted in terrific accents from mid-air: "Here is a supporter of the Heike who 
burned the copper-gilt image of Vairochana Buddha a hundred and fifty feet high, that was in the 
Djambudvipa ; go ye and seize him! " At this fearful portent the hair of Jo-no-Taro and his men 
stood on end with terror, and some of the retainers exclaimed; "How can we go on against this 
sign from Heaven?" But as it was not the way of samurai to heed such things, they set forth, and 
had only gone about the distance of twenty cho when a mass of black clouds appeared, and hung 
over the head of Sukenaga and covered him, and immediately his limbs were cramped and his 
brain was palsied, so that he fell from his horse. His men took him up and carried him in a 
palanquin to his mansion, where he lay prostrate for about three hours and then expired. When a 
messenger was sent with the news to the Capital the Heike were struck with consternation. 

On the fourteenth day of the seventh month the name of the era was changed to Yo-wa. On this 
day also an investiture of officials was held, and Chikugo-no-kami Sadayoshi was appointed Higo- 
no-kami, receiving jurisdiction over both the provinces of Chikuzen and Higo, and being ordered 
to quell the insurrection in Kyushu, he set out thither with a force of three thousand. A great 
amnesty was also proclaimed on the same day, and all those who had been exiled in the third 


year of Jisho were recalled to Kyoto. The former Kwampaku Matsu-dono came back from Bizen, 
the Dajo-daijin Myo on-in from Owari, while Azechi-no-Dainagon Sukekata-no-Kyo hurried 
back from Shinano. 

On the twenty eighth day Myo-on-in Dono had an audience with the Ho-o. When he was 
recalled in the era of Chokwan he took his biwa and played in the Imperial verandah the pieces 
called Gao-on and Kenjo-raku, and now when he returned again in the period Yo-wa he played 
that called Shufu- raku in the Sento Palace, for he had always that happy and tactful delicacy of 
feeling that prompted him to do an elegant thing at the proper time. On the same day Azechi-no- 
Dainagon Sukekata-no-Kyo also went to the Palace of the Ho-o, and His Majesty asked him to 
sing, saying that, as he had been living for some time in an uncongenial and remote country place, 
he had no doubt forgotten all his popular ditties, so perhaps he would sing an Imayo. Then the 
Dainagon sang the Imayo verse beginning: "There's a river in Shinano called Kisojigawa, 'tis said," 
and this apposite song gained him a great reputation for wit, seeing that he must have seen and 
heard of this river so often. 


On the seventh day of the eighth month a recitation of the Nio Sutra was held in the Hall of the 
Dajokwan in memory of the subduing of Taira Masakado, and on the first day of the ninth month 
a suit of armour and a helmet was presented to the Daijingu Shrine at Ise in memory of the 
quelling of the insurrection of Fujiwara Sumitomo. The Imperial Envoy to the Shrine Saishu-no- 
Jingi-no-Gondai-fuku Onakatomi Sadataka, fell ill at Koga in the province of Omi soon after 
leaving Kyoto, and on the third day he passed away in the Detached Palace at Ise. Moreover they 
held a recitation of the Sutras 


before the Five Great Buddhist Deities to pray for victory over their enemies, and one of the 
priests called Dai-Ajari, who was officiating before the image of Gosanze, became unconscious 
and died before the altar. It was a manifest sign that neither the gods nor Buddhas would accept 
their supplications. Again, a service was held before the image of Daigen Myo-o, and Jikken Ajari 
of the Anjoji came and brought many volumes of the Holy Sutras and opened and read them, but 
all he could prophesy was the downfall of the Heike. When they asked him the reason he replied: 
" The enemies of the Emperor must be subdued, and when we consider the present condition of 
affairs, it appears that the Heike are the enemies of the Emperor, therefore they must be 
overthrown." On account of this ominous prediction they proposed to put the Ajari to death or 
banish him, but as everyone was so busy with things both great and small, it happened that he 
escaped. After the Heike had fallen and the Genji had taken their place, this priest went down to 
Kamakura and told his story there, whereupon Yoritomo was pleased to raise him to the rank of 
Sojo as a reward for his boldness. 

On the twenty fourth day of the twelfth month the Consort of the late Emperor became a nun 
and took the title of Kenrei-mon-in, and as the Emperor was quite an infant at the time, this was 
the only name by which he ever knew her. And so this year came to an end and the second year 
of Yo-wa began. The Court Festivals of the New Year were held as usual. On the twenty first day 
of the second month the planet Mars invaded the territory of the Pleiades; and it is written in the 
astronomical books that if this happens the barbarians will rise, and also that a General will 
receive the Imperial Commission to march beyond the frontier. On the tenth day of the third 
month an investiture of officials was held, and most of the Heike received promotion. On the 
fifteenth day of the fourth month the former Gon-sho Sozu Genshin held a service at the shrine 
of Hiyoshi, when the Hokke Sutra was recited ten thousand 


times according to the rule, and the Ho-o attended it to acquire merit. 

Who it was that began it I know not, but a rumour went forth that the Ho-o had bidden the 
monks of Hieizan attack the Heike, and in consequence of this bands of soldiers marched on the 

Palace and camped about it on all sides. The Heike hastily assembled at Rokuhara, and Hon- 
sammi-no-Chujo Shigehira with a force of three thousand horse set out for the shrine of Hiyoshi. 
When it was reported at Hieizan that their temples were in danger of being attacked, the monks 
went down to Higashi Sakamo o and held a council to find out the reason. The Ho-o meanwhile 
was in a state of consternation at these things, and the Courtiers and Nobles turned pale with 
agitation, while most of the Ho o's Guards could not contain themselves in their flurry. Both in 
the Capital and in the temples the trepidation was extreme. Then Shigehira Kyo met the Ho-o 
near Anabu and accompanied him back to Kyoto, and it was found that the stories of His 
Majesty's inciting the monks to attack the Heike, and the Heike being about to march against the 
temples, were both groundless falsehoods, upon which there were not wanting those who put 
them down to supernatural malevolence. "I suppose I mint not go on any more pilgrimages at my 
pleasure in future;" quoth the Ho-o. 

On the twentieth day an Imperial Envoy was sent to the twenty -two shrines round the Capital; 
this was on account of the famine and pestilence. On the twenty-fourth day of the fifth month 
the era was changed to Ju-ei, and on the same, day an investiture of officials was held, at which 
Jo-no-Shiro Sukemochi of Echigo was made Echigo-no-kami. After the death of his elder brother 
Sukenaga he rather wished to avoid the ill-omened honour, but as it was the Imperial Order there 
as nothing to be done. He then changed his name to Nagamochi. 

So on the second day of the ninth month Jo-no-Shiro 


Nagaimochi assembled the men of Echigo, Dewa and Aizu, about forty thousand horsemen, and 
went forth to the province of Shinano to attack Kiso. On the ninth day he pitched his camp at 
Yokotagawara in that Province, and Kiso, who had been lying in the fortress of Yoda, issued out 
with three thousand horse and rode to meet him. Now the Genji of Shinano, by the stratagem of 
Inoue-no-Kuro Mitsumori, divided two thousand of their men into seven parties, each bearing a 
red flag, the colour of the Heike, and when the warriors of Echigo saw these emerging over the 
rocks and winding out of the defiles they set up a shout of joy, thinking that many were for their 
side in this province also. But as the different bands approached, at a given signal the whole seven 
drew together into one, and, throwing away their red banners, suddenly replaced them with 
white ones and advanced to the onset. When the men of Echigo saw this manoeuvre panic seized 
them and they cried out; " Ah 1 we have been deceived! The enemy swarms everywhere! We 
shall be surrounded!" And thus thrown into confusion they were driven into the river and 
stampeded into deep gorges, so that most of them perished, and but few survived. Jo-no-Shiro, 
when his most redoubtable champions Yama-no-Taro of Echigo and Jotanbo of Aizu, on whom 
he especially relied, had been slain, and himself badly wounded, escaped with his bare life and 
fled back to his province by way of the river. When he reached Echigo he at once sent 
messengers to Kyoto to inform the Heike of his. mishap, but they carelessly paid no heed. On the 
sixteenth day Munemori-no-Kyo was again appointed Dai-nagon, and on the third day of the 
tenth month he became Nai-daijin. On the seventh day of the same month he proceeded to the 
Palace to offer thanks attended by a brilliant train, including twelve Court Nobles headed by 
Kwazan-in Chunagon, and sixteen of lesser rank led by Kurando-no-To Chikamune. Among 
them there were four of the rank of Chunagon and three of that of Sammi Chujo. So, though the 
Genji of the north and west 


countries were swarming forth everywhere like bees, and were reported to be even now about to 
burst in upon the Capital, the Heike, heedless of the impending storm that was to break upon 
them, continued to spend their days in luxury and extravagance. Thus this year also came to an 
end and the second year of Ju-ei began. The New Year Festival was as usual. On the fifth day of 
the New Year the Emperor went on a Visit of Ceremony to the Palaces of His Imperial Relations. 
There was a precedent for this, for the Emperor Toba made a like visit at the age of six years. On 
the twenty first day of the second month Munemori-no-Kyo was raised to the Lower First Rank, 
and on the same day he resigned the office of Naidaijin: this he was said to have done on account 
of the revolt. Then the monks of Nara and Hieizan and the priests of Kumano and Kinbusen, as 
well as the chief of the Daijingu Shrine at Ise and all his officials rebelled against the Heike and 
transferred their allegiance to the Genji, and though an Imperial Decree was issued to all the four 
quarters of the Empire, and the Ho-o also published an Order to the whole country, yet as all 
concluded that this was but a device of the Heike, there were none who paid any attention. 


[1] Hatsune. Kiku tabi ni mezurashikereba hototogisu 
Itsumo hatsune no kokochi koso tsure. 

[2] Mu. First syllable of ?p£ fa] mugen, without intermission. 



At the beginning of the third month of the second year of Ju-ei there arose some ill feeling 
between Kiso-no Kwanja Yoshinaka and Hyoye-no-suke Yoritomo, so that Yoritomo despatched 
a force of a hundred thousand horse to the province of Shinano to attack Kiso. Yoshinaka was at 
this time at his stronghold of Yoda, but when he heard the news he went forth with some three 
thousand men and camped at Kumasaka—yama on the borders of Shinano and Echigo. Then, as 
soon as Yoritomo had come as far as Zenkoji in Shinano, he sent a message to him by the hand of 
his foster-brother Imai-no-Shiro Kanehira, saying: 

"As you have now subdued the Eight Eastern Provinces you can now attack the Heike from the 
East Sea Road and drive them out of the Capital. I also, after occupying the Eastern and Northern 
Hill Provinces, can fall on them from the Northern Highway, so now, when we both ought to 
haste and make an end of them as soon as possible, why do you give them occasion to mock by 
allowing some estrangement to arise between us? It is true that our uncle Juro Kurando Yoshiie, 
who has no love for Your Excellency, has thought fit to come here, but his presence is 
exceedingly troublesome to me; yet what can I do? Though he is here I myself have no feeling of 
animosity toward you at all." To which communication Yoritomo replied thus: "Though you 
speak thus now, I have received information that there is a plot to raise a rebellion and attack me, 
and that is not all I rely on." So when Kiso heard that an army of many tens of thousands of 
horsemen under Doi 


and Kajiwara was advancing against him, to show the sincerity of his intentions, he sent his heir, 
Shimizu-no Kwanja Yoshishige, a boy of eleven, escorted by Umeno, Mochizuke, Suwa, Fujisawa 
and others, who were reckoned among the most doughty of his warriors, as a hostage to 

Then Yoritomo, acknowledging that his suspicions were false, and that Yoshinaka was quite loyal 
to him, as he had no grown up son of his own, adopted Shimizu-no-Kwanja as his son, and taking 
him with him, went back again to Kamakura. 

Now when Yoshinaka had coerced the districts of the east and north, he was ready to make an 
attack on Kyoto, and as the Heike had announced during the winter of the previous year that 
they would probably move in the spring, the levies from the Sanin, Sanyo, Nankai and Saikai 
districts came pouring in like mist and clouds. As for the Tosan or Eastern Hill district, the men 
of Omi, Mino and Hida came in, but on the Tokaido none joined them from eastward of Omi. 
All the western districts sent their men, but from the Hokurikudo not one arrived from north of 
Wakasa. After a Council of Courtiers had been held, the Heike leaders decided to proceed against 

Kiso Yoshinaka first, and then to attack Yoritomo, and with this purpose their army set out for 
the north. The Commanders in Chief were Komatsu no Sammi Chujo Koremori and Echizen-no- 
Sammi Michimori, while the Vice-Commanders were Satsuma-no-kami Tadanori, Kogo-gu no- 
suke Tsunemasa, Awaji-no-kami Kiyofusa and Mikawa-no-kami Tomonori. Six generals were 
appointed to lead the samurai, Etchu-no-Jirohyoye Moritsugu, Kazusa-no-taiyu Hangwan 
Tadatsuna, Hida-no-taiyu Hangwan Kagetaka, Kawachi-no-Hangwan Hidekuni, Takahashi-no 
Hangwan Nagatsuna and Musashi-no Saburosaemon Arikuni, beside whom there were three 
hundred and forty other valiant warriors apt to command. The forces under them were about a 
hundred thousand horsemen, and at the hour of the Dragon (8. a.m.) on the seventeenth day of 
the fourth month they left Kyoto for the north 


country. As their supplies were insufficient, as soon as they had crossed the pass of Ausaka 
outside the Capital, they began to seize and appropriate anything they wanted from the estates 
and houses that lay by the way, not sparing even the government property. As they went along by 
Shiga, Karasaki, Mikawajiri, Mano, Takashima, Shiozu and Kaizu, the inhabitants of these places 
could not endure it and fled to the mountains. 


Now the Generals Koremori and Michimori pressed on their way, but Tadanori, Tsunemasa, 
Kiyofusa and Tomonori tarried a while at Shiozu and Kaizu in Omi. Of these Kogogu-no suke 
Tsunemasa had excelled in poetry and music from his youth up, and it happened that one 
morning, wishing to calm his mind in the midst of these alarms and disorder, he went out to the 
edge of the lake to enjoy the scenery. As he looked out into the offing he saw an island in the 
distance, and calling to Tohyoye-no-Jo Arinori who had accompanied him, he asked what island 
it was. "That is the famous island called Chikubushima;" replied Arinori, whereupon Tsunemasa 
expressed a wish to go out to it, so they got a small boat and escorted by Arinori and Anemon- 
no-Jo Morinori with six retainers, he crossed over to Chikubushima. It was the eighteenth day of 
the fourth month, but still the song of the 'Uguisu' of the vale lingered among the green twigs and 
recalled the favours of spring, and the ever charming early notes of the hototogisu answered it, 
while the clusters of wistaria hung heavy on the pines. The scene filled Tsunemasa with ecstasy, 
and he quickly alighted from the boat and climbed up on to the island, gazing at the beauty of the 
landscape with a heart too full for words. Not fairer it seemed was that magic island of Horai, 
whither Shiko of Shin sent many fair youths 


and maidens, and Butei of Kan despatched a magician, if happly they might find it and bring back 
from thence the water of youth and immortality, but not finding it, and fearing to return to China, 
age overtook them in their ships while they were still vainly searching the boundless ocean. And 
in one of the Sutras it is written: "In the Djambudvipa is a certain lake ; and in the midst of it, 
proceeding from the bottom of the world, there is an isle, formed all of crystal, where fairy 
maidens dwell." And this, they say, is the island. 

Then Tsunemasa, respectfully approaching the Myojin, the deity of the place, prayed thus; "O 
thou goddess Benzaiten, who wert known of old under the title of Nyorai, and dost deign to 
manifest thyself here in a spiritual body as a saviour; for though we may address thee by the 
names of Myo-on-ten and Benzai-ten, yet in this place thou art united in one body to save 
mankind; grant, we beseech thee, the petitions and desires that we offer before thee." And as he 
was still kneeling before the shrine the dusk fell over the lake, and the waiting moon rose over 
the water so that it turned into silver, and the white beams bathed the steps of the shrine with 
light. Then the priest who lived there, knowing Tsunemasa's skill in music, brought him a biwa, 
and he played and sang the melodies called Jogen and Sekijo, so that the liquid notes rang clear 
through the silent shrine. So exquisite it was that the Myojin could not restrain her emotion, but. 
appeared over the shoulder of Tsunemasa as he played, in the form of a white dragon. Tsunemasa, 
overcome by reverential awe, laid aside his biwa and composed the stanza; 

"Lo J a manifest sign that my humble prayer will be answered, 
Since from tire depth of the waves, awful the goddess appears. " 

And so, not doubting that the enemies of the Throne would soon be subdued and the insurgents 
put to flight, he embarked in the boat and returned to the mainland in great joy 


Now, though Kiso Yoshinaka himself remained in Shinano, he built a stronghold at Hiuchi in 
Echizen and stationed there Heizenji-no-Chori Saimei-i-gishi, Togashi-no-Nyudo Bussei, Inazu- 
no-Shinsuke, Saitoda, Hayashi-no Rokuro Mitsuakira, Ishiguro, Miyazaki, Tsuchida, Takebe, 
Nyuzen, and Sami with some six thousand men. The situation was naturally strong, surrounded 
by towering crags, and with mountain peaks on all sides. A mountain rose before it and another 
behind, while in front of it flowed the Nomigawa and the Shindogawa. At the confluence of 
these two rivers they piled up rocks and drove in stakes and made a large dam, so that the water 
came right up to the hills on the north and south and spread out like a lake. As the Chinese poet 
says; "Shadows steep the southern hills; wide and blue and vast are the waters; the waves melt 
into the western sun; the waters redden and look like damask." The bottom of this cool lake is of 
sand pure as gold or silver, and by its brink there float most graceful ships. But the lake of Hiuchi 
in our country was dammed up so that its waters were dark and deceive the eye. 

As they had no boats the Heike force could not easily cross over it, and so they encamped on the 
mountain in front and spent some days idly doing nothing. But Heizenji-no-Chori Saimei, who 
was within the fortress, was a partizan of the Heike, and he went round the foot of the mountain, 
and, writing a letter, stuck it to the head of an arrow, which he shot into their camp. The soldiers 
found it and took it to their Commander, who opened it and read thus: "The river was not 
formerly as you see it now; it is a mountain stream that has been dammed up so that it may look 
muddy and deceive the eye. If you send men under cover of darkness and cut the dams, the water 
will quickly run off, and then you can cross over at once; thus you can take the place at a 


Given by me, Heizenji-no-Chori Saimei-i-gishi." The Heike were overjoyed at this, and when 
night came they sent men who cut the dykes, whereupon it turned out that the water was indeed 
only a mountain stream and quickly drained away. Without losing any time they at once crossed 
over, and although the six thousand men of the garrison made a stout resistance, it was of no avail. 
Thus Heizenji-no-Chori Saimei showed his loyalty to the Heike ; but Togashi-no Nyudo Bussei, 
Inazu-no-Shinsuke, Saitoda and Hayashi-no-Rokuro Mitsuaki, seeing that nothing more could be 
done, retired to Kaga and took up positions at Shirayama and Kawachi. The Heike, however, 
immediately pursued them into the province of Kaga, and burned the two strongholds of Togashi 
and Hayashi, then, as there seemed no force anywhere to oppose them, they sent messengers 
from the several provinces and stopping-places to convey the news to Kyoto. These tidings, when 
they reached the Capital, greatly encouraged and rejoiced the Naidaijin and all his house. On the 
eighth clay of the fifth month the Heike reached Shinohara in the province of Kaga, where they 
divided their army into two parts, a main body and a .smaller force. The main body consisted of 
some seventy thousand men under the command of Komatsu Sammi-no-Chujo Koremori, and 
Echizen-no-Sammi Michimori, with Etchu-no-Jirohyoye Mori tsugu as Commander of the 
Samurai, and they set out towards Tonamiyama, at the boundary of Kaga and Etchu. The lesser 
force consisted of about thirty thousand commanded by Satsuma-no-hami Tadanori, Kogo-gu-no- 

nuke Tsunemasa, Awa ji-no kami Kiyofusa and Mikawa-no-kami Tomonori, with Musashi-no- 
Saburosaemon Arikuni in command of the Samurai. They were to march on Shiboyama, which 
bounded the provinces of Noto and Etchu. At this time Kiso Yoshinaka was at Kofu in 
Echigo, [3] but when he heard of this he marched on Tonamiyama with fifty thousand 
men. After a stratagem that 

had succeeded before, he divided his force into seven parts, of which one, consisting of ten 
thousand horsemen, marched against Shiboyama under the command of his uncle Juro Kurando 
Yukiie, while two others, under Higuchi no-Jiro Kanemitsu and Ochiai-no-Goro Kaneyuki, of 
about seven thousand each, were sent out to Kitakurosaka. Three other companies of seven 
thousand horse, under Nishina, Takahashi and Yamada-no-Jiro rode towards Minami Kurosaka 
while about ten thousand were concealed in ambush round the slopes of Tonamiyama at 
Matsunaga-no Yanagihara and Gumi-no-Kibayashi. Imai-no-Shiro Kanehira with six thousand 
horse crossed over the Washinose and took up his position at Hino-Miyabayashi. Kiso Yoshinaka 
himself crossed over the Oyabe and marched to Hannyu a little to the north of Tonamiyama. 


" As the Heike have such a large army they will try to fight a decisive battle," said Yoshinaka, 
"and a decisive victory or defeat depends on the number of men; but if a large force is menaced 
by a larger one it will feel in danger of being surrounded. So, if we deceive them by carrying thirty 
white flags and showing them on the top of Kurosaka, as soon as the Heike see them they will 
think we have a larger force than we really have, and so, fearing to be surrounded if they move 
forward, as their present position is high and rocky, they will consider it the safest plan to stop 
there for a while and rest their horses on Tonamiyama. Then I will manage to keep them there 
till dusk comes on, and under cover of darkness I will drive their whole army over into Kurikara 
valley below." So they set up the thirty flags on the top of the hill of Kurosaka, and the Heike, as 
they expected, imagining themselves to be confronted by superior force, and fearing they would 
be out 


flanked, cried out: "Here is plenty of grass and water for the horses, let us dismount and let them 
rest a while." And the place where they rested was Saru-no-baba among the mountains of 

Now Yoshinaka was in Hannyu, and as he earnestly scanned the country on all sides, he saw, far 
off amidst the green trees of Natsuyama, what appeared to be a red shrine-fence with the 
bevelled cross-beams of the shrine above, and a torii standing before it, and, on asking his guide 
what shrine it was, and what deity was worshipped there, the guide replied that it was the shrine 
of Hachiman, and that that place belonged to the god. On hearing this Yoshinaka was glad 
beyond measure and calling Taiyu-bo Kakumei, who was a capable writer, said to him "By great 
good fortune I now find myself before the august shrine of Hachiman, even as I am about to go 
into battle: do you not think it well, both for the sake of future generations, and as a prayer for 
my present need, that I offer up a petition before him?" Kakumei, replying that it would be most 
suitable, alighted from his horse to write it. Now Kakumei was this day wearing a hitatare of 
'kachi' and armour with black lacing; his sword was of black lacquer, his twenty four arrows were 
feathered with black feathers taken from the underside of a birds' wing, and he carried a bow 
bound with rattan and lacquered. Taking off his helmet and slinging it to a thong on his shoulder, 
he produced a small ink-stone and a paper-case from the bottom of his quiver, sat down 
respectfully before Yoshinaka, and began to write the petition. This Kakumei had been born of a 
family of Confucian scholars, and was formerly known as Kurando Michihiro, when he had been 
an official of the Kwangakuin, or College of Literature, but later he became a monk under the 
name of Saijobo Shinkyu and dwelt at Nara. The year before, when Takakura-no-Miya had 
entered the Onjoji at Miidera and Hieizan had sent a letter to Nara, it was this Shinkyu who 
composed the answer; whatever the priests of Nara may have 

[p-2 7 ] 

thought of it I know not, but it contained the words:" Now Kiyomori is of the very dregs of the 
Heike, and but the off-scourings of the warrior caste." And Kiyomori, when he heard of it, was 
exceedingly enraged and burst forth: "How does a wretched fellow like this Shinkyu dare to 

speak of me, Jokai, in such an insulting manner? Go and seize him quickly and put him to death. 
But Shinkyu got wind of it and fled in haste from Nara and went to the north country, where he 
became scribe to Kiso Yoshinaka and changed his name to Taiyu-bo Kakumei. And the words of 
the petition ran thus: 

"Kimyo choral! Obedient to thy commands and with the deepest reverence, O Hachiman Dai- 
Bosatsu! O Lord who guardeth our Sun-descended Realm. Mighty Ancestor of our Heaven- 
shining Imperial Line, reveal thyself in thy Three Buddha Persons to protect the Throne and help 
the people, bursting open the mighty gates in thy three divine personalities. For many years now 
has this Taira Minister held dominion over the whole Empire and oppressed the people, acting 
impiously toward the Law of Buddha and opposing the Throne. I, Yoshinaka, born of a warrior 
line, do unworthily follow my ancestors' calling, and can no longer bear to think over these evils, 
so, trusting my fate to heaven, I do now offer my body to my country, raising up a loyal army to 
subdue the rebels. Nevertheless, though the two hosts of the Gen and Hei now stand face to face 
for battle, while the valour of our soldiers is as yet unconfirmed, and the heart of thy servant is 
still touched with dread, even as we unfurl our banners before the foe, at once we prostrate 
ourselves before the altar of thy Three-fold Divine Beneficence. If thy gracious favour be purely 
manifested to us, without doubt the rebels will be put to the sword ; and thus do we eagerly 
anticipate thy help with tears of joy. Furthermore, especially since my great-grandfather the 
former Mutsu-no-kami Yoshiie Ason dedicated himself to thee by adoption and took the name 
of Hachimantaro, his family have ever faithfully served thee, and I Yoshinaka his humble scion, 


have for many years bowed my head before thee. If I mention his great merit, it is as a child who 
measures the great ocean with a shell, or as a mantis that lifts up its claws against a war-chariot. 
Yet, as it is not for my own glory or that of my house, but for the sake of my Sovereign and of 
my Country, I would commend it. Very urgent is my desire, but the purpose of the gods is dark : 
verily on thee do I rely that thou wilt make me to rejoice. Humbly prostrating myself before thee, 
I pray that thou wilt put forth thy power both in the light and in the darkness, and that thou wilt 
reveal the might of thy divinity to overthrow our enemies and give us the victory. If thou 
deignest to hearken to my supplication and grantest us thy mighty protection, vouchsafe, we 
beseech thee, that we may see an auspicious and manifest omen. The eleventh day of the fifth 
month of the second year of Ju-ei. Reverently offered by me Minamoto Yoshinaka." 

Then he himself and thirteen horsemen of his train took each two large turnip-head arrows from 
their quivers, and these together with the petition they deposited before the sanctuary of the god. 
Neither was this prayer of such rare earnestness without an answer from the merciful Bosatsu, for 
he deigned to look upon it from his dwelling afar, and immediately from the midst of a cloud 
three wild doves came flying, fluttering and circling round the white banners of the Genji. So, in 
old time, when Jingo Kogo went forth to battle with Shinra, and for a while the foreign foe 
prevailed against her armies, the Empress lifted up her voice in prayer to heaven, when suddenly 
three sacred doves came forth from a cloud and fluttered over the shields of her men, after which 
they again attacked and the enemy were defeated. So it was too when his own ancestor Yoriyoshi 
Ason, fighting against the outlaws Sadato and Muneto of Mutsu, found the enemy too strong for 
him, for he cast fire in the face of the rebels, crying out that it was of no earthly kindling, but 
divine fire from heaven. Then there arose a wind and blew straight in the direction of the foe, so 


their stronghold of Kuriyagawa was burned, whereupon their armies were routed and Sadato and 
Muneto were overthrown. Now, on this occasion Kiso Yoshinaka, remembering these former 
precedents, alighted from his horse, and taking off his helmet, washed his hands and rinsed his 
mouth, after which he made obeisance to the holy doves, his heart full of faith in the god. 


Now the two armies of the Genji and Heike faced each other in battle array, the distance 
between them being scarcely three cho, but for a while neither side advanced. Then, after a while 
fifteen picked horsemen came forth from the host of the Genji, and taking up a position between 
the two forces, each man loosed a turnip-headed arrow at the Heike. At this fifteen picked men 
of the Heike also advanced and shot their arrows at the Genji in turn: then the Genji sent forth 
thirty more horsemen, and the Heike replied with a like number. Fifty again rode forth from the 
Genji and shot their arrows, and another fifty of the Heike appeared to meet them. When both 
had sent forth a hundred men, and the two bands engaged each other between the two armies to 
try a decisive contest, the Genji sent no more men to join them and purposely avoided a decision. 
While they were thus engaged in holding them in check until the sun should set and the night 
approach, so that they could drive their whole army into the valley of Kurikara beneath, the 
Heike, never dreaming of such a piece of strategy, continued to fight on until nightfall. Then the 
flanking force consisting of some ten thousand men, who had gone round by the way of the Fudo 
shrine of Kurikara, suddenly beat vigorously on their quivers and shouted their war cry. The 
Heike, turning to look behind them at the sound, immediately 


perceived the white flags of the Genji like a cloud in their rear, and, as they had thought 
themselves safe against any flanking attack owing to the precipitous cliffs on all sides of the 
position, the sight threw them into a panic and they knew not how to act. At this moment Kiso 
Yoshinaka himself, with his force of ten thousand men, shouted his war cry, and immediately the 
other bands who were concealed on the slops of Tonami, at Yanagihara and Kinbayashi, about 
ten thousand in all, together with the six thousand under Imai Shiro who lay hid at Miyabayashi, 
also shouted in unison, so that with the roar of their forty thousand voices it seemed as if the 
mountain and the river would be shaken from their seats. Then, as it grew darker, the Genji 
rushed to the attack on both front and rear, and though, many adjured their fellows to come back 
and not to disgrace themselves by flight, when once panic seizes a great army it is not of easy to 
stop it, so the Heike stampeded in a pell-mell flight into the valley of Kurikara. As those behind 
could not see those in front, they thought there must be a road at the the bottom of the valley, 
and so the whole army went down one after another, son after father, brother after brother and 
retainer after lord, horses and men falling on top of one another and piling up in heaps upon 
heaps. Thus did some seventy thousand horsemen of the Heike perish, buried in this one deep 
valley: the mountain streams ran with their blood and the mound of corpses was like a small hill; 
and in this valley, it is said, there can be seen the marks of arrows and swords even to this day. 
Kazusa-na-taiyu Hangwan Tadatsuna, Hida-no taiyu Hangwan Kagetaka and Kawachi-no- 
Hangwan Hidekun, who were in command of the samurai, perished with their men at the 
bottom of this valley, while Seo-no-Taro Kaneyasu of Botchu, a warrior of great renown, deserted 
by fortune on this occasion, was taken alive by Kuramitsu-no-Jiro Narizumi of Kaga. Heizenji-no- 
Chori Saimei-i-Gishi, who had been so loyal to the Heike at the fortress of Hiuchi in Fchizen, 
was also taken, which when Yoshinaka heard, he exclaimed: 


" Let that most worthless priest be put to death immediately;" whereupon they fell on him and 

beheaded him. The Commanders-in Chief, Koremori and Michimori, strange to relate, escaped 
with their lives and fled to the province of Kaga, but out of the whole army of seventy thousand 
men, barely two thousand horsemen survived. 

On the twelfth day of the same month Yoshinaka received a present of two splendid horses from 
Fujiwara Hidehira of Mutsu : one was cream-coloured and the other was grey with black spots. 
These he caparisoned with richly decorated saddles and dedicated to the shrine of Shirayama as 
sacred steeds. Yoshinaka now felt no anxiety about his position, but was in some doubt how his 
uncle Juro Kurando Yukiie had fared in the battle at Shiho, so, choosing twenty thousand picked 
horsemen from his army of forty thousand, he rode off thither. On the way they came to the inlet 
of Himi which must be crossed, but as the tide was high at the time, they did not know whether 
the water was shallow enough to ford, so Yoshinaka took ten saddled horses and drove them into 
the waves, and as they reached the further bank without more than wetting the saddles, they all 
rode in after them and crossed without difficulty. When they got to the other side, as they had 
expected, they found that Yukiie had retired after being hard pressed by the enemy, and was 
resting his men and horses. Immediately the fresh twenty thousand men of the Genji rode 
forward and dashed into the thirty thousand of the Heike with such a shock as caused fire to fly 
forth as the two opposing hosts crashed together in the melee. Mikawa-no-Kami Tomonori, the 
Commander of the Heike was killed: he was the youngest son of the Lay priest Chancellor. Beside 
him many other warriors fell, and the rest sought safety in flight and retired to the province of 
Kaga. Yoshinaka then crossed the mountain of Shiho with ten thousand men, and pitched his 
camp before the barrow of Shino at Odanaka in the province of Noto. 


After these victories Kiso Yoshinaka presented lands to all the shrines in that district; to Yahata at 
Tada he presented the manor of Choya, to the shrine of Sugabu the manor of Nomi, to the shrine 
of Kebi the manor of Hanbara, and to that of Shirayama the two manors of Yokoe and Miyamaru, 
while to the temple of Heizenji he gave the seven parishes of Fujishima. 

Now those samurai who had fought against Hyoye-no-suke Yoritomo at Ishibashiyama in the 
eighth month of the fourth year of Jisho had all fled to Kyoto and joined the Heike, chief among 
whom were Nagai-no-Saito Betto Sanemori, Ukisu-no-Saburo Kagechika, Matano-no-Goro 
Kagehisa, Ito-no-Kuro Sukeuji and Mashimo-no-Shiro Shigenao. As they wished to rest for a 
while before fighting again, they were amusing themselves by going round to each other's quarters 
in turn every day and having a drinking-bout. When it was the turn of Saito Betto Sanemori to be 
host, and the others had assembled at his house, he remarked: "Judging by the way things are 
happening just now, it appears that the Genji are the stronger party and the Heike will get the 
worst of it; what do you think about going to join Kiso Yoshinaka?" The rest seemed to have no 
particular objection, so the next day, when it was their turn to meet at the house of Ukisu no- 
Saburo Kagechika, Sanemori began again: "Well, what do you say about carrying out my 
suggestion of yesterday?" Then Matano Goro Kagehisa spore out and said: "We are all warriors of 
reputation, and well known in the Eastern Provinces; it is a disgraceful thing for samurai to 
change from one side to the other according to the way fortune inclines; as for you others I do not 
know what you intend to do, but for myself I have made up my mind to die on the side of the 
Heike." Then Saito Betto laughed scornfully and replied 


"What I said yesterday was only to try you all; I also have determined to go and die in the North 
Country, and I have already declared my intention to Munemori, and to others as well." On 
hearing this the remainder all stated their resolution to do likewise, and, pitiful to relate, faithful 
to their promise, all these twenty samurai afterwards fell in battle in the Northern Provinces. 

Now the Heike had retreated to Shinohara in the province of Kaga to gain time to rest their men 
and horses, but Kiso Yoshinaka pursued after them with fifty thousand horsemen, and on the 
twentieth day of the fifth month he again confronted them. Imai Shiro Kanehira immediately 
rode forward with five hundred men, and against him from the Heike ranks came Hatakeyama 
Shoji Shigeyoshi, Oyamada-no-Betto Arishige and Utsunomiya-no-Saemon Tomotsuha with three 
hundred. These knights were often in Kyoto on guard duty, and as they were veteran warriors 
Munemori had sent them to the North Provinces to assist in the campaign with their advice. So 
Hatakeyama and Imai detached first five, and then ten of their samurai to begin the contest end 
see who would prove the better, after which the two forces attacked each other in mingled 
combat. It was at high noon on the twenty first day that they joined battle, and both sides fought 
fiercely and stubbornly, while the sun shone hot over their heads and there was no breeze even to 
move a blade of grass, so that the sweat poured down over their bodies as if they had been 
plunged in water. At last, when most of his retainers had fallen, Hatakeyama was compelled to 
retire, though on Imai's side also very many men were slain. Then Takahashi-no-Hangwan 
Nagatsuna with five hundred men came forth from the Heike, and Higuchi-no-Jiro Kanemitsu 

and Ochiai no-Goro Kaneyuki with three hundred rode out from Kiso's force to meet them, and 
for some time both parties fought on the defensive; Takahashi's men, however, being samurai 
from various provinces, did not stand the onset, but broke and fled, each for himself heedless 


of the orders of their leader. Takahashi himself, though a most valiant fighter, was forced to 
retreat for lack of support, and rode away alone to the southward. Then Nyuzen-no-Kotaro 
Yukishige of Etchu, burning to overcome so stout an adversary, urged on his horse with whip and 
stirrup and overtook him. Coming up beside him he closed and grappled with him, but 
Takahashi gripped him hard, and pinned him against the front of his saddle so that he could not 
move, crying at the some time: "Who are you, sir] Declare your name and titles!" "I am Nyuzen- 
no-Kotaro Yukishige of the Province of Etchu, and my age is eighteen!" replied his assailant. On 
hearing this the tears ran down Takahashi's face as he exclaimed: "Ah, how pitiful! If my lad, who 
fell last year, had lived till now, he would be just eighteen; I ought to twist your neck and cut off 
your head, but as it is I will let you go"; and he released him. 

Then Takahashi got off his horse to recover his breath and wait to see if any of his retainers 
would come up, and Nyuzen also dismounted, but, still thinking what a feat it would be to kill 
such a famous leader, even though he had just spared his life, he cast about to see how he could 
take him unaware. Takahashi, never dreaming of such treachery, was talking to him quite 
without reserve, when Nyuzen, who was famed for the rapidity of his movements, catching him 
off his guard, suddenly drew his sword and aimed a lightning thrust under his helmet. Just then, as 
he staggered back from the blow, three of Nyuzen's retainers came up, and Takahashi, stout 
warrior though he was, was borne down by superior numbers and slain. 

Then Musashi-no-Saburoemon Arikuni of the Heike bore down on his foes with three hundred 
horse, and Nishina, Takanashi and Yamada-no-Jiro opposed him with five hundred, and for a 
while both parties fought warily, but by-and by Arikuni, having penetrated very deeply into the 
ranks of the foe, had his horse shot under him, and then, while he was fighting on 


foot, his helmet was struck from his head, so that he looked like a youth fighting with his long 
hair streaming in all directions. By this time all his arrows were exhausted, so he drew his sword 
and laid about him mightily until, pierced by seven or eight shafts, he met his death still on his 
feet and glaring fiercely at his enemies. After their leader had thus fallen his retainers gave up the 
fight and fled. 


Now among the retreating Heike retainers was Nagai-no Saito Betto Sanemori of Musashi, and he 
had a certain intention in his mind. He was clad in a red brocaded hitatare over armour with 
green lacing, and on his head was a helmet surmounted by lofty horns. He wore a gold mounted 
sword and a quiver of twenty four arrows with black and white feathers, and his bow was of 
black lacquer bound with red rattan. He rode a grey horse with black spots and his saddle was 
richly ornamented with gold. Though his companions kept on retiring, he alone continued to turn 
back and engage the enemy to protect their rear. Then one of Kiso's men named Tezuka-no-Taro 
rode forward and shouted to him; "How splendid! Though all your side are in flight, you only, 
one single knight, dare to face us alone in such gallant fashion; I pray you declare your name." 
"Who then are you that ask?" replied Sanemori. "I am Tezuka-no Taro Kanesashi no Mitsumori 
of Shinano," answered the other. "Then", replied Sanemori, "you will suit me well; and I too shall 
not disgrace your arms, though for a certain reason I cannot declare my name. Come on Tezukal 
A grapple!" But as he rushed upon him, one of Tezuka's retainers, fearful that his master might be 
slain, thrust himself in between and received the onslaught. "Ho! who are you that wishes for the 
honour of being sped by the greatest warrior in Nippon?" 


cried Sanemori, as he caught him in his arms and pressed him tight against the front of his saddle 
so that he could not move, the while he twisted his neck round and cut off his head. Tezuka 
himself, seeing his retainer thus fall, slipped round to the left side of his opponent, and lifting the 
skirts of his armour, stabbed him twice and then pulled him from his horse, weakened as he was 
from the wounds. Thus, spite of his great strength and valour, fell Saito Sanemori, for he was 
wearied with his long struggle, besides being well advanced in years. 

Then Tezuka, giving the head to one of his men who ran up, came into the presence of Kiso 
Yoshinaka and bowed low. "I have brought your lordship," said he, "the head of a strange fellow 
whom I have fought with and slain. He might be a great leader, but he had no following; he might 
be a simple samurai, but he wears a hitatare of brocade. When I bade him declare his rank, he 
demanded mine but would not give his own. His speech is that of one of the warriors of the 
Kwanto." "Ah," exclaimed Yoshinaka, "this must be Saito Betto. Indeed? I remember seeing him 
once when I went over to Kozuke; I was only a small boy then but I think his hair was nearly 
white, so he must be over seventy now, and ought to be quite white haired; but this hair and 
beard is black. Ho, there! summon Higuchi-no-Jiro Kanemitsu; he is about the same age as 
Sanemori and knew him well." Higuchi, answering the summons, entered, and after a single 
glance at the head, burst into tears: "Alas!" he exclaimed, "it is indeed Saito Betto." "Then," said 
Yoshinaka, "how is it that his hair is still black, for he must be more than seventy?" Higuchi, 
repressing his tears, replied: "Ah, that the pitifulness of his fate should have moved me to these 
weak tears; still, we warriors are apt to be touched by the recollection of even these trifling things. 
I remember when we were talking together, as we were often went to do, that he said to me; "I 
am over sixty now, but if I go to fight again I 


shall dye my hair black and become young once more, for I will not be pitied as a decrepit old 
knight, or look foolish if I strive for place among the youthful blades." Verily his hair is only dyed, 
and if you have it washed my words may be proved." So Kiso ordered the head to be washed 
forthwith, and the hair turned white even as Higuchi had said. 

With regard to Sanemori's wearing a hitatare of brocade the reason was this. When he went to 
take leave of the Daijin Munemori he said to him: "There is one request that I wish to make, and 
it concerns me alone. Last year, when I went down with our men to the Eastern Provinces, I was 
startled by the noise of the water-fowl and fled in panic from Kambara in Suruga without so 
much as shooting one arrow, and that was a disgrace to my old age. Now I am going on the 
campaign in the North and there I intend to die. It was in that land that I was born, in Echizen, 
and it is only of late years that I have lived in Nagai of Musashi, the domain that your bounty has 
bestowed upon me. According to the proverb; "Wear brocade when you return to your birth 
place," I beg your lordship, if it is not too much to ask, to allow me the favour of wearing a 
hitatare of brocade." Munemori, touched by the gallantry of his address, gave him permission 
forthwith. As in China Shu-bai-shin flaunted his brocaded sleeves at Kwai-kei-san, so Saito Betto 
Sanemori would make a name in the North Country. Imperishable, though vain, is the reputation 
he made, while his corpse mingles with the dust of the Northland. Thus of the ten thousand men 
of the Heike who set out from the Capital on the seventeenth day of the fourth month, ready to 
confront any foe, barely twenty thousand returned at the end of the fifth. "If you fish out all the 
rivers, you will get a lot a fish, but next year there will be none; if you burn the cover to hunt you 
will catch a lot of beasts, but next year there will be none"; it would have been wiser to have 
taken thought for the fixture and kept some behind," was the opinion of most people 


Now Kazusa-no-kami Tadakiyo and Hida-no-kami Kageie had both become recluses the year 
before last, when the Nyudo departed this life, and when they heard that all their sons had been 
killed in the Northern Provinces, their grief was so sore that at length it terminated their lives and 
they died. And beside them the multitude of parents who mourned the loss of their children, 
and wives who bewailed their slain husbands, was without number. In the Capital every door was 
shut, and night and day could be heard the sound of the ringing of bells and the chanting of the 
Nembutsu, and weeping and lamentations. And in all the provinces round about, both near and 
far, it was no different. 

On the first day of the sixth month Saishu-Jingi-no-Gonno-Taiyu Onakatomi Chikatoshi was 
summoned to the lower gate of the Palace and informed that the Emperor would proceed in state 
to the Great Shrines of Ise to pray that the rebellion might be pacified. This was the Shrine of the 
Sun-Goddess who descended in ancient times from the Plains of High Heaven, and in the third 
month of the twenty fifth year of the reign of the Mikado Suijin Tenno removed from Kasanui in 
the province of Yamato, and deigned to be worshipped by the banks of the Iusugawa in the 
district of Watarai in the province of Ise, " making stout the shrine pillars to the nethermost rock- 
bottom "; incomparable and preeminent among the three thousand seven hundred and fifty 
greater and lesser shrines of the sixty provinces of Nippon. But from this time until the reign of 
Shomu Tenno, the Mikado of Nara, no Emperor had gone there to worship. Then in the tenth 
month of the fifteenth year of Tempyo, when Sakonye-no-Shosho Dazai no Shoni Fujiwara 
Hirotsugu, son of Sangi Shikibu no Kyo Umagai and grandson of the Sadaijin Fuhito, raised an 
army of many myriads of men in the district of Matsuura in 


the province of Hizen, and menaced the peace of the Empire, the Mikado proceeded in state to 
Ise for the first time to pray for his downfall. Now this Hirotsugu possessed a horse of wondrous 
swiftness, that could complete the journey from Matsuura in Hizen to the Capital in one single 
day; and it is said that, when his army was defeated and fled, he mounted this horse and rode into 
the sea, and that afterwards his wraith appeared in that province and did many terrible things. 
And there was a certain Genbo Sojo who was priest of the temple of Kwannonji in the Dazaifu 
in the district of Mikasa of the province of Chikuzen, and it happened that on the eighteenth day 
of the sixth month of the eighteenth year of the era of Tempyo, as he was sitting on his high seat 
and striking the bell in the service, that the sky suddenly clouded over and there was a heavy 
thunderstorm, and a bolt struck him and took off his head, carrying it away into the clouds. And 
this was because he had invoked a curse on Hirotsugu when they marched to overthrow him. 
This Sojo went to China with the Da jin of Kibi and brought back with him the Sutras of the 
Hosso Sect, and the men of China laughed at the name Genbo, saying that it sounded like the 
word for 'Destruction', and indeed, when he came back to his own country it was prophesied that 
some misfortune would happen to him. Afterwards, on the eighteenth day of the sixth month of 
the nineteenth year of Tempyo, a skull, inscribed with the name Genbo, fell into the courtyard of 
the Kofukuji, while at the same time there was a sound as of the loud laughter of some two or 
three hundred men from the sky. It was no doubt because Kofukuji was a temple of the Hosso 
Sect. Then his disciples took the skull and made a mound over it, and it is known as the Skull 

Mound and can be seen there to this day. On the place where the spirit of Hirotsugu is 
worshipped is the Shrine called 'Kagami no miya' at Matsuura in Hizen. And in the time of Saga 
Tenno, when the retired Emperor Heijo, at the instigation of his consort, tried to seize the 
Throne and 


trouble the Empire, the Emperor sent the third princess to Kamo as Sai-in or Imperial Priestess to 
offer supplication. And this was the first appointment of a Sai-in. Again, in the reign of Shujaku 
Tenno, a special festival was held in honour of Hachiman to pray for the subjection of the rebel 
Sumitomo. So now, on account of these precedents, many prayers were offered by the Imperial 


Now Kiso Yoshinaka was at Kofu in Echizen, and he summoned all his relations and retainers and 
held a consulation saying: "If I march on Kyoto by way of Omi, those priests of Hieizan are sure 
to try to stop me. It will not perchance be difficult to break through them, but because the Heike 
have paid no respect to the Law of Buddha, but have destroyed temples and killed priests and 
done all manner of evil things, if I, who am going up to the Capital to protect it, have to begin by 
fighting with these priests, my conduct will appear not a whit diffrent from theirs, but merely 
another dance to the same tune. This is no easy matter; what is to be done?" Then Taiyu- b5 
Kakumei, who had written the former letter, stood forth and said: "There are some two thousand 
priests on Hieizan, and it is certain that they will not be of the same opinion; some will be on the 
side of the Heike and others will favour the Genji: if you send a letter to them you will see, for 
their answer will show their disagreement." "That is well said," replied Yoshinaka; "write them a 
letter forthwith." So Kakumei indited a letter to the priests, and the words of it were as follows: 

"I, Yoshinaka, have well considered the evil deeds of the Heike house. Ever since the time of 
Hogen and Heiji they have forgotten their duty as subjects and have set up and pulled down 
Emperors as they please, while high and low could do nothing, 


and priest and layman were treated with contempt. They have seized provinces at their will, and 
without right or reason have imprisoned men of standing and authority; putting to death prince, 
minister, vassal or subject, though their guilt or innocence was yet unproven. They have taken 
away their goods and given them to their retainers; they have confiscated their manors and 
improperly curtailed their descendant's possessions. Moreover in the eleventh month of the third 
year of Jisho they removed the Ho-6 to the Seinan Detached Palace, and exiled the Kwampaku to 
a lonely and far off coast. The roads have eyes, though all the people kept silent. Again in the 
fourth year of the same era they laid seige to the Palace of the second son of the Ho-6, so that the 
very dust of the Palace Courts was astonished at such an outrage; and when, in order to escape 
such undeserved injury, he fled in secret to Onjoji, I, who had received intimation beforehand, 
was exceeding eager to ride at once to his rescue, but the highroads were full of the enemy 
everywhere, and I was unable to arrive in time. 

As the Genji who were near at hand did not go, how much less could those who were far off. 
Then, as Onjoji could not protect him, he sought to gain the South Capital, and in the fight that 
ensued on the bridge at Uji, Sammi Nyuudo Yorimasa and his sons, counting their lives as nought 
in their loyalty, after one last glorious battle, unable to prevail against numberless foes, left their 
bones to bleach on the moss of the shore. Their names were washed away like the waves of the 
river, but their Lord's commands were engraved on their harts, and with sorrow at their loss his 
life was extinguished. Therefore the Genji of the North and East Country have assembled 
together to overthrow the Heike, and in the autumn of last year, when I took sword in hand and 
raised my banner with that purpose, on the day that I went forth from Shinano, Jd-no-Shiro 
Nagamochi opposed me with many tens of thousands of horsemen and a battle was fought at 


There with but three thousand men behind me I routed and destroyed that mighty host, and the 
fame of my victory spread everywhere in the land. At this the Heike sent a great army of a 
hundred thousand horsemen into the North Country, and in Echizen and Kaga, at Tonami, 
Kurosaka, Shiozaka and Shinohara many battles were fought. "Wrapping up my plans in a curtain 
I won my victories in a stone's throw" as it is said. Whenever I struck the foe gave way, and 
whenever I attacked he was always defeated. As the blasts of autumn level the reeds, and as the 
winter hoar-frosts wither the grasses, so they gave way before my onset. Such victories were not 
gained by my power, but were due to the aid of the gods and Buddhas. Now that the Heike 
armies have been thus defeated, I intend to advance upon the Capital, and in order to enter into 
its streets I must pass beneath the foot of your Holy Mountain; but as yet I am in doubt which 
side you favour, whether you incline to the Heike or will help the Genji. If you are in league with 
that evil faction then surely I must do battle with your temples, and in that case the destruction 
of Hieizan will follow without delay. Ah, the pity of it! Because the Heike leave caused great 
grief to the heart of the Emperor, and have made the Law of Buddha of no account, I have raised 
up a loyal army to subdue their evil ways, and now how painful will it be if I must fight an 
unlooked for battle with the three thousand priests of Hieizan. If, from respect to Yakushi 
Nyorai and to the god of Hiyoshi I should hesitate to advance, I shall be culpable as a negligent 
subject of the Emperor and a disgrace to the warrior caste. Thus in this state of uncertainty I 
await your esteemed communication, O most reverend brethren of the Tendai sect; and I beseech 
you, for the sake of the gods and Buddhas, of the Throne and of the Country, that you make 
cause with the Genji and punish these rebels, that we may all rejoice in the beneficent rule of our 
Sovereign, and the abundance of his gracious favour. 

I thus address you in all respect. The tenth day of the 


sixth month of the second year of Ju-ei. Minamoto Yoshinaka, to the Venerable E kobo Risshi. 


When the priests of Hieizan read this letter, as Kakumei had said, some were in favour of the 
Heike and some of the Genji. All of them expressed different opinions. Then the senior priests 
held a council and argued thus: "These temples have ever devotedly prayed for the long life and 
prosperity of our Heaven-descended Sovereign, and the Heike are the maternal relations of our 
present Ruler, so that it is our duty to pay them especial respect. Nevertheless, as they have 
grown lawless beyond measure, the people have rebelled against them, so that they have sent 
armies to put down the rebels, but these have been destroyed by the insurgents. Of late the Genji 
have been many times victorious and their prospects are ever growing brighter; why then should 
we alone espouse the waning fortunes of the Heike and resist the rising tide of the Genji? Let us 
therefore turn away from our connexion with the Heike and ally our forces with the Genji." 
Thus the three thousand priests decided, and they wrote their answer and sent it. When he 
received it, Yoshinaka again summoned his family and his retainers, and bade Kakumei read the 
letter. It ran thus "Your letter of the tenth day of the sixth month, being received by us on the 
sixteenth day, we respectfully perused, and for many days were possessed by great perplexity, 
which has in one hour been resolved. The evil deeds of the Heike have for many years caused 
trouble to the Imperial House as the proverb says, "Actions remain in people's mouths; they 
cannot be lost." Our mountain of Hieizan, whose shrines stand on the north east of the Imperial 
Capital, is especially bound to pray for the peace and quietness of the Empire, but 


since the Throne has been menaced by this calamity, the whole Realm has been disquieted. It has 
been as though the protecting power of the Nyorai had ceased to encircle us, and the might of 
the tutelary deities had been taken away. You, born of a family of generations of warriors, have 
been providentially chosen at this crisis. By brilliant tactics you have raised up a trusty and loyal 
army, and in the face of a thousand dangers have won a glorious victory. Moreover, as this is but 
the second year of your conquering career, ere long your fame will be known through all the land. 
Very greatly do we rejoice at these tidings. With all our hearts do we admire your valour and 
martial exploits on behalf of our country and people and we hear with gladness that your 
petitions to the high gods have not been in vain, for that they tarried not in coming to the aid of 
the Empire. And especially do we rejoice that the Buddhist doctrine of these and all other 
temples, and the bright deities of our shrines both small and great, shall again return to their 
former prosperity, and once more be revered as in former days. Moreover may the Twelve 
Warrior Gods, who attend on our Lord Yakushi Nyorai, go with your brave armies to smite the 
rebels, while we, the three thousand priests of these temples, leaving for a while our sacred 
studies, will lend our aid to punish the malefactors. May the pure blasts of the Tendai doctrine 
sweep away the wicked from this peaceful Realm, and the might of the Three Mystic Doctrines 
of our Holy Law pour down as rain moistens a thirsty land. Given by us in council: second day of 
the seventh month of the second year of Ju-ei. 


Now the Heike Lords never even dreamed of such a thing as this. Kofukuji of Nara and Onjoji of 
Miidera no doubt harboured resentment against them, so that, if they addressed 


them it was unlikely that they would respond, but with Hieizan they had had no quarrel, neither 
had its priests ever up to the present been disloyal to them. So ten of the Courtiers of that family 
bethought themselves to write a petition and send it to the mountain, to solicit the help of the 
priests and invoke the divine aid of their gods and Buddhas. And these were the words of it: 

"Regarding Enryakuji as our family temple and the god of Hiyoshi as our tutelary deity, reverently 
worshipping the Buddhist Law of the Tendai Sect, we, members of our one family, do here 
respectfully offer a petition. And the reason is this. Ever since in the reign of Kwammu Tenno 
Dengyo Daishi went to China and again returned to this land, and in this temple preached the 
original Law of Tendai and expounded the Sutras of the Mahayana, it has flourished greatly as a 
sacred dwelling-place of religion and a source of peace and protection to our Empire. Now 
Minamoto-no-Yoritomo, who was in exile in Izu, showing no repentance of his fault, on the 
contrary has set at nought the laws of the country and hatched evil plots, with which Yoshinaka, 
Yukiie and many other of the Genji are associated, and has seized many provinces both near and 
far, appropriating all their property and collecting their revenues. Therefore, relying on the 
meritorious deeds of our ancestors and the skill and prowess of our soldiers, and bearing 
moreover the Imperial Commands, we have taken in hand the punishment of these rebels and 
the subduing of the traitors. Up to this time, however, the far-flung hosts of the Imperial Army 
have not prevailed, but victory has, in some sort, rested with the impetuous and thronging forces 
of the rebels. Without the aid of the gods and Buddhas how can we overcome the traitors? 
Moreover, when we speak of the ancestors of our house, it was they who first founded your 
venerable fanes, and from age to age have their descendants added their tribute of worship and 
adoration. Now and henceforth will all our house rejoice in the joy of 

[ P . 46] 

your temples, while the enemies of your shrines shall be counted as our own. Thus will we do 
and thus will we instruct our descendants, that the memory of it may never perish. The house of 
Fuji-wara hold the god of Kasuga as their tutelary deity and Kofukuji as their family temple, 
revering the Mahayana doctrine of the Hosso Sect; and so also are the fortunes of the Heike house 
bound up with the shrine of Hiyoshi and the temple of Enryakuji, and the perfect teachings of its 
Holy Law. It has been our legacy from old time to consider the glory of our house, but now it is 
for the sake of our Sovereign that we pray for the punishment of the rebels. We beseech ye, O 
deities of the Seven Great Shrines, and Ye gods of the far-ranging shrines of the whole mountain, 
and thy twelve sacred promises, O Yakushi Nyorai; pour upon us the beneficent light of thy 
kindly truth, and come to meet us with thy gracious aid. That the hands of these evil plotters may 
be bound at the gate of our camp, and that we may bring their heads in triumph to the Capital. 
This is the united petition of our whole house. Ju-sammi Echizen-no-kami Taira-no-Ason 

Michimori, Jusammi Ukonye-no-Chujo Taira-no Ason Sukemori, Sho-sammi Ukonye-no-Chujo 
Iyo-no-kami Taira-no-Ason Koremori, Sho-sammi Sakonye-no-Chujo Harima-no-kami Taira-no 
Ason Shigehira, Sho-sammi Uemon-no-kami Omi Totomi-no-kami Taira-no-Ason Kiyomune, 
Sangi Sho-sammi Kotaigo-gu-no-Gon-no-taiyu Shuri-no-taiyu Kaga Etchu-no-kami Taira-no- 
Ason Tsunemori, Ju-nii Chunagon Sei-i-taishogun Sahyoye-no-kami Taira-no-Ason Tomomori, 
Ju-nii Gon Chunagon Hizen-no-kami Taira-no-Ason Norimori, Sho-nii Gon-Dainagon Mutsu 
Dewano-Azechi Taira no-Ason Yorimori, Ju-ichii Zen-no-Naidaijin Taira-no Ason Munemori. 
Fifth day of the seventh month of the second year of Ju-ei. 

When the Zasshu of Hieizan received this latter he was deeply grieved, and did not show it to the 
other priests at once, but retired and spent three days in prayer before the Juzenji 

[p- 47] 

Gongen, after which he showed it to them. On his opening the petition, this verse, which he had 
not noticed before, fell out of it: 

Tairaka ni hana saku yado mo toshi fureba, 
Nishi ye katamuku tsuki to koso mire. 

"Peaceful the years we have passed in this spot 
where tire flowers ever blossom, 
"Now is the moon, like our fate, 
waning to sink in the west. " 

The Chief Priest of Hiyoshi was also very sad, and bade the three thousand monks lend their aid, 
but, as for long the deeds of the Heike had been contrary to the will of the gods as well as 
unpopular among the people, prayers were of no avail and no one would pay any heed. The 
priests were indeed sorry that things had come to such a pass, but, as they had already sent the 
letter promising help to the Genji, as to their lightly changing their mind, there were none ready 
to consent to it. 


On the fourteenth day of the seventh month Higo-no-kami Sadayoshi with three thousand men 
under Kikuchi, Harada and Matsuura, returned to Kyoto after having put down the rebellion in 
Kyushu. But though the revolt in Kyushu had been quelled, that in the North and Fast Country 
was by no means subdued. On the twenty second day at midnight a very great tumult arose at 
Rokuhara. Horses were saddled, girths were tightened, and people were running in all directions 
carrying goods to hide them, while cries of: "The enemy are upon us ! They are entering the 
city!" arose on every side. When the dawn broke the reason was found to be as follows. There 
was a certain warrior of the Genji of Mino named Sado-no-Emon-no-jo Shigesada, who in the 
war of Hogen had 


captured Chinzei Hachiro Tametomo when he fled after the fight at the Palace of the Retired 
Emperor, and had as a reward been raised from his office of Hyoye-no-jo to that of Uemon-no-jo. 
As the result of this he was disliked by the rest of his family, and lately had been making, 
advances to the Heike, and now he came riding to Rokuhara with the news that Kiso Yoshinaka 
was advancing on the Capital at the head of fifty thousand horsemen, and Tate-no- 
Rokuro Chikatada, one of his captains, with Taiyu-bo Kakumei, the ready writer, had ridden 
hotfoot to Hieizan, where the three thousand monks had made common cause with them, and 
that the whole force was now pressing on the Capital itself. When they heard this the Heike were 
thrown into state of great confusion and sent out bodies of men in all directions. A force of three 
thousand horsemen under the command of Shin Chunagon Tomomori-no-Kyo and Honsammi- 
no-Chujo Shigehira-no-Kyo at once rode out to take up a position at Yamashina, while Echizen- 
no-sammi Michimori and Noto-no-kami Noritsune went to hold the bridge at Uji with two 
thousand, and Sama-no-kami Yukimori and Satsuma-no-kami Tadanori guarded the highroad at 
Yodo with about a thousand. Meanwhile it was rumoured that Juro Kurando Yukiie with several 
thousand men had crossed the bridge at Uji and entered the city; that Yada-no-Hangwan 
Yoshikiyo, son of Mutsu-no-Shin Hangwan Yoshiyasu had crossed over Oyeyama; and that the 
Genji of the provinces of Settsu and Kawachi had also risen in revolt and were marching on the 
Capital from that direction. Then the Heike, abandoning all hope of saving the city, recalled the 
forces that they had sent out and all crowded together in one place, quite at a loss to know what 
do no next. 

As the Chinese saying goes; "The Imperial Capital is a place ever busy with fame and gain; after 
cockcrow it has no 

The Imperial Capital is a place, etc. A quotation from Haku-raku-ten (Po-Chu-I) 


rest." If this is so when it is quietly governed, what must it when all is confusion. Doubtless they 
would have liked to flee, to the innermost recesses of Mount Yoshino, but their enemies were in 

possession of all the highroads and all the provinces were hostile, so that they could only find 
refuge by the sea. As we read in the golden words of the Hokke Sutra; "In the Three Worlds 
there is no rest; it is even as a house that had taken fire." Not otherwise was the state of the 
Capital at his time. On the twenty fourth day at dusk the former Naidaijin Munemori-no- 
Kyo went to the Ikedono at Kokuhara where Kenrei-mon in was staying and said: "Kiso 
Yoshimaka is coming up to attack the Capital with fifty thousand horsemen, and has already 
arrived at Higashi-Sakamoto in Omi where the monks of Hieizan have joined him; we must stay 
here at all events, but as it would be most unfortunate if either yourself or your august mother the 
Nii-dono came to any harm, we think it best that you, with the Emperor and the Ho-6, should for 
a while retire to the Western Provinces." "As affairs now are," replied the Empress "that will be 
perhaps the best plan"; and as she spoke her feelings overcame her and she sobbed unrestrainedly 
into the sleeve: of her Imperial Robe. The Naidaijin also moistened the sleeve of his Naoshi with 
his tears. 

Now when the Ho-6 heard privately of this design of the Heike to take him away to the Western 
Provinces, he departed secretly from his Palace at midnight, attended only by Uma-no-kami 
Suketoki, the son of Azechi-no-Dainagon Suketaka-no-Kyo, and made an Imperial Progress by 
himself to some place the whereabouts of which remained augustly unknown. And one was 
aware of it. 

But among the Heike samurai was a certain shrewd fellow named Kitsunai-no-jo Sueyasu, who 
was accustomed to serve at the Ho-6's Palace, and on this night Also he was on guard there, and 
although he was at some distance from the private apartments, he became aware, from 


the sound of subdued weeping of the Ladies-in-waiting, and other signs of agitation, that some 
extraordinary and distressing event had occurred. On his enquiring what it was, they told him 
that the Ho-6 had disappeared suddenly, and must have taken his august departure somewhere or 
other, whereupon he went off in great haste to Rokuhara and reported the matter to Munemori- 
no-Kyo. The Minister at first thought he must be mistaken, but on himself going to the Palace he 
learnt that the Ho-o was indeed not to be found. The Ladies in attendance on His Majesty, the 
Nii-dono, Tango dono and others, were all aghast and helpless with consternation, and there was 
not a single one of them who knew whether he had gone, so Munemori could do nothing but 
return weeping to Rokuhara. 

When it was known that the Ho-6 was no longer in the city the excitement was extraordinary, 
and the flurry and confusion of the Heike was such that it seemed that it could have hardly been 
greater if the enemy had actually been entering the houses of the Capital. As they had thus made 
preparations to send the Emperor and the Ho-6to the Western Provinces and then found that their 
plan was already upset, they felt like one who takes refuge, under a tree that does not keep off 
the rain. However they determined to carry out their design in the case of the Emperor at least, so 
at the hour of the Hare (6 a.m.) the Imperial Palanquin was made ready, His Majesty being at this 
time a child of six years old, and knowing nothing of what was taking place. His Imperial 
Mother Kenrei-mon in rode also in the same Palanquin. Hei-Dainagon Tokitada-no-Kyohad 
given orders that all the Treasures of the imperial House should be taken with them, the Sacred 
Jewel, the Sword, the Mirror, the Imperial Seal and Key, the Tablet for marking the hours, and 

the Imperial Biwa and Koto, but 

Tablet for marking the hours. Used for announcing to the Emperor the time of day, which was 
calculated by a water-clock 


such was the flurry and excitement that many of them were left behind. His Majesty's own sword 
was also, forgotten in the hurry. Tokitada-no-Kyo and his two sons Kura-no-kami Nobumoto and 
Sanuki-no-Chujo Tokisane accompanied the procession in full court robes, while the Imperial 
Guard of the Konoe-tsukasa and the Mitsuna-no-suke escorted them in armour, carrying their 
bows and quivers. So they proceeded along the Shichijo to the west and the Shujaku to the south. 

Thus the dawn began to break on the twenty fifth day of the seventh month; the light of the stars 
faded out, and the clouds spread shelving over the eastern hills as the cocks crowed 
clamourously. Of such a departure from the Capital as this they had never even dreamed, though, 
when they thought of it, the rash and has y change of the capital the year before seemed like a 
precedent. The Sessho also followed the Imperial train, and when they came to Shichijo Omiya a 
beautiful youth with bound up hair was seen to speed along in front of the Imperial Car. On the 
left sleeve of his dress were the characters 'Haru-no-hi ' or 'Spring day'; and as these two 
characters are also read 'Kasuga', it seemed to them that Kasuga Daimyojin, the Divine Guardian 
of the Hosso Sect had come to protect the descendant 9f Fujiwara Kamatari the great founder of 
his shrine. As they were giving thanks for this supernatural aid, it seemed that the divine youth 
spoke the following verse: 

"Ika ni sen Fuji no Uraha no kare yuku wo, 
Tada haru no hi ni makasetara nan, " 

"Though we cannot prevent the leaves of the Fuji from fading, 
Let then fade at any will, in the bright sunshine 
Of spring" 

Then the Sessho Motomichi called Shin-dozaemon-no-jo Takanao who was in attendance on him, 
and said in a low tone: 

"This may be called an Imperial Progress, but when we consider the state of affairs it is no 
Imperial Progress but a 


pitiful Imperial Parting, and what hope is there for the future?" At this Takanao made a sign to 
the ox drivers, and they, understanding, whipped up their animals so that their car dashed along 
the Omiya highroad at a great speed, and at length they entered the temple of Chisoku in at the 
foot of the northern hills. 


Etchu Jiro hyoye, seizing his sword, tried to stop the Sassho from running away in this manner, 
but he was held back by the others and so was able to do nothing. Among them Komatsu-no- 
sammi Chujo Koremori had long made up his mind that something of this sort was likely to 
come to pass, but now that it had actually happened he was none the less grieved. His wife was 
the daughter of the late Naka-no-Mikado Shin-Dainagon Narichika-no-kyo and as her father and 
mother had both died, as has been already related, she was an orphan. She was a lady of peerless 
beauty; her complexion was like a peach blossom wet with dew, her large dark eyes were soft 
and blandishing, and her long black hair swayed about her like willow shoots in the wind. She had 
two children, a son of ten years old named Rokudai and a little daughter of eight, and they all 
clung about Koremori and begged with tears to be allowed to accompany him. "But" explained he, 
"I must go down with the rest of the men to the Western Provinces, and the foe are besetting the 
roads so it is not likely we shall get through without danger. If I am killed, however, there is no 
need for you to become a nun; it would be better to look out for another husband and so bring 
up the two children. In this world kind hearted people are not lacking." But though he tried to 
comfort her thus, she would not heed, and when the Chujo was just about to start she clung to 
his sleeve crying out; "Alas! I have now no father or 


mother in this city, and although you give me permission to marry again after you have left me, it 
does not seem kind but hateful. From connexion in the former life it is that people are kind or 
that they receive compassion. You often said that we would never part, but that we should both 
melt into the dew of the same moor, or sink to the bottom of the same water. Ah! it was not true, 
it was but the babbling of a lover in the night time. If I am left behind here what am I to do? Can 
you bear to desert me when you know how I shall suffer? And who is to look after these little 
children? Though we may vex you, I pray you, do not leave us thus." "In truth" replied the Chujo, 
in accents of mingled affection and impatience, "ever since you were thirteen and I fifteen we 
have looked forward to being together until death should separate us, until the same fire or water 
should enfold our bodies; but now, since we have fallen on these evil days, I must put on my 
armour and go forth to battle, and how could I bear that you should accompany me to face the 
unknown perils and hardships of a doubtful campaign? But, though there is no place for you with 
me now, I will send and fetch you as soon as we gain the security of some favourable coast." 
Speaking thus decisively he went out into the verandah by the middle gate and put on his armour, 
and calling for his horse was just about to mount and ride away, when his little son and laughter 
ran out and caught hold of the sleeves and skirts of his armour, crying: "Father! where are you 
going? Please take us too! Let us go with you!" As they thus wept and clung round him, he could 
not for the moment tear himself away, and while he was meditating over the hampering ties of 
this world, his five younger brothers, Sammi-no-Chujo Sukemori, Sa-Chujo Kiyotsune, Shosho 
Arimori, Tango-no-Jiju Tadafusa, and Bitchu-no-kami Moromori, rode into the courtyard, reined 
n their horses, and called out loudly: "The Imperial Train has gone on a long way; why are you so 
long in coming"? Then the Chujo tore himself away and sprang on to his horse 


to follow them, but again they called to him, so he drew his horse to the edge of the verandah 

and with the tip of his bow pushed up the bamboo curtain that hung before it, disclosing his 
children to his brothers outside. "You see how these little ones twine round me; it is this that has 
delayed me until now"; and as he spoke his feelings overcame him and the tears ran down his face, 
so that those in the courtyard were moved to weep in sympathy till the sleeves of their armour 
were wet with tears. 

Now there were two samurai in the train of the Chujo named Saito Go and Saito Roku, two 
brothers, the eider of who, was nineteen years old and the younger seventeen, and they tools hold 
of the bit of the horse on each side and said: "Wherever you may go we will follow you"; "Ah", 
replied the Chujo, "I remember when your father Nagai-no-Saito Betto Sanemori went to the 
North Country you wanted to go with him, but he prevented you and went to his death there 
alone. It seems as if he knew beforehand that you would be needed here. Now I have to leave 
Rokudai behind, and I have no one but you two with whom to entrust him. So, though it may 
seem unreasonable, I must bid you stay behind." The two brothers, therefore, repressing their 
tears of disappointment, could do nothing but comply with the orders of their lord. As Koremori 
rode away his lady cried out: "Never till now did I think: that his heart would be so hard"; and she 
covered her face and fell prone on the ground. The children and the ladies of the household, 
reaching out beyond the curtain, lifted up their voices and welt aloud, and the sound echoed in 
the ears of the Chujo until it was drowned by the roar of the wind and waves of the Western Sea. 

When the Heike fled from the Capital they set fire to all their mansions, and Rokuhara, Ikedono, 
Komatsudono, Hachijo, Nishi Hachijo and others, in all twenty mansions, beside some forty or 
fifty thousand houses of their retainers in the cite and in Shirakawa, went up in flames. 


Thus the places that the Emperor used to frequent were reduced to ashes, and nought but the 
foundation stones was left of his residences; the Imperial Car was his only refuge, of the gardens 
of the Princesses but the site remains, and on the place of their elegant chambers the dew falls 
like tears and the blasts whine mournfully. The splendid apartments where the ladies tired 
themselves behind the long curtains, the hunting lodges and fishing pavilions, the residence of the 
Sessho, the mansions of the Courtiers, the labour of many years made vain in an hour, what now 
remains of them but charred logs? How much more the lodging of their retainers and the houses 
of the common people? In all the area that the fire devoured was a score of cho and more. Not 
otherwise, when the power of Go was overthrown, the terraces of Koso were suddenly 
abandoned to the thistles and dew, and when the might of Shin was at last laid low, the smoke of 
the palace of Kanyo obscured the land. Though the slopes of the pass of Kwankoku were made 
strong, the northern barbarians broke through, and though they relied on the deep waters of the 
Yellow river the eastern marauders took possession of it. What then are we to think of it? Thus 
driven out of their elegant Capital and forced to seek refuge in an unknown shore; it is as if the 
Dragon God, who yesterday rode in triumph on the clouds, commanding the rain, should to-day 
lie like a fish out of water beside the storehouses. So can all see that adversity and prosperity take 
the same road, and rise and fall are as a turn of the band; and who is there who does not grieve? 
Though in the former days of Hogen they flourished like the flowers in spring time, in this era of 
Ju ei they have fallen like the leaves of autumn. 

At this time Hatlkeyama Shoji Shigeyoshi, Oyamada Betto Arishige and Utsunomiya Saemon 
Tomotsuna, who had 


been in the service of the Heike from Jisho to Ju-ei, were lying under sentence of death in the 
Capital, but Shin Chunagon Tomomori-no-Kyo gave his opinion as follows: "It will hardly make 
any difference to the fate of our house if the heads of a hundred or a thousand men are cut off, so 
why cause bereavement to the, wives and children of these men who are waiting for them at 
home? It may be against reason to say so, but if our fortunes should again revive, they may come 
up to Kyoto and enter our service again to show us some gratitude for our clemency." "Then let it 
be as you say"; said the Daijin Munemori, and he set them free. Overjoyed at their unexpected 
release, they raised their heads and put their hands together, crying: "Let us share the fortunes of 
your house to the end"; but Munemori replied: "Your hearts are in the East Country with your 
families; why should you go with us to the West, empty handed as we are? Return, then, to your 
homes." And they went out, finding it hard to restrain their tears when they thought of those 
whom they had served for twenty years. 


Satsuma-no-kami Tadanori, who had already left the Capital, wishing to see Gojo-no-sammi 
Shunsei-no-Kyo once again, rode back again to the city with a small train of five retainers and a 
page, all, like himself, in full armour. When he came to the gate of the mansion, however, he 
found it shut fast, and even when he called his name, it was not opened, though there was a 
sound of people running about within crying out that one of the fugitives had returned. Then 
Satsuma-no-kami hastily dismounted from his horse and himself cried out with aloud voice: "It is 
I, Tadanori, who have come; I have something to say to Sammi dono; if you will not open the 
gate, at least beg him to come forth here that I may speak with him." "If 


it is indeed Tadanori," relied Shunsei-no-Kyo, "you need have no fear, but admit him." Then they 
opened the gate and he entered, and the meeting between the two was most moving and pathetic. 
"Ever since I became your pupil in the art of poetry years ago," said Tadanori, "I have never 
forgotten you, but for the last few years the disorder of the Capital and the risings in the 
provinces have prevented me from coming to see you. Now the final scene in the fall of our 
house hurries on apace, and the Emperor has already departed from the Capital. But there is one 
thing that I very greatly desire. Some time ago I heard that an Anthology of Poems was to be 
made by the Imperial Command, and I wished to ask if you would condescend to submit one of 
my poor verses for consideration, that my name may be remembered in time to come; and I felt 
great regret when the Collection was postponed owing to the unsettled state of the country. If, 
however, at some time in the future, when peace is restored to the Empire, this Anthology 
should be made, I would beg your favour for one of the stanzas in this scroll, that my spirit may 
rejoice under the shade of the long grass, and from that far off world may come and aid you." And 
with these words he drew out from beneath the sleeve of his armour a scroll containing a 
hundred verses that he considered to be the best he had so far composed and handed them to 
Shunsei-no-Kyo. "Truly does this memento show that you have not forgotten me," replied 
Shunsei as he opened and perused it, "and I find it hard to keep back my tears when I think of 
the manner of your coming. Verily the sadness of it is unutterable and your affection to me most 
deep." "Whether my bones will bleach on the hills or my name be echoed by the billows of the 
Western Sea, I care not," answered Tadanori, "for I feel no regret for this fleeting world; and so, as 
it must be, farewell; "and he sprang up in his horse, and, replacing his helmet on his head, rode 
away to the westward. Sammi-dono stood looking after him a long while until lie was out of sight, 
and as he looked the words of 


the following Chinese verse were borne back to his ears in the voice, as it seemed, of Tadanori: 

"Far is the road I must travel; so do I gallop 
into the evening mists of Ganzan." 

Overcome by his melancholy thoughts, Shunsei controlled his feelings with difficulty as he slowly 
returned to his mansion. 

In after days, when the Empire was once more at peace, an Imperial Order was issued to make an 
Anthology called the Senzai-shu and Shunsei remembered the request of Tadanori and his 
conversation, but though there were many verses worthy of immortality in the scroll that he had 
written, as at that time he and all the Heike had been declared to be rebels against the Throne, all 
that he could do for the memory of his unhappy disciple was to include one of them under the 
title of "A flower of my native land," by "An unknown author." The stanza runs thus: 

"Though desolation has stricken the City of rippling wavelets, 
Still does the cherry tree put forth its blossoms of yore." 


Kogo-gu-no-suke Tsunemasa, the eldest son of Shuri-no-taiyu Tsunemori, had, as a child, served 
as page to the Imperial Abbot of the temple of Omuro Ninnaji, and still felt so deeply attached to 
him that he determined to pay him a farewell visit, even in spite of their great haste; so he took 
five or six retainers with him, and, riding off thither at great speed, hurriedly alighted from his 
horse and knocked at the gate. "Our Sovereign has already departed from the Capital," he said, 
"and the doom of our house is at hand, but all I regret in this fleeting world is that I must part 
from my lord. Since I first entered this Palace cloister at the age of eight until my Gempuku at 
the age of thirteen, except for a slight 


interval of sickness, never did I leave my lord's side; but to day, alas, I must go forth to the wild 
waves of the Western Sea, not knowing when, if ever, I shall return. So I have come, wishing to 
see his face more, though I feel ashamed to enter his presence in this sough soldier's garb." When 
ho heard this, the Imperial Abbot, moved with compassion, replied: "Bid him enter as he is, 
without changing his dress." Tsunemasa was that day attired in a hitatare of purple brocade and 
body armour laced with green silk. A gold mounted sword hung at his side and a quiver of twenty 
four arrows with black and white feathers at his back, and under his arm he carried his bow of 
black lacquer with red binding. Taking off leis helmet and hanging it from his shoulder, he 
reverently entered the little garden before the apartment of the Abbot. His Reverence 
immediately appeared and bade them raise the curtain before the verandah, on which he invited 
Tsunemasa to be seated. When Tsunemasa had seated himself he beckoned to Tohyoye-no-jo 
Arimori who attended on him, and he brought a bag of red brocade containing his master's Biwa, 
which Tsuneniasa laid before the Abbot. "I have brought back this famous Biwa 'Seizan,' which 
Your Reverence presented to me last year, with deep regret, for it is not proper that I should take 
such a thing, one of the most precious treasures of our land, into the rude wilds of the country. 
May I then deposit it with Your Reverence, that if a happier day should perchance dawn again 
for our family, and we should return to the Capital I may receive it from your land once more?" 
At this the Abbot was much moved and replied with the following stanza: 

"So will I keep it unopened, this much regretted memento, 
just as though the bag held the affection you feel. " 

Tsunemasa, borrowing his master's inkstone, then wrote the following: 

"Though the water way cease to flow from this spout in your garden, 
Never will cease my desire her c to remain by your side." 


When he had said farewell and retired from the presence of the Imperial Abbot, all those who 
were living in the monastery, acolytes, monks, and priests of all ranks, flocked round trim, 
clinging to his sleeves and bedewing them with their tears, so sad were they at parting with him. 
Among them was a certain young priest named Dainagon-no-Hoshi Gyokei, a son of Hamuro-no- 
Dainagon Mitsuyori-no-Kyo, who had been much attached to him ever since his boyhood; and he 

was so loath to part with him that he went to see him off as far as the banks of the Katsuragawa, 
where he bade him farewell and returned to the monastery. As he parted with him, weeping he 
composed the following verse: 

"Ah, how sad is this life, both the gnarled old tree and the cherry, 
All must fade and pass; never a flower is left." 

To which Tsunemasa made reply: 

"In this passing world, each night that we lie down to slumber 
Is as a traveller goes farther and farther away." 

Then his samurai, who had been waiting in groups here and there, unfurled their red banners and 
formed into a company of about a hundred horsemen in all, and as he took his place at their head 
they all whipped up their horses and galloped on after the Imperial Procession. 


It was when he was seventeen years old that Tsunemasa was presented with the Biwa 'Seizan,' 
and about the same time he was sent as Imperial Envoy to the shrine of Hachiman at Usa. When 
he arrived there he played certain secret pieces of great beauty on it before the abode of the deity, 
and all the 


assembled priests were so touched that the sleeves of their ritual garments were wet with their 
tears. Even those without any discrimination, who had never had any opportunity of hearing good 
music, were delighted, thinking it sounded like showers of rain. And the story of this Biwa is that, 
when in the time of Nimmyo Tenno, in the third month of the third year of the period of Ka-sho, 
Kamon-no-kami Sadatoshi went to China, he learned three styles of playing from Rensho-bu, a 
very renowned master of the Biwa, and before he came back to Japan he was presented with 
three Biwas called 'Gensho,' 'Shishi-maru,' and 'Seizan.' But while he was returning over the sea, 
the Dragon god "of the waters was moved by envy to raise a great storm, so they cast 'Shishi 
maru' into the waves to appease him, and brought back only two to this country, which were 
presented to the Emperor. 

Many years after, in the period O-wa, the Emperor Murakami Tenno was sitting in the Seiryoden 
one autumn at midnight, when the moon was shining brightly and a cool breeze was blowing, 
arid was playing on the Biwa called 'Gensho', when suddenly a shadowy form appeared before 
him and began to sing in a loud and sonorous voice. On the Emperor asking him who he was and 
whence he had come, he answered thus. "I am Rensho-bu, that master of the Biwa who in China 
taught the three secret styles of playing to Fujiwara Sadatoshi; but in my teaching there was one 
tune that I concealed and did not transmit to him, and for this fault I have been cast into the 
place of devils. Having this night heard the wondrous beauty of your playing, I have come to ask 
Your Majesty if I may transmit the one remaining tune to you, and thus be permitted to enter the 
perfect enlightenment of Buddha." Then, taking 'Seizan' which was standing before His Majesty 
also, he tuned the strings and taught the melody to the Emperor. And this is that which is called 
'Jogen' and 'Sekijo.' 


After this apparition the Emperor and his Ministers feared to play on this Biwa, and it was 
presented to the Imperial Temple of Ninnaji, and Tsunemasa received it because he was so much 
beloved by the Imperial Abbot. The front of it was made of a rare wood called Shito, and on it 
was a picture of the moon of dawn coming forth from among the green foliage of summer 
mountains, hence its name 'Seizan' (Green Mountain) . It was a most precious treasure not at all 
inferior to 'Gensho.' 


Now Ike-no-Dainagon Yorimori-no-Kyo set fire to the Ikedono Palace and set out from the city, 
but when he came to the south Toba gate with his following of some three hundred horsemen, 
they tore the red badges off their armour and returned to the city on the pretext that they had 
forgotten something. When Etchu-no-Jiro-hyoye Moritsugu perceived this, he galloped off to 
Munemori with his bow in his hand and said: "See therel A party of samurai, following the 
example of Yorimori, has returned to the city, and their designs look suspicious. I would respect 
the person of Yorimori, but let me draw bow against these fellows." "Under present conditions," 
replied Munemori, "I think it would perhaps be as well to pay no heed to such a pack of runagate 
knaves; but have you seen or heard aught of the men of Komatsu dono?" "So far" answered 
Yorimori, "none of them has yet come up." "It is no good omen if people begin to desert us when 
we have but left the Capital a single day;" reflected Munemori. "I said it would be better to stay 
in the Capital, when every other place is so uncertain; " said Shin Chunagon Tomomori-no-Kyo, 
casting a resentful glance at Munemori. 

Now the reason why Yorimori stayed behind in Kyoto was because Yoritomo had sent him many 
letters, swearing by 


Hachiman that he would always regard him with the same feeling as he had his late mother Ike- 
no-Zenni, and had given special orders to his army not to attack the samurai of Ikedono; and so, 
though all the Heike family were fleeing its despair from the Capital, he alone remained behind, 
trusting the good will of Yoritomo. As Saisho dono, the wife of this Yorimori, was the foster 
mother of the Princess Hachijo-no-Nyoin who had taken refuge in the Tokiwa mansion of the 
temple of Ninnaji on account of the uproar in the Capital, Yorimori also fled there for safety; for 
though he trusted to Yoritomo to help him, the Nyoin was not entirely assured, saying that in a 
world like the present no one knew what might happen; for even if Yoritomo was friendly the 
attitude of the other Genji was uncertain, and as they had thus rashly separated from the rest of 
their family they were in a perilous position, neither in the waves nor on shore. 

So when the Courtiers of Komatsu-dono, the six sons of Shigemori and their retainers, about a 
thousand men in all, came up with the Imperial Procession by Matsuda-kawara at Vodo, the 
Daijin Munemori was greatly rejoiced, and enquired of them why they were so long in coming. 
"It is because I was so long delayed by the affectionate pleadings of my little ones," replied 
Koremori. "Then why did you not bring Rokaudai with you? You are a hard hearted father to be 
able leave him behind"; said Munemori. "But when our future is all uncertain like this" said 
Koremori, while the tears ran down his face at such an unfeeling cling question. 

Those of the Heike who fled from the Capital were; The former Udaijin Munemori, Hei 
Dainagon Tokitada, Hei hunagon Norimori, Shin Chunagon Toaiomori, Shuri-no-taiyu 
Tsunemori Uemon-no-kami Kiyomune, Ion sammi Chuo Shigehira, Komatsu sammi Chujo 
Koremori, Shin sammi Chujo Sukemori, Echizen-no-sammi Michimori; and among the Courtiers; 
Kura-no-kami Nobumoto, Sanuki-no-Chujo Tokizane, SaChujo-Kiyotsune, Sa- Shosho Arimori, 

[p.6 4 ] 

Tadafusa, Kogo-guno-suke Tsunemasa, Sama-no-kami Yukimori, Satsuma-no-kami Tadanori, 
Musashi-no-kami Tomoaki, Noto-no-kami Noritsune, Bitchu-no-kami Moromori. Owari-no- 
kami Kiyosada, Awaji-no-kami Kiyofusa, Wakasa-no-kami Tsunetoshi, Kurando-no-taiyu 
Narimori, Tsunemori-no-Otogo-taiyu Atsumori, Hyobu-no-shoyu Masaaki; and of the priests; 
Nii-no-Sozu Senshin, Hoshoji-no-Shikku Noen, Chunagon-no-Risshi Chukai, Kyojubo-no-Ajari 
Yuen, while of the Bushi, of Lords of manors, Kebiishi, Efu, and those in various offices in the 
government, there were a hundred and sixty. The total number amounted to some seven 
thousand men, this being all that was left after the wars of the last few years in the various 
provinces of the North and East. Hei Dainagon Tokitada-no-kyo, stopping the Imperial Car at 
Yamasaki Sekito-no-in, prostrated himself in the direction of Otokoyama and prayed thus: 
"Namu Kimyo-chorai Hachiman Dai-Bosatsu, we beseech thee that thou wilt grant that Our Lord 
the Emperor and all our family may again return to the Capital; " a most pathetic prayer indeed! 
And now, as they looked back toward the city, nothing was to be seen but the clouds of smoke 
from the burning buildings rising into the sky like mist; in truth a melancholy sight. Hei 
Chunagon Norimori and Shuri-no-taiyu Tsunemori each composed a stanza on this occasion, 
which run thus: 

"Ah 1 , this fleeting life 1 . Our Sovereign far from his Palace, 

sees it go up in smoke, rising aloft to the sky." 

"When we look sadly back at the blackened plains of our homeland, 

'tis as if we rode over an ocean of smoke." 

Indeed we can imagine the sadness they felt when at the same time they saw their homes reduced 
to ashes and smoke and contemplated the long road they must travel. Higo-no- 


kami Sadayoshi, hearing that some of the Genji were at Kawajiri, rode off with five hundred men 
to drive them away, but, finding that the report was false, he was returning again to the city when 
he fell in with the Imperial Procession near Udono. Hastily alighting from his horse he sought the 
presence of Munemori. After the customary obeisance he burst forth: "What wretched plan is 
this? Whither are you intending to go? If you are proceeding to the Western Provinces, everyone 
will reproach you for taking to flight, and it will be a disgrace to our family. It would be far better 
to remain and await events in the Capital." "Perhaps you are not yet aware," replied Munemori, 
"that Kiso Yoshinaka is now advancing on the Capital with My thousand men, and that the 
priests of Hieizan have occupied Higashi Sakamoto, and that moreover the Ho-o has disappeared 
during the night: we were all ready to fight to the end in the Capital, but, wishing to avoid all risk 
of danger to the Imperial Mother and the Nii dono, we thought it well to escort them into 
retirement for a while in the Western Provinces until the danger is past." "In that case," answered 
Sadayoshi, "I will ask your leave to return to the city and see what can be done;" and, ordering his 
force of five hundred men to join the retainers of Koremori, he rode back to Kyoto with only a 
small band of thirty horsemen. Somehow or other the rumour spread that Sadayoshi was 
returning to take vengeance on the Heike who had stayed behind in the city, and when Ike-no- 
Dainagon Yorimori heard it, he was greatly terrified for his own safety. 

So Sadayoshi went and encamped on the burnt ruins of Nishi Hachijo, and spent the night there, 

but not one of the Heike Courtiers returned to bear him company. As solitude and desolation 
reigned everywhere and the future seemed ominous, he went to the grave of his master 
Shigemori and dug out the bones that they might not be trodden under foot by the horse hoofs of 
the Genji. Taking his place before the bones as if they had been a living person, in a voice choked 


with tears he addressed them thus: "Alas! how pitiable! Behold the fate of your august house! 
Though it has been said from of old time that the living must surely die, and that at the height of 
pleasure comes pain, yet hard it is to behold this doom with our own eyes. How happy that my 
lord, knowing before what was about to take place, prayed to the gods and Buddhas to shorten 
his life; and would that I, Sadayoshi, had then accompanied him to the other world; for now I 
have vainly lived thus long only that this affliction might come upon me. I beseech you that, 
when I come to die, you, my master, will come to meet me and guide me to the same Buddha 
land." Thus weeping he communed with his master in the far off land, and then, sending the 
bones to Koya-san, he threw the earth of the tomb into the river Kamo, after which he took his 
way in the opposite direction toward the Eastern Provinces, thinking he could rely on 
Utsunomiya to assist him in return for the kindness shown him by the Heike in former years. 
Now all the Heike lords of high rank from Munemori downwards, with the exception of 
Koremori, had taken their wives and children with them, but as this was not possible with those 
of lower rank, they had had to leave them behind in the city, not knowing when they would see 
them again. Whenever people leave their family, even when the day and the hour of their return 
are fixed exactly, the parting is always sad; how much more on an occasion like this, when they 
took leave of each other for perhaps the last time, were the sleeves of both those who went and 
those who stayed moistened with their tears. So old and young were fain to set forth, looking 
backwards always with longing eyes, for how could they forget the intimate ties of their ancestors 
or the benefits themselves had enjoyed in later days? Some made the journey by sea, braving the 
dangers of the troubled waves, while others went by land; some on horseback and some rowing in 
boats, each than leaving his Home in the way he thought best. 


When the Heike arrived at their former capital of Fukuhara Munemori called together the most 
trusty retainers, old and young, to the number of several hundred, and addressed them thus: 
"Since the results of the good deeds of our house are now exhausted and those of its evil actions 
predominate, we have thus been abandoned by the gods and compelled to flee the Capital, to 
wander like homeless vagrants, deserted even by the Ho-6. On whom then can we rely? Even 
when people take shelter under the same tree, it is from some connexion in a former life, and 
when they stoop to drink from the same stream their Karma relation is not slight, so you are not 
mere casual dependants, but hereditary retainers of our house; some bound by the ties of close 
relationship, some by gratitude for the bounty of many generations. Let each of you consider how 
many were the benefits he received in the days gone by, in the time of the prosperity of our 
house, and will you not now repay this favour? Moreover, seeing that we are escorting the 
Sovereign possessing the Ten Virtues, and carrying with him the Three Sacred Treasures, must 
we not stand by His Majesty to the last, to the most inaccessible mountain or the remotest 
plain?" Then his hearers, controlling their emotion, replied with one voice: "When birds and 
animals know how to repay kindness, how should we rational men forget it? It is the part of the 
warrior to be ashamed of double dealing, and it is but by the favour of the Taira house that for 
the last twenty years we have supported our families. Therefore will we follow our August Lord 
the Emperor even beyond the confines of this Realm of Nippon, yea, even to Kikai, Korai, or 
Keitan, to the farthest boundaries of sky and sea." At these words Munemori and all the Heike 
felt some confidence return to them. 

That night the exiles spent at Fukuhara. The sky was clear and calm, and the bow shaped new 
moon of autumn 


shone brightly. As they lay on their grassy couches, in doubt whether they should ever again 
behold this scene, their pillows were damp with both dew and tears. When they looked round 
upon the many buildings of the new capital that the Lay priest Chancellor had erected, the 
pavilion on the hill for flower viewing in springtime, the mansion by the sea for the moon 
viewing of autumn, the mansion of the bubbling spring, the pavilion of the pine tree shade, the 
resort for horse racing, the lofty palace of two stories, the snow viewing palace, the houses of the 
various retainers, the newly built Imperial Palace which had been designed by Gojo-Dainagon 
Kunitsuna-no-Kyo with its glistening tiles and mosaic pavements, in the short space of three years 
the roads were all thickly mossed and the gates closed by the autumn grasses, while on the tiles 
the pines were sprouting and ivy clustered thickly on the walls. Over the mossy terraces only the 
pine breeze blew; the curtains were gone and the bed chambers lay open to view, but only the 
moon beams cared to enter. The next day, after setting fire to the Palace of Fukuhara, they 
escorted His Majesty to his ship and all set sail. Though not as painful as when they left the 
Capital behind, this parting also wrung their hearts with grief. The smoky torches that were 
kindled by the fisherman; the calling of the deer at dawn at Once; the sound of the waves beating 
on the shore; the shadows of the moon on their long sleeves; the shrilling crickets among the 
grasses; every sound and sight that fell on their eye and ear was melancholy, and there was 
nothing that did not deepen their sorrow. Yesterday they stood at the eastern frontier with ten 

myriads of horsemen; to-day they weigh anchor on the western sea with but seven thousand 
followers. Calmly the clouds float over the waves, and the blue sky slowly darkens; the evening 
mist drifts over the lonely islets and the moon comes up over the waters, and so the ships plough 
their way over the boundless ocean toward their far distant haven. As the days pass the Capital 
recedes farther and farther from their vision and 


has become as it were beyond the clouds. Even thoughts of their far off home did but cause fresh 
tears, the one thing that seemed to have no end. When they saw a flock of white seabirds 
swooping over the waves, they remembered the question of Arihara-no-Narihira that he asked at 
the Sumida river, and the beloved name Miyako-dori, or Bird of Miyako, held a melancholy 
interest for them. It was on the twenty fifth day of the seventh month of the second year of Ju-ei 
that the Heike fled from the Capital. 


On the twenty fourth day of the seventh month of the second year of Ju ei at midnight, the Ho-6, 
accompanied only by Uma no kami Suketoki, the son of Azechi no Dainagon Sukekata no Kyo, 
fled secretly from the Palace and escaped to Kurama; but as the priests of the temple thought it 
was rather too near to the Capital to be safe, he again removed, and, after braving the hard and 
dangerous path over the mountains by Shino no mine and Yakuo saka, he arrived at the small 
temple of Jakujo bo at Gedatsu dani at Yokogawa. When the priests of Hieizan heard of this, 
they pressed him to proceed to the Hall of the Eastern Pagoda of Enryakuji, so His Majesty took 
up his abode at Minamidani Enyu-bo, which was forthwith designated the Imperial Palace, and 
strictly guarded by their monks and samurai. Thus the Ho-6 fled from his Palace and went to 
Hieizan, and the Emperor left the Palace of the Phoenix Gate for the Western Ocean, while the 
Sessho took refuge in the recesses of Yoshino, and the Imperial Ladies concealed themselves at 
Hachiman, Kamo, Saga, and Uzumasa, and other remote places in the hills to the east and west of 
the city. As the Heike had fled and the Genji had not yet entered, the Capital was thus without a 
Lord, a thing that had never been known from the beginning of time. In the book of the 
Prophecies of Shotoku Taishi, wonderful to relate, these things are written. 

As soon as it was known that the Ho-6 was holding his Court on Hieizan, all the former 
Courtiers and officials came flocking round him: the former Kwampaku Motofusa, the Sessho 
Motomichi, the Dajo daijin Moronaga, the Sadaijin and 


Udaijin and Naidaijin, the Dainagon and Saisho, all the Courtiers of the Third, Fourth, and Fifth 
Ranks; everyone who was anyone, and who desired place, office, or promotion, presented himself; 
none were wanting. So great was the number of those who crowded to the Enyu-bo that neither 
in the upper or lower chambers, nor within or without the gate was any vacant space at all to be 
found. Great was the prosperity of Hieizan through the presence of this Imperial Abbot. 

On the twenty eighth day of the same month the Ho-6 deigned to return to the Capital. He was 
escorted by Kiso Yoshinaka with fifty thousand horsemen, and Yamamoto no Kwanja Yoshitaka 
of the Omi Genji rode at the head of the procession bearing the white banner of the Minamoto. 
It was indeed a strange sight for the people of Miyako to see again the white banner in their 
streets, where for more than twenty years it had not waved. Juro Kurando Yukiie with many 
thousand horsemen crossed the Uji bridge and entered the Capital, while Yada-no-Hangwan dai 
Yosihikiyo, son of Mutsu-no-Shin Hangwan Yoshiyasu, entered it from Oyeyama. Besides these 
the Genji of Settsu and Kawachi came in also from that direction, so that the Capital was filled to 
overflowing with the Genji warriors. 

Then Kade-no-koji Chunagon Tsunefusa-on-Kyo and Kebiishi-no-Betto Saemon-no-kami Saneie 
called Yoshinaka and Yukiie to the verandah of the Ho-6's Palace. Kiso was wearing a suit of 
armour laced with Chinese brocade over a hitatare of red silk, and a sword exquisitely 
ornamented with gold and silver. His quiver held twenty four arrows with black and white 
spotted feathers, and he carried a bow of black lacquer with red binding, and he took off his 
helmet and hung it from his shoulder cord as he knelt down and made low obeisance. Juro 

Kurando Yukiie wore a hitatare of dark blue brocade and his armour was laced with black, while 
his sword was decorated in lacquer of the same colour. He 


carried a quiver of twenty four arrows with white feathers having a black bar across them, and his 
bow was lacquered black over the binding.. He too doffed his helmet and hung it from his 
shoulder as he made his obeisance. Having been bidden to subdue the former Naidaijin 
Munemori and all the Heike family, they both again made obeisance and retired. As they both 
intimated to the Court that they had no place to lodge, Kiso was given the Nishi-no-doin in 
Rokujo, the residence of Daizen-no-taiyu Naritada, while the Southern Hall of the Hojijiden 
called the Kaya Palace was appointed for Yukiie. The Ho-6 was exceedingly grieved that the 
Emperor should have been thus rapt away by his maternal relations the Taira Nobles, and that he 
should be tossed about on the waves of the Western sea, and therefore sent his Imperial 
Command to the West that they should immediately send him back with the Three Sacred 
Treasures safe to the Capital. But the Heike paid no heed. 

Now there were three Princes, sons of the late Emperor Takakura, beside the Emperor, but as the 
Heike had also taken the middle one with them in order to make him Crown Prince, there were 
only two remaining in the Capital. So on the fifth day of the eighth month the Ho-6 proceeded to 
the Palace where they were being brought up. On his calling to him the third Prince, aged five, 
the child began to cry in a fretful manner so that the Ho o bade them take him away again, but 
when the fourth son, who was then four years old, was brought into the Imperial Presence, he 
immediately got upon the knees of the Ho-6 and nestled up to him affectionately. The eyes of 
the Ho-6 became filled with tears as he said: " See how he comes affectionately to an old monk 
like me that he does not knowl He is my grandson indeed; he is just, like the late Emperor when 
he was a child; I have never had such a charming remembrance of him till now." Then Jodoji-no- 
Nii-dono, who was then known as Tango-dono, being in attendance on His Majesty asked : " Is it 
then decided that this Prince shall be appointed 


to succeed to the Throne ? " To which the Ho-6 replied that it should certainly be so. The oracles 
were then consulted privately and the response was given that if the Fourth Prince should 
succeed to the Throne his descendants would rule Nippon for a hundred generations. The mother 
of this Prince was the daughter of Shichijio Shuri-no-taiyu Nobutaka-no-Kyo, who was one of the 
Ladies in waiting of the Empress, and had been much favoured by the late Emperor, so that she 
had borne him many children. This Nobutaka no Kyo had many daughters and greatly wished 
that one of them might become an Imperial Consort, and having heard that if anyone kept a 
thousand white fowls he would certainly have a daughter who would become Imperial Consort, 
lie provided himself with a thousand white birds forthwith, and perhaps this was the reason that 
his daughter bore so many Princes. Nobutaka was extremely pleased in his heart, but as he feared 
the Heike and was anxious about the Empress he did nothing about them, but Hachijo-no-Nii- 
dono, the wife of Kiyomori, reassured him, saying that there was nothing to fear, and that she 
would herself see to their bringing up and would make one of them Crown Prince. So she 
provided many milk nurses for them and had them under her care. So it happened that this 
Fourth Prince was adopted by the elder brother of the Niidono, Hoshoji-no-Shugyo Noen Hoin, 
and this Hoin went down with the Heike to the Western Provinces, leaving his wife and the 

child in the Capital. 

Soon afterwards, however, he sent a messenger from thence asking her to bring the little Prince to 
him, and his wife, much rejoiced, started out with him and had gone as far as West Shichijo, 
when her elder brother, Kii-no-kami Norimitsu, stopped her, saying that it was a foolish thing to 
do, for now fortune was likely to favour the little Prince; and it was on the next day the Ho-6 
came to see him. On this account Norimitsu expected that he would be appointed to some office, 
but time went on and his wishes were 


not realized, so at last in his disappointment he wrote these two verses and sent them to the 

" Does not the cuckoo sing at least one note of remembrance, of the midnight glade where he was 
nurtured of old?" 

" Pity the poor tomtit, for lonely if free in the mountains, much he envies the day when he was still in 
his cage. " 

The Emperor, who had not till then thought of the condition of Norimitsu, was touched by his 
case and promoted him to the Upper Third Rank. 



On the tenth day Kiso Yoshinaka was appointed Sama-on-kami, and was presented with the 
fief of the province of Echizen, beside having the title of Asahi Shogun, or Rising Sun General, 
bestowed on him by Imperial Edict. Juro Kurando Yukiie was presented with the province of 
Bingo and entitled Bingo-no-kami at the same time. As Yoshinaka, however, disliked the province 
of Echizen he was given that of Iyo instead, and Yukiie also, being dissatisfied with Bingo, 
received Bizen in its place. Moreover some ten more of the Genji were appointed captains of the 
Kebiishi and Imperial Guard of the Efu and Emon. On the sixteenth day the former Naidaijin 
Munemori and all his family, a hundred and sixty in all, were deprived of their offices and' their 
names erased from the Court List. Among them, however, the names of Hei Dainagon Tokitada- 
no-Kyo and his two sons, Kura-no-kami Nobumoto and Sanuki-no-chujo Tokizane were not 
erased, and this was because orders were being frequently sent to these three officials to bring 
back the Emperor and the Three Sacred Treasures to the Capital. 


On the seventeenth day the Heike reached Dazaifu in the district of Mikasa of the province of 
Chikuzen. Kikuchi-no-Jiro Takanao, who had gone down with them from the Capital, now, 
under the pretext of going on in front to open the barrier at Otsuyama, crossed over the province 
of Higo and retired into his own stronghold, from which he did not come forth in space of 
repeated injunctions. Beside this, of all the men of the two. islands of Kyushu who were bidden 
to join the Heike, not one appeared with the exception of Okura Tanenao of Iwado. On the 
eighteenth day the Heike arrived at Anrakuji, where the Courtiers spent the whole night in 
composing poems and Renga. On this occasion Hon-sammi Chujo Shigehira made a verse that 
brought tears to the eyes of all: 

" One of the gods* once knew the longing we feel for Miyako, 
Parted like us from the land where for so long lie had dwell. " 

On the twentieth day, by an Imperial Edict of the Ho-6, the Fourth Prince was proclaimed 
Emperor in the Kan-in Palace. The Sessho remained as before, for Motomichi continued in office, 
and the Chiefs of Departments and Kurando also returned to their posts. The milk nurse of the 
Third Prince shed tears of regret, but it was of no avail. 

" In heaven there are not two suns, and in a country there are not two sovereigns; " is an 
ancient saying, but now, through the evil deeds of the Heike, there were two Emperors 
one in the Capital and one in the country. In ancient times Montoku Tenno, who died in twenty 
third day of the eighth month of the second year of Ten an, had many sons who wished to 
succeed to the Throne, and who offered up prayers in secret to that effect. The eldest, Prince 
Koretaka, who was 

*One of the gods. i.e. Tenjin, the deified Sugawara no Michizane, exiled to Kyushu and died there. 

In heaven, etc. From the Li Chi fenE 


also called Prince Kinohara, was an exceedingly wise prince, learned in all matters of importance 
to one who would govern a country, and therefore seemed to all worthy of succeeding to the 
Throne, but the second, Prince Korehito, was the son of the Lady Some dono, the daughter of the 
Kwampaku Fujiwara. Yoshifusa, and so had the support of the whole of the Fujiwara family. It 
was thus a very difficult question to decide. On the one side was a wise and learned Crown Prince; 
on the other a Minister most potent in all the affairs of state. Both were much to be pitied, and 
everybody was greatly perplexed. The priest who prayed for Prince Koretaka was Kaki-no-moto 
Ki-Sojo-Shinzei, the greatest man in the temple of Toji, and a disciple of Kobo Daishi, while on 
the side of Prince Korehito was Eiryo Kwasho of Hieizan, the chaplain of the Kwampaku 
Yoshifusa, a priest by no means inferior to him in any way. Everyone said it would be difficult to 
settle the matter, and when the Emperor died and a Council of Courtiers was held to say who 
should succeed him, as all the Ministers maintained each his own opinion and refused to listen to 
anyone else, the deliberation became a mere wordy warfare, and at last it was decided to settle it 
according to the result of a horse race and a wrestling match; the Throne to go to the side that 
was successful. So on the second day of the ninth month both the Princes proceeded in state to 
the race course of Ukon-no-baba, and all the Courtiers gathered there apparelled in their gayest 
costumes, making a scene of unimaginable brilliance and splendour. In two long lines on either 
side of the course the supporters of each Prince were drawn up, with beating hearts and hands 
clasped tightly together, anxiously awaiting the result of this most unparalleled contest.' Nor must 
the priests and their prayers be passed over. Shinsei Sojo set up his altar at Toji, while Eiryo 
Kwasho set up his at the temple of Shingon in within the Palace, and thinking that if it was 
reported that he had died, Shinsei would relax his zeal somewhat, Eiryo put it about that he was 
dead, while he 


applied himself to his orisons with redoubled vigour. Then the horse races began, and out of ten 
races the first four were won by the elder Prince Koretaka, but the next six fell to the party of 
Prince Korehito. After this the wrestling match was held, and a certain Natora Uemon-no-kami, a 
doughty champion who possessed the strength of sixty men, stood forth on behalf of Prince 
Koretaka. On the side of the younger Prince appeared Yoshio Shosho, a small and delicate looking 
man, who looked as if the other might throw him with one hand. He was chosen, however, 
because the Prince had had a supernatural dream in which he was bidden to select him. So 
Natora and Yoshio faced each other, and after feinting a little retired. Then they engaged again 
and Natora, gripping Yoshio, lifted him off his feet and flung him a distance of twenty feet away. 
But he came down on his feet and did not fall to the ground. Then Yoshio in his turn sprang at 
Natora and tried to throw him, but owing to the great size of his opponent he was in danger of 
being borne down from above, and seemed about to be overcome. On seeing this, a crowd of the 
retainers of Some dono, the mother of the second Prince, rushed to the Palace in a throng thick as 
the teeth of a comb, and cried out: " Our side is like to lose; what shall we do? " Then Eiryo 
Kwasho, who was repeating mystic prayers and incantations of mighty efficacy, frenzied at their 
failure, seized his Tokko*, and, dashing his head open with it, took some of his brains, pounded 
them and mixed them with milk, and putting them in the sacred 'Goma' fire, raised a thick black 
smoke, wrestling so mightily in prayer that at last Yoshio won the contest. Thus did the second 

Prince Korehito succeed to the Throne, to be known thenceforth as Seiwa 

Tokko. The Vadjra or mace of Indra. Emblem of the power to destroy evil, used by Shingon priests in 
their ritual. 

Sou-i. Zasshu of Hieizan who appeared the wrath of the god Tenjin, which tie manifesto striking the 
Palace with lightning in the eighth year of En-cho. 

[p. 7 8] 

Tenno, and afterwards also as M izu-o-no-Tenno. And so thereafter the priests of Hieizan would 
often say; "When Eiryo dashed out his brains the second son was made Emperor, and when Sou-i 
wielded the sword of wisdom the curse of Tenjin was overcome." Thus we may understand the 
power of the Law of Buddha, but beside that everyone considered that it was according to the 
will of Tensho-daijin. 


When the Heike in Tsukushi heard of this, they all exclaimed : " Ah, if we had only brought the 
third and fourth Princes with us alsol " " Even if we had done so," said Hei Dainagon Tokitada- 
no-Kyo, " there is the son of Prince Takakura whom his guardian Sanuki-no-kami Shigehide made 
a monk and brought to the North Country; for Kiso Koshinaka has had his vows revoked and 
brought him with him to the Capital with the intention of placing him on the Throne." But the 
others objected, saying: "How is it possible for a Prince whose vows have been revoked to 
succeed to the Throne ? " " Of a surety it is possible," replied Tokitada, " for in other countries 
there are precedents for it, and in this country also, when Temmu Tenno was Crown Prince, he 
was attacked by Prince Otomo and cut off his hair and retired to Mount Yoshino; but after Prince 
Otomo had been overthrown lie came back again and ascended the Throne. Koken Tenno also 
was moved by the Buddha-mind to lay aside his dignity and become a recluse, changing his name 
to Hokini, but afterwards he resumed the Throne as Shotoku Tenno. Therefore there is no reason 
why Kiso should not make this Prince Emperor in spite of his revoked vows." 

On the third day of the ninth month an envoy was sent to Ise from the Court. He was the Sangi 
Naganori. There have been three examples of Retired Emperors sending envoys 


to Ise, namely the Emperors Shujaku, Shirakawa and Toba; but in their case it was done before 
they became recluses; so that this is the first example of sending one after retirement. 

The Heike thought to establish a capital in Tsukushi, and a Council of Courtiers was held, but 
they could not decide the matter. The Emperor was then residing at the house of Okura-no- 
Tanenao of Iwado, while the others lodged among the fields and farms: though they did not wear 
garments of hemp, as the poet says, yet they certainly lived in a rustic way. As the Palace was 
thus in the wilds, it was but a Log- Palace, but even so there was something about it that was 
most dignified. So the Emperor again proceeded to the shrine of Usa. Here the apartments of the 
Dai guji served as the . Imperial Lodging, while the Courtiers lived in the main building of the 
shrine, and the officials of the fifth and sixth ranks in the side galleries. Around them in the 
courtyard were encamped the samurai of Shikoku and Kyushu in serried ranks of mail-clad 
warriors. The ancient vermilion of the shrine fence seemed to renew its youthful brilliance at the 
unwonted honour. After sleep:ng seven nights in the shrine the Daijin Munemori had a dream. 
The doors of the Inner Shrine opened and in a mighty voice these words boomed forth 

"Are not these painful misfortunes a sign of the anger of heaven? 
Why then do you thus earnestly pray to the gods? " 

Munemori, confounded and cast into the depths of gloom and anxiety, murmured to himself the 
words of the ancient verse: 

Thinking of this my heart, in tune with tire voice of the insects, 
Feebler and feebler grows; autumn is waning indeed. 

So they returned to Dazaifu. It was now about the tenth day of the ninth month. The evening 
blasts howled over the Hagi leaves, and as they slept in their day garments their 


sleeves were wet with tears, so hard to endure was this rough journey in the dreary days of fading 
autumn. The moon of the thirteenth day of the ninth month was the famous moon of autumn, 
but as they thought of their present state, and remembered the moon as it shone on the Court in 
their Ancient Capital in the days of their grandeur, their eyes grew blurred so that they could 
only behold it through a mist. On this occasion Satsuma-no-kami Tadanori, Shuri-no-taiyu 
Tsunemori, and Kogo-gu-no-suke Tsunemasa made these three stanzas: 

" Those with whom last year we viewed the moon at Miyako 

On this self-same night, fondly are thinking of us," 

" This is the moon that last year we gazed at together, beloved 

Recollections of you hover about me to-night. " 

" Here the dew never dries on these sad fields of our exile. 

On what undreamed of shore come we to gaze on the moon. " 


The province of Bungo was the fief of Gyobu-kyo Sammi Yorisuke, and he had installed his son 
Yoritsune Ason in it as Deputy, but he sent messengers from the Capital to Yoritsune informing 
him that the Heike had been forsaken by the powers of heaven and abandoned by the Emperor, 
so that they had fled the city and were now exiles tossed hither and thither by the waves of the 
sea. It was best therefore that the people of Kyushu should neither receive them, nor have any 
dealings with them, and the province of Bungo should cast off its allegiance and join the Genji of 
the East and North, driving them away from the islands of Kyushu. This order Yoritsune 

There is a variant of the story of this Japanese Cupid and Psyche in the Kojiki, where it is told of the deity 
of Miwa, Okuni-nushi-no-mikoto, from whom it is said the family of Ogata derived their descent. 
Takachiho is the mountain in Hyuga upon which Ninigi no mikoto alighted when he came down to Japan 
from the Takama-ga-hara. 


made known to Ogata Saburo Koreyoshi; now of this Koreyoshi's ancestry a fearsome story was 
told. In a certain mountain village of the province of Bungo, there lived in ancient days a man 
who had an only daughter, and though she was not yet married, someone used to visit her every 
night, so that in the course of time she became pregnant Her mother, thinking this strange, asked 
her what kind of a person it was that came to her. * I only see him come, " said the maiden, but I 
never know when he returns." "In that case " replied the mother, " fasten something to him, and 
tie a thread to it that we tray know." So the damsel, in obedience to her mother's behest, stuck a 
needle into the collar of the light bloc Kariginu that her lover wore, to which was affixed the end 
of a ball of thread. Following this to see where it led, the girl and some companions crossed right 
over the province of Bungo until they camp to the borders of Hyuga. There they found that it 
went into the mouth of a great cave at the foot of a peal; called Uba-ga-take. Then the girl, 
standing at the mouth of the cave, cried out with a loud voice to the inmate: 

" It is I, who have come thus far that I might look on your face." At this, from the cave came 
forth the response: 

" My form is no human shape, and if you saw it your senses would depart with amazement The 
child you will bear will be a son, and in the two islands of Kyushu there shall be none to equal 
him; with sword or bow." The girl, however, was, not convinced, and again addressed him : " 
Whatever form you mad have ", she pleaded, " if you have not forgotten our long attachment, I 
pray you let me see you this once at least." Then from out of the cave in an answer to her request 
there crawled forth a monstrous snake, fourteen or fifteen feet long, swaying and quivering as it 
carne. The damsel swooned with horror and surprise on seeing it, and the companions who had 
accompanied her shrieked with fear and fled in all directions, The needle that she had stuck in 
the collar of her lover was seen to stick out from the windpipe of the snake. 


The girl returned to her home and not long after was delivered of a son, who was given to her 
grandfather to bring up, and who grew so fast that before he was yet ten years old he was huge of 
body and long of face. At the age of seven he made his Genpuku, and was called Daida on 
account of his grandfather whose name was Daidayu. As during both winter and summer his 
hands and feet were covered with chaps, he was nicknamed Chapped Daida. And this Daida was 
the ancestor of Koreyoshi in the fifth generation; and since Koreyoshi was the descendant of such 
a formidable hero, when he sent round the order of the Governor, saying that it was an Edict of 
the Retired Emperor, all the chief men in Kyushu obeyed him. And the monstrous serpent is said 
to be the manifestation of the deity of Takachiho who is worshipped in the province of Hyuga. 


Thus though the Heike proposed to establish a capital in Tsukushi and build there an Imperial 
Palace, and a Council of Courtiers was held to consider it, yet, on account of the hostile attitude 
of Ogata Koreyoshi, the plan could not be carried out. Then the Chunagon Tomomori gave his 
opinion thus: 

" Seeing that this Ogata Koreyoshi was a retainer of the house of Shigemori, if one of that family 
were to go and see him something might be arranged." In accordance with this advice, which, 
they considered reasonable, Shin sammi Chujo Sukemori set forth with five hundred horsemen, 
and, crossing the Province of Bungo, entered into negotiations with Koreyoshi ; but, in spite of all 
his persuasions Ogata paid no heed, but on the other hand drove them away again, saying: " I 
ought to seize you all and make you prisoners, but in great matters small things are nothing, so 
you had better go back to Dazaifu and do what you please." A short time afterwards he 


sent his second son Nojiri J fro Koremura to Dazaifu with a message, saying : " If the Heike were 
on the side of the Emperor, we would certainly doff our helmets and loose our bowstrings in 
submission, but the Ho-6 has ordered that you are to be expelled from Kyushu at once." Then. 
Hei Dainagon Tokitada-no-Kyo, clad in a hakama laced with scarlet thread and a hitatare of grass- 
cloth, and wearing a lofty eboshi on his head, advanced to meet Koremura and spake thus : " Our 
Emperor is descended in the direct line from forty nine generations of heavenly posterity, being 
the eighty first Earthly Sovereign since Jimmu Tenno, therefore will Tensho-daijin and Hachiman 
Bosatsu protect our Lord from all his enemies. Moreover our house has from Hogen and Heiji to 
this day put down many rebellions, keeping the peace of the Realm, and by our favour were all 
the officials of Kyushu appointed to their authority : but now, forgetting all the gratitude they 
owe us, they have believed the promises of the rebels of the East and North, Yoritomo and 
Yoshinaka, that, if they drive us out, they will receive many provinces and manors as a reward, 
and so have meanly acted according to the instructions of that 'big nose Bungo'*. (Now it was 
because Gyobu-Kyo-Sammi Yorisuke, who held the fief of Bungo, had such a large nose, that he 
was thus spoken of) . Koremura then returned and reported their answer to his father, who 

" It may be so, but old times are old times and the present is the present, so now we must drive 
them out of Kyushu." Then, hearing that Koreyoshi was gathering his forces, Gendaiyu Hangwan 
Suesada and Settsu Hangwan Morisumi, exclaiming; " Now we are hindered even by our friends; 
let us go and smite them "; took with them three thousand horsemen and, crossing over the 
prov:nce of Chikugo, met the enemy at Honjo of Takano and fought with them for a day and a 
night, but at last, owing to the great number of Koreyoshi's men, were forced to retire. 

*big-nose. Bungo. Jap. Hana-Bungo. 

Then the Heike, hearing that Koreyoshi was advancing to attack them with thirty thousand men, 
fled in a panic from Dazaifu, without stopping to take anything with them. Bidding a reluctant 
farewell to the hospitable shrine of Tenjin, they hurried away, and as there were no proper 
bearers for the Imperial Phoenix Car, the Emperor was borne in an ordinary palanquin which was 
dignified with the name only. His Imperial Mother and all the noble ladies of her train had 
perforce to gather up the long skirts of their hakamas and wall: barefoot, as did also the Daijin 
Munemori and all the Courtiers and Nobles, lifting high their loose silk costumes. 

And so they set out once more and made for the port of Hakozaki, while the rain fell in 
torrents and the gusts of wind blew the sand in all directions, and the rain-drops mingled with 
and simulated their tears. Praying to the deities of the shrines of Sumiyoshi, Hakozaki, Kashii and 
Munakata, they made supplication that the Emperor might again return to his own Capital. After 
enduring the steep and dangerous climb over the cliffs and rough rocks of Tarumiyama and 
Uzurahama, they emerged on to the wide sandy plain, and the blood that flowed from their feet, 
so unaccustomed to any toil, dyed the sand, deepening the colour of the scarlet hakamas of some, 
while it reddened to a scarlet hue the white skirts of others. Even the trials of Genzo*, when he 
travelled over lofty mountains and shifting sands from China to India to seek the Holy Pitakas, 
were not more severe, but as he was in quest of the Sacred Sutras he endured them for his own 
benefit and that of mankind; this was but the way to the trials of battle that they trod, the 
melancholy road to the other word. 

Now Harada-no-taiyu Tanenao had accompanied, them from Miyako with a force of two 
thousand men, but when Hyotoji Hideto came forth from his hold of Yamaga to meet them with 
a large force, since there was bitter enmity between 

*Genzo. Chin. Hiuen Tsiang. 

the two, Tanenao left them and turned back again. As they were proceeding on their way they 
passed through a village that went by the name of Ashiya, and as this was the name of a place 
between Miyako and Fukuhara that they all knew well, it pleased them more than other places, 
though it made them the more homesick. So, though they had declared themselves ready to go to 
Shinra, Keitan, Korai, and other distant regions beyond the sea, yet meeting this wild weather 
they were glad to take refuge in Yamaga, the stronghold of Hyotoji Hideto. Hearing again, 
however, that the enemy was advancing on them there also, they fled once mere, and, embarking 
In small boats, voyaged all night till they came to the port of Yanagi-ga-ura in Buzen. Here again 
they meditated on fixing their new capital, and a Council of Courtiers was held about it, but as 
their mans would not permit of building a Palace, and also because they heard tidings that the 
Genji were threatening them from Nagato, they again put to sea in fishing boats to be tossed 
hither and thither on the ocean. Now the third son of Shigemori, Sa-Chujo Kiyotsune, was of a 
meditative nature and much given to deep thought; and as he stood by the gunwale of the ship 
one moonlight night of the tenth month, playing the flute and reciting verses, he reflected how 
the Capital was in the hands of the Genji, and now they had fled to Kyushu they had been driven 
away by Koreyoshi, so that they were like fish caught in a net. If they were thus to be shunned 
wherever they went, of what profit to live any longer ? So, calmly he chanted the solemn words 
of the Sutras and repeated the Nembutsu, after which he dropped from the ship and sank in the 

waves. Deep though unavailing was the lamentation among the Courtiers, both men and women 

As Nagato was the fief of Shin-Chunagon Tomomori, the Mokudai Kii-no-Gyobu-no-taiyu 
Michisuke, hearing that the Heike had nothing but small fishing boats, presented them with 


a hundred large vessels in which they re-embarked and sailed to Shikoku. There by the invitation 
of Awa-no-Mimbu Taiyu Shigeyoshi, on the seashore of Yashima in Sanuki, they built in rough 
timbers a representation of the Imperial Court and Palace; but, as they shrank from permitting 
His Majesty to inhabit such a common structure, it was decided that the real Palace should be a 
ship. Munemori and the Courtiers had to spend their days in the thatched huts of the fishermen, 
while they passed the nights on shipboard. Thus the Imperial Vessel floated like a dragon on the 
waves, a moving Palace that knew no rest. Plunged in sorrow deep as the tide, their lives were 
frail as the frosted grasses. At dawn the clamour of the sea birds on the spits increased their 
anguish, and at night the grating of the ships on the beach tormented them. When they saw the 
flocks of herons in the distant pines, their hearts sank, wondering if they were the white flags of 
the Genji; and when the cry of the wild geese were wafted from the offing, they trembled lest it 
might be the oar beats of the foe by night. The keen breeze lashed their blackened eyebrows and 
painted faces, and the salt spray penetrated their delicate eyes, which home sick longing filled so 
oft with tears. For their green-curtained chambers of scarlet they had exchanged the earthen walls 
of the reed-hung cottage, and instead of the scented smoke of their braziers rose the briny fumes 
of the fisherman's driftwood. The features of the Court Ladies, bereft of cosmetics and swollen 
with continual weeping, were so altered as hardly to be recognised. 


To continue; since the martial reputation of Hyoye-no-suke Yoritomo of Kamakura seas now 
supreme, the title of Sei-i Shogun was conferred upon him by Imperial Edict, and Sa-shisho 
Nakahara Yasusada was appointed as Envoy to 


convey it. On the fourth day of the tenth month Yasusada arrived at Kamakura. " Since it is in 
acknowledgement of my reputation for military prowess that I receive this title," declared 
Yoritomo, "it is well that I receive it at the shrine of the god of battles, Hachiman Dai-Bosatsu. 
Now the shrine of Hachiman at Tsuru-ga-oka is, as to its site, exactly as that of Iwashimizu in the 
Capital, and is built with long galleries and a two-storied gate, while the paved avenue that leads 
up to its lofty seat is more than ten cho in length. As to who should receive the Imperial Edict, it 
was decided, after a consultation, that the privilege should be given to Miura-no-suke Yoshizumi. 
He was of the stock of Miura-no-heita Tametsugu, famed as a mighty warrior in all the Kwanto, 
and as his father Osuke had fallen in battle for Yoritomo, this honour would shed lustre on his 
spirit in the gloom of the Yellow Springs of death. With Yasusada came two of his house and ten 
retainers, and Miura took also the same number of followers. Those of Miura's household were 
Hiki-no-Toshiro Yoshikazu and Wada-no-Saburo Munezane, while his retainers were all great 
lords, each fully equipped for the occasion. He himself was arrayed in a hitatare of dark blue and 
armour laced with black silk. His sword was mounted in black lacquer, and in his quiver were 
twenty four black and white feathered arrows; he carried his Shigeto bow under his arm, and 
hung his helmet over his shoulder and bowed low as he received the Imperial Edict. To the 
formal enquiry of the Envoy: "Who is it who is present to receive this Edict ? Let him declare his 
name and. titles "; Miura, seemingly abashed to proclaim his master's name, gave his own: " 
Miura-no-Arajiro Yoshizumi." He then received the Edict in a casket and presented it to 
Yoritomo, who returned it again after a short interval. Yasusada thinking it rather heavy, opened 
it, and found that it contained gold dust to the value of a hundred ryo. Yasusada was then 
entertained at a banquet in the Haiden of the shrine, and waited upon by officials of high rank. 
He was also 


presented with three horses, one of which, fully apparelled, was led forward by Kudo Ichiro 
Suketsune. A special lodging, built in ancient style, thatched with rushes, was provided for him, 
with a clothes chest containing two suits of bedding of thick cotton and ten sets of lined garments. 
He received, moreover, a thousand rolls of white linen with patterns of indigo. The cups and 
dishes that he used were also of the most rich and beautiful description. 

The next day he paid a visit to Yoritomo in his own mansion, which was guarded within and 
without by samurai. Outside were ranged his own household retainers on bended knee, while 
within, on the upper dais, sat all the Genji lords, succeeded by all the lords of the Kwanto, great 
and small, in the lower seats. Yasusada was seated among the lords of the Genji, and, after a while, 

was introduced into an inner chamber lard with fine mats with borders of Korai brocade of black 
and white, the adjoining verandah being also laid with similar mats with an edging of purple. 
When the Envoy had taken his seat there, a curtain was raised, disclosing Yoritomo himself. He 
was attired in a plain Court robe and a high eboshi. His stature was small, though his face was 
large; his features were handsome and his speech clear and distinct. " The Heike," he began, " in 
fear of my might have fled from Miyako, and now, strangely enough, Kiso Yoshinaka and Juru 
Kurando Yukiie have forced their way into the city receiving Court Rank and choosing provinces 
for themselves in virtue of my exploits. Moreover Hidehira of Mutsu has been appointed Mutsu- 
no-kami, and Satake-no-Kwanja leas been made Hitachi-no-kami, by no means according to my 
will. I wish therefore that an Imperial Edict be issued giving me authority to subdue them ". "For 
that I will go surety ", replied the Envoy, " and though now I am only carrying out the Imperial 
Command, when I return to the Capital I will see that it is done. My younger brother, Shi-no- 
Taiyu Shigeyoshi will also assist me ". "In the position I now am ", replied Yoritomo, 


with a contemptuous smile, "sureties are hardly needed, but I shall know if you do as you say ". 
Yasusada had declared that he wished to start back again for the Capital on that very day, but he 
was persuaded to remain until the morrow. The next day he again repaired to the mansion of 
Yoritomo. He was then presented with a body armour laced with green silk, a sword mounted in 
silver, a Shigeto bow of red and black lacquer with a set of arrow, and thirteen horses, three of 
them saddled. His twelve followers also received a complete equipment each, comprising, 
hitatare, kosode, okuchi hakama, horsy and weapons. The number of the horses that he received 
amounted in all to three hundred. Moreover from the time that they left Kamakura until they 
reached the boundary of Omi, at each stopping-place they were provided with ten koku of rice, 
an amount that was not only more than sufficient for their own use, but enabled them to give 
generously in charity. 


As soon as Yasusada returned to the Capital lie presented himself at the Palace of the Ho-6, 
and, sitting down humbly in the courtyard, reported all that had taken place in the East. The Ho- 
6 was struck with admiration at all he heard, and the faces of all the Courtiers and Nobles were 
wreathed in smiles, for this s gallant behaviour of Yoritomo was very different from that of Kiso 
Yoshinaka who was now protector of the Capital. He was of fair complexion and handsome 
appearance, it is true, but his manners and way of speaking were rough and unpolished in the 
extreme. For this indeed there was good reason; for how could anyone be other who had been 
brought up from the age of two until over thirty in the wild mountain country of Kiso ? The 
following incident may show his rudeness. There was a certain Courtier called Nekoma-no- 


Chunagon Mitsutaka-no-Kyo, o, who had something to say to Yoshinaka, so he sought him at his 
mansion. On his entering a retainer announced: " Nekoma-dono has deigned to arrive." On 
hearing this Yoshinaka burst into a loud laugh; " Do cats (neko) call on people here ? " he asked. 
" It is a Courtier named Nekoma-no-Chunagon-dono, Your Excellency," replied the retainer " Oh, 
then admit him," returned Yoshinaka, and after a while, not using his proper name Nekoma, he 
called out in his rough dialect : " It is now the feeding time for Neko-dono, bring in the meal 1 " 
And although the Chunagon politely declined, Kiso pressed him, saying: " Oh, but I have some 
'unsalted' mushrooms; come along"; thinking, in his ignorance that the epithet 'unsalted' meant 
'fresh' when used of anything, though it can only be properly applied to fish. Nenoi-no-Koyata 
served them at the meal, and large deep bowls piled high with food, such as are used in the 
country, were set before them; and beside the three side dishes eaten with the rice there were 
mushrooms boiled in broth. Kiso seized his chop sticks and began to eat heartily, but the 
Chunagon, whose palate revolted at this coarse rustic food, could not eat anything. " Perhaps you 
think my bowls are not clean," said Yoshinaka, " but these are the ones I use for ceremonially 
pure meals, so pray don't be afraid to eat." Being thus pressed, and fearing it would give offence if 
he touched nothing, the Chunagon took up his chop-sticks and pretended to cat, merely toying 
with the food. Kiso, noticing this, laughed boisterously " Neko-dono has a very small appetite; 
don't stand on ceremony, have a good 'cat's surfeit.' The Chunagon, however, was quite upset by 
this treatment and left again without even saying what he had intended. 

On another occasion, when Yoshinaka went to the Palace of the Ho-6, thinking it not 
necessary to wear the official hitatare of a Courtier of high rank, he hurriedly put on a ho-i and 
went in that, and the set of his headdress, the way he managed his long sleeves and the hang of his 
hakarna were so 


awkward and clumsy that his whole appearance was boorish and ridiculous in the extreme. How 
extraordinary was the contrast to his imposing figure when on his horse and clad in complete 
armour with his bow and arrows at his back. But this time he must needs ride in an ox car, and 

he used one that belonged to Munemori, with his ox-drivers and a very fine yoke of oxen. The 
oxen had not been driven for a long time, and so were exceedingly spirited, and as soon as they 
got out of the gate the ox drivers whipped them up so that they started off at a gallop. The 
sudden jerk threw Yoshinaka off his balance and he fell on his back inside the car, and as he lay 
there with his wide sleeves spread out on each side of him, he looked like some huge butterfly. 
He struggled to get up again, but somehow he could not manage it, and though he shouted to the 
drivers to stop the car, they misunderstood his rustic dialect, and thinking he was telling them to 
hurry on, kept the animals at a gallop for five or six cho. Then Imai-no-Shiro spurred on his horse 
and overtook them, shouting out: "What do you mean by driving on in that way ? " " The noses 
of the honourable oxen are too strong to stop them," replied the ox drivers, and then, wishing to 
help Kiso to right himself, they told him to hold on to the handrail with which the car was 
furnished. " Ah, that's a good idea," exclaimed Yoshinaka as he did so, " I wonder whether the 
drivers thought of it, or whether that is the way their master used to do." In this way he reached 
the gate of the Palace, and when he came to alight he made to do so from the back of the car, as 
he had got in. Seeing this the servants corrected him, saying: " When your Excellency gets into on 
ox car it is proper to get in at the back, but when alighting, it is proper to do so from the front." 
" It is my car," replied Yoshinaka, " so I shall do as I please;" and he got out at the back. Many 
other ridiculous things Yoshinaka did also, but I hesitate to speak of them. The ox-drivers were 


Meanwhile the Heike abode at Yashima in Sanuki, and from that place fought with and 
subdued the eight provinces of the Sanyodo and the six of the Nankaido districts, fourteen in all. 
Kiso therefore, feeling uneasy, despatched a force of seven thousand men to the Sanyodo under 
the command of Yada-no-Hangwan-dai Yoshikiyo, the son of Mutsu-no-Shin-Hangwan 
Yoshiyasu; Umeno-no-Yaheijiro Yukihiro of Shinano being the leader of the samurai. It was the 
first day of the tenth month when they arrived at Mizushima in Bitchu and set about launching 
their ships to cross over to Yashima, and as they were thus engaged a small boat came insight, 
rowing across from the other side. At first they thought it was only a fishing boat, but as they 
looked they saw that it was one of the enemy ships coming to spy out their position, or perhaps 
to negotiate. Immediately the Genji rushed their five hundred ships into the water with great 
haste and sailed to the attack. The Heike were then coming on to meet them with a fleet of a 
thousand vessels. Their commander was Shin-Chunagon Tomomori-no-Kyo, with Noto-no-kami 
Noritsune as captain under him. The Heike ships were made fast alongside each other by hawsers 
from the stem and stern, and between these hawsers other rope were fastened, on which planks 
were stretched for walking, so that the whole fleet became like a level surface for the fighting 
men. As they were about to begin the onset, Noto-no-kami Noritsune cried out in a mighty voice: 
" Hoi men of Shikoku 1 how can you bear the shame of being taken alive by these boors of the 
North? Upon them and grapplel " And so, shouting their warcry, they began the fight, drawing 
their bows and pouring in a hail of arrows until they came to close quarters, when they drew 
their swords and engaged each other hand to hand. Some also plied long iron rakes with which 
they pulled t heir opponents into the water, and some, 


locked in the death-grip, stabbed each other and fell into the waves. Thus the battle went on and 
there was no gap made in the Heike ships, but after a while Umeno-no-Yahei Yukihiro, who led 
the Genji samurai, was smitten to death. Then Yada-no-Hangwan Yoshikiyo, desperate at his fate, 
sprang into a small boat with six of his retainers and led a fierce attack on the very forefront of 
the battle, but all in vain, for his boat was capsized by the enemy and all in it were drowned. 
Now the Heike had brought their horses with them in the ships, and as they approached the 
shore they pushed them off into the water to swim to the beach. Since they were ready accoutred, 
as soon as they found a foothold the riders clambered into their saddles and rode them with a 
mighty splashing through the shallows to the shore, and five hundred horsemen, led by Noto-no- 
kami Noritsune, precipitated themselves on the Genji, who, discomfited by the death of both 
their leaders, fled headlong in confused panic. Thus by this victory of Mizushima the Heike 
wiped away the shame of their former defeat. 


When Kiso heard of this defeat he was filled with anxiety and at once rode off to the province 
of Bitchu with ten thousand horsemen. Now Seno-no-Taro Kaneyasu of Bitchu, a partizan of the 
Heike and a famous warrior, had by ill luck been taken prisoner by Kuramitsu-no-Jiro Narizumi 
of Kaga in the fighting of the fifth month in the North Country, and would have been put to 
death but for the intervention of Yoshinaka, who told hill) that it was a pity to slay such a brave 
fellow. Narizumi accordingly put him in charge of his younger brother Saburo Nariuji, and as 
Seno was a man of fine character and easy manners he was very well treated. Still, as we read 
that even the men of old fretted their hearts when in exile in a far country, so his grief was not 
unlike that of So-shi-kei when he 


was imprisoned in the land of Ko, or of Ri-sho-kei when he was unable to return to the Court of 
Kan. Even as these Chinese warriors passed their days among the barbarians, " satisfying their 
hunger and thirst with sour milk and raw flesh ", so Kaneyasu, abstaining even from sleep, spent 
his nights and days in continual planning how he might take his enemies by surprise and slay 
them and return to his former lord. At last he said to Kuramitsu-no-Saburo : " Since you have 
spared my worthless life and treated me thus, for whom beside should I have any thought ? In the 
next battle it is on the side of Kiso that I will risk my life. Moreover, on my estate at Seno in 
Bitchu there grows fine fodder for horses in great abundance, and if you wish I can guide you 
there to take it." On this being told to Kiso he exclaimed: " Ah, I am sorry for that fellow; but go 
down and get the fodder at once." So Kuramitsu-no-Saburo taking thirty men with him went 
down to Bitchu accompanied by Seno. But Seno's eldest son Kotaro Muneyasu, also a supporter 
of the Heike, hearing that his father had been set free by Kiso, gathered about a hundred 
horsemen from among his younger retainers and set out to welcome him, meeting the party at 
Kofu in the province of Harima. From thence the two bands went on together until 
they came to Mitsuishi in Bizen where they stopped for the night, and as the friends of Seno had 
brought a quantity of sake with them, they all sat down to a drinking bout in which the thirty 
retainers of Kuramitsu soon became heavily intoxicated, so that they could by no means stand 
upright whereupon Seno's men fell upon them and put them all to death. After this they set off 
to Kofu, the residence of the Deputy Governor of Bizen, who had been appointed by Juro 
Kurando Yukiie, to whom Bizen had been given in fief, and attacked and slew him. Then said 
Seno : " I have obtained my freedom from Kiso Yoshinaka and come back home again; now let all 
who are on the side of the Heike prepare to give battle to Yoshinaka when he comes down here 
against us." So 


all the men-at-arms of the Provinces of Bizen, Bitchu and Bingo armed themselves and came with 
their horses and men to the support of the Heike, and even the old men who had retired from 
active life put on again their faded yellow hitatare and shortened their linen kosode, girding on 
their worn out and damaged body armour and providing themselves with homemade quivers of 
bamboo that held but few arrows. So there gathered to Seno's mansion a force of some two 
thousand men, and these made a fort amid the bamboo thickets and narrow field-paths at 

Fukuryuji in Bizen, digging a moat twenty feet wide and the same number of feet deep, fortifying 
it with barricades and defences of felled trees and building a high tower within. 

Now when the Deputy Governor of Bizen was slain, his men fled toward the Capital, but at 
Funasakayama on the boundary of Bizen and Harima they met Kiso and his army and told him 
what had occurred. " Ah ", exclaimed Yoshinaka in great wrath, " it was after all a pity that I did 
not put him to death." " Indeed ", replied Imai Shiro-Kanehira, " you can see by his face he is no 
ordinary man, how many times did I not urge you to put such a daring and formidable foe out of 
the way; at any rate let me go after him and see what he is about to do now " ? So Imai galloped 
off to Bizen with three thousand men. Now the path that led to Seno's stronghold at Fukuryuji 
was only about seven feet wide, while its length was one ri as computed in the Western 
Provinces. On each side of it were deep rice-fields where horses could get no foothold, so that, 
although Imai's force pressed on hotly, their pace was hindered by the crowding of their mounts. 

Seno-no-Taro, seeing Imai himself push forward at their head, hasted to the top of the tower 
and cried out in a loud voice : " Pray receive this as some slight return for your care of me while I 
was with you! " and he emptied his whole quiver of twenty four arrows at them. Paying no heed 
to this, however, Imai-no-Shiro, Miyazaki Saburo, Umeno, Mochizuki, 


Suwa, Fujisawa and other valiant warriors, each worth a thousand ordinary men, spurred forward 
to the onset and held grimly on though many fell pierced by arrows, both men and horses. One 
taking the place of another who fell, they bent low over their horses heads, shielding themselves 
with the neck-pieces of their helmets, and plunging recklessly through, the rice-fields till they 
sank to the bellies of their steeds, heaving them up by the breast-strap of their harness, and caring, 
nothing for the deepest morasses. So they pressed on, shouting their war-cry and fearing nothing, 
till of the followers of Seno, few in number as they were and unsupported, very many received 
mortal wounds. 

When night came, as the fortress on which he relied had been broken through, Seno, unable 
to make further resistance, retired to the river Itakura in the extremity of Bitchu and threw up a 
barricade to await the enemy. Imai soon followed and renewed the attack, and the Heike 
retainers s fought as long as their supply of arrows lasted, but when these had been all used and 
they could hold off their foes no longer, they scattered and fled in all directions. Seno himself, 
with the only two of his retainers who were left, retired to the hills that skirted the Itakuragawa. 

Now Kuramitsu-no-Jiro Narizumi, who had captured Seno on the former occasion, bitter at 
the thought of his younger brother who had been killed, and wishing to avenge him, pressed hard 
on his heels to take him again. Coming up alone to within one cho of his enemy, for he had 
outdistanced all the others, he called out in a loud voice : " Ho there 1 Send 1 Turn back 1 it is not 
for a Samurai to show his back to a foe." Send was just at this moment crossing the river, but 
when he heard this he drew back again and faced his enemy. 

Kuramitsu in great joy spurred his horse and charged upon him, grappling him with such force 
that they both rolled over; and as they where both men of great strength neither would give way, 
but they rolled over and over, first one on 


top and then the other, until, coming nearer in their struggles to the brink of the river, they rolled 
over the edge and fell in. Kuramitsu was not able to swim while Seno was exceedingly expert, so, 
pressing his foe against the bottom, he drew the dagger from his side, and pulling up the skirts of 
his armour, stabbed him so deeply with it three times that the hilt and his hand sank in also. This 
done, as his own horse was overridden, he mounted that of Kuramitsu and rode off to the west 
with his enemy's head. 

Seno's eldest son Kotaro Muneyasu was only twenty years old, but as he was very fat he had 
only managed to get to the distance of one cho, while his father had ridden on more than twenty. 
His father noticing this said to one of his retainers." Many times before have I faced a host of foes 
and fought with a light heart, but to day, as I have left my son behind, my mind is oppressed with 
gloom. Even if I escape alive and once more join, my friends, I am over sixty years old and know 
not how much longer I have to live, and what will my companions say of a samurai who leaves 
his only son behind to save his life ? " " Then," said the retainer, " it were best to return; I will go 
back also and see what, has befallen your son." So they rode back and found Muneyasu fallen by 
the roadside, for his feet were so swollen that he could go no further. 

Then Seno alighted from his horse and said to his son . '"See, I have come back again to stay by 
you whatever may happen." " As I can do no more;" answered Kotaro weeping bitterly, " I shall 
now put an end to my life, for it would be as one of the Five Iniquities if you were to risk your 
life on my account: I pray you hurry on." To This request his father would not listen, and 
moreover, just at that moment about fifty fresh soldiers of the Genji came riding up to where he 
was resting. Then Seno-on-Taro drew from his quiver the eight arrows that he had left, and fitting 
them to his bow, brought down eight men from their saddles, though whether they lived 
or died I know not. Then, drawing his sword, he swept off 


the head of his son first, after which he dashed into the midst of the Genji and fought desperately, 
swinging his blade downwards, sideways, crosswise and in a circle, until at last he fell, overcome 
by weight of numbers. His two retainers also fought around him with equal courage till they were 
badly wounded and taken prisoner, dying eventually the day after. The heads of all three were 
then taken and exposed at Sagi-ga-mori in the province of Bizen. " He was a valiant warrior 
indeed," said Kiso, when they told him; " how I wish he were still alive." 



Meanwhile Kiso was collecting his forces at Manju-on-Sho in the province of Bitchu, with 
the intent of moving agoinst Yashima, when Higuchi-on-Jiro Kanemitsu, whom he had left 
behind to represent him in the Capital, sent him a letter stating that, while his master was away, 
Juro Kurando had obtained great influence with the Ho-6 and was telling many slanderous tales 
about him; so that it would be well that he should leave the campaign in the west for a time and 
come back immediately to Miyako. Yoshinaka immediately started off for the Capital without a 
moment's delay, and Yukiie wishing to avoid an open quarrel with his nephew, started off by way 
of Tamba for the povince of Harima with fifty thousand men. Kiso travelled to the Capital 
through the province of Settsu. 

The Heike, on the other hand, now entered the province of Harima with an army of twenty 
thousand to attack Kiso. It was commanded by Shin- Chunagon-Tomomori and Honsammi 
Chuju Shigehira, and in command of the samurai were Etchu-on-Jirohyoye Moritsugu, Kazusa no 
Gorohyoye Tadamitsu, Akushichi-hyoye Kagekiyo, and Iga noHeinaizaemon Ienaga. Juro 
Kurando Yukiie, thinking to regain 


favour With Kiso by attacking the Heike, advanced to Muroyama where they were encamped 
with a force of five hundred horsemen. Now the Heike had arranged their men in five separate 
camps. Iga-no-Heinaizaemon Ienaga with two thousand men occupied one; Etchu-on- 
irohyoye Moritsugu with two thousand another; Kazusa-no-Gorohyoye Tadamitsu, and 
Akushichi hyoye Kagekiyo held the third with another three thousand; Hon sammi Chujo 
Shigehira with three thousand held the fourth; while Tomomori-no-Kyo with ten thousand 
commanded the fifth. They had, moreover taken counsel together and settled that each of these 
four smaller forces, beginning with that of Ienaga, should engage the enemy in turn and break 
through his centre, after which they would move round his rear and flanks to surround him and 
smite him on all sides at once; and so, in accordance with this plan, they advanced vigorously on 
Yukiie's small army. Juro Kurando. finding himself thus outdone and surrounded, yet did not 
blench or fly, but fought where he was to the last without taking any account of his life. 
Kishichiemon, Kihachiemon, and Akushichiemon, three of the most trusty and brave of 
Tomomori's guards fell by his single hand; and then, when his five hundred men had been 
reduced to but thirty, breaking forth through the Genji, who rolled about them like clouds of 
mist, himself unhurt, though most of his retainers were wounded, they took ship from Takasago 
in Harima and crossed over to Fukei in Izumi, from whence they fled for refuge to the stronghold 
of Nagano in Kawachi. As the Heike had now triumphed in the two battles of Muroyama and 
Mizushima, their forces grew continually greater. 



The soldiers of the Genji swarmed everywhere in the Capital, and entered any place at their 
will to plunder. Not 


excepting even the sacred precincts of Kamo and Yahata, they reaped the crops for their use and 
broke into people's storehouses to take what they wanted; "they even waylaid the citizens in the 
street and robbed them. In fact they were a much worse plague than the Heike had been before 
them, for, as the people of the city said; the men of Rokuhara did not steal the clothes from off 
your back. Therefore the Ho-6 sent a message to Kiso Sama-no-kami to put an end to this 
violence, and Iki-no-Hangwan Tomoyasu was appointed to bear it. As he was an exceedingly 
good player on the drum (Tsuzumi) he was commonly called Tsuzumi Hangwan. When Kiso 
met him, without giving any reply to the Ho-6's communication, he enquired: "Why is it that you 
are called Tsuzumi Hangwan ? Is it because you are accustomed to be beaten or drummed on by 
everybody?" Tomoyasu immediately left in disgust without giving any answer, and returning to 
the Ho-6's Palace, declared: " Yoshinaka is a presumptuous fool and must be put down at once. 
He is certainly disobodient to the Throne." To this the Ho-6 agreed, but those whom he 
entrusted with his order to attack Kiso were not warriors of repute, but the chiefs of Miidera and 
Hieizan, who accordingly assembled their bands of unruly monks, and the Nobles and Courtiers, 
who could not muster anyone better than a motley crowd of begging priests and prowling 
streetloafers to their standard. On the other hand Murakami-no-Saburo Hangwandai of the 
Shinano Genii forsook the side of Kiso and adhered to the Ho-6. As soon as the men of the five 
provinces of the Imperial Domains saw that Kiso was out of favour with the Ho-6, they too 
abandoned the allegiance they had previously proffered him and adhered to the side of the 
Throne. Then Imai-on-Shiro gave his advice to Kiso as follows: " Seeing that matters have now 
assumed a very serious aspect, how can you put yourself in opposition to our Sacred and 
Blameless Emperor? There is nothing to be done but humbly doff your helmet and lay aside your 
weapons in submission." At this speech Kiso flew into a great 


rage: "Ever since I came forth from Shinano," he exclaimed, from my first battles at Omi and Aida 
I have never once turned my back to the foe : at Tonami, Kurosaka and Shinohara in the North, 
and at the strongholds of Fukuryuji arid Itakura in the West everywhere I have conquered; why 
then should I lay down my arms and surrender, even to an Emperor of the Ten Virtues ?" 


" If I have been appointed to protect the Capital ", continued Yoshinaka, " my men must at 
least have a horse to ride, so why should the Ho-6 object in this unreasonable way to their getting 
a little fodder from the fields ? If the young men go into the country districts of the eastern and 
western hills round the city and take some rice for their rations, what is the harm in that ? They 
don't go to the Palaces or the mansions of the Courtiers for it. But I know the cause of it : it is 
that Tsuzumi Hangwan who has been slandering me to his Majesty. Go and beat that 'Tsuzumi ' 
until you break it! This may be the last fight of Yoshinaka, and without doubt it will come to the 
ears of Yoritomo; so quit yourselves well, men] " 

Now the Northern forces had formerly numbered fifty thousand horse, but so many had deserted 
that only some six or seven thousand were left. 

According to. Yoshinaka's usual strategy these were divided into seven companies, of which one 
of some two thousand men was put under the command of Higuchi-no-Jiro Kanemitsu to lead 
the attach from the direction of Imakumano, while the rest were ordered to be ready, each in the 
avenue or street where they were quartered, so as to be able to unite in Rokujo-kawara. As a sign 
of recognition they all wore a badge of pine leaves. 


It was the morning of the nineteenth day of the eleventh month that the fight began. Hearing 
that twenty thousand men were posted in the Ho-6's Palace of the Hojujiden, Kiso rode round by 
the western gate to see what was doing, and there he perceived Tsuzumi Hangwan Tomoyasu, 
who appeared to be in command there, standing on top of the west wall of the Palace, wearing 
nothing else but a hitatare. of red brocade and a helmet on his head, on which were written the 
names of the Four Deva Kings. In one hand he carried a short halberd and in the other a kind of 
sistrum such as is used by Yamabushi, and this he kept on shaking, posturing and capering as he 
did so. This caused much amusement among the Nobles and Courtiers, who thought his 
behaviour not quite dignified, and remarked: " Tomoyasu seems possessed by a Tengu." When he 
perceived Kiso, he called out in a loud voice: " In the good times of old, when the Imperial Edict 
was read, even the withered plants and trees immediately burst into flower and bore fruit, while 
the birds of .the air fell from the sky and all evil spirits and demons trembled and obeyed; and, 
even in this present worthless time he who dares to draw bow and shoot an arrow against His 
Sacred Majesty shall find his arrow fly back against his own body, and the sword that he draws 
turn back on himself." " Such talk needs no reply ", said Kiso laconically as he shouted his warcry 
for the onset. 

At the same time Higuchi-no-Jiro and his two thousand men rushed to the attack with loud 
shouts from the direction of Imakumano, and Imai himself, putting fire into the head of a turnip- 

headed arrow, shot it so that it stuck in the roof of the Hojujiden Palace, and as the wind was 
blowing strongly, the flames immediately shot up high into the air and the sky was filled with 
sparks. When he saw the Palace suddenly enveloped in black smoke, the commander Tomoyasu 
was the first to take to his heels, and when his army of twenty thousand men perceived the flight 
of their leader, panic, seized .them and they turned and fled with one accord. Such indeed was 
their haste 


that some took their bows without any arrows, and some their arrows without any bow; while 
others; dropping their halberds upside down in their flurry pierced their own legs with the sharp 
blades; some too there were who, catching the tips of their bows in some obstacle, left them as 
they were that they might flee the faster. When they came to the end of Shichijo in their flight, 
however, another misfortune awaited them, for this quarter was strongly guarded by another 
band of Settsu Genji who had joined the Ho-6's party, and who had been ordered to fall upon 
any of Kiso's men who might flee from the Hojujiden, so that they had taken up positions on the 
house tops and put up their shields there, providing themselves with heavy stones and missiles to 
throw down on the heads of the enemy. When therefore their own men came along in headlong 
flight, they immediately began to hurl their stones at them, whereupon the fugitives cried out 
that it was a mistake, for they were of the party of the Ho-6. "That cry won't do "; replied the 
other Genji "; we have the Imperial Order; " kill theml kill theml " and they continued to pelt 
them with their missiles until many were killed, and others, with their heads or backs crushed, 
fell from their horses and managed to crawl away to some place of refuge. 

The end of Hachijo was held by the warrior monks of Hieizan, but when the bolder among 
them were killed, the more cowardly who were left also took to flight. Here Mondo no kami 
Chikanari, attired in. a light blue kariginu worn over a body armour laced with green silk and 
mounted on a moon white steed, was ascending the river bank to make his escape, whom when 
Imai-no-Shiro Kanehira perceived he drew his bow with great strength and let fly an arrow at 
him. Whirring it flew straight at his skull, piercing it through so that he fell backwards from his 
horse. He was the son of Seidai-geki, Yorinari, and was a learned doctor of the Academy 
it was first time that he had ever put on armour. Omi-no-Chujo Tamekiyo, Echizen no Shosho 
Nobuyuki, Hoki-no kami 


Mitsutsuna and his son. Hoki-no-Hangwan Mitsutsune were also shot through and their heads 
taken. Murakami-no-Saburo Hangwan dai of Shinano, who had deserted Kiso's camp and gone 
over to the Ho-6, was killed also, and the grandson of Azechi-no-Dainagon Sukekata no Kyo, U- 
Shosho Masakata, who went forth to the battle in armour and a high eboshi, was taken alive by 
Higuchi-no-Jiro Kanemitsu. Both the Tendai Zasshu Mei-un Dai-Sojo, and Enkei-no-Shinno the 
Abbot of Miidera had gone to the Hojujiden, but when it began to go up in smoke they mounted 
their horses and hastened away, only to fall victims to the fury of Kiso's samurai, who shot them 
down from their horses and cut off their venerable heads. 

The Ho-6 himself, at this disaster, entered his Car to make an Imperial Progress to some safer 
Palace, but the northern samurai, not knowing who he was, continued to shoot their arrows at it. 
Then Bungo-no-Shosho Munenaga, who, clad in a yellowish-red hitatare with a high, eboshi on 

his head, was accompanying the Imperial Car, cried out to them: "Make no mistake! It is His 
Majesty] " whereon all the samurai sprang from their horses and did obeisance. On His Majesty's 
enquiring who they were, one of them stood forth and gave his name and title as Yashima-no- 
Shiro Yukishige of the province of Shinano, after which they escorted the Imperial Car to the 
Palace in Gojo, keeping strict guard over it. 

Gyobu-kyo Sammi Yorisuke no Kyo, the before mentioned Governor of Bungo, had also been in 
the Hojujiden, and when it took fire he escaped and fled toward the river, but on the way he was 
stripped of all his rich garments by some of the lesser samurai, so that he had to go on stark naked, 
and as it was the morning of the nineteenth day of the eleventh month the cold wind from the 
river cut him to the bone. His elder brother Echizen-no-Hokyo Sho-i who had gone out to see 
the battle, noticing his brother in this plight, and feeling sorry for him, straightway ran, to his 
assistance. As he was wearing two white ' kosode ' under his koromo or priestly garment, he took 


off one of them and gave it to his brother, after which he parted with his koromo also; so that he 
was left with one kosode only. His appearance in this guises without any sash, seen from behind 
was truly ridiculous and as the two hurried along the streets; accompanied by some lower priests 
in white robes, enquiring at his house and that where they could find a lodging, the passers-by 
clapped their hands in glee and laughed inordinately. The baby Emperor was put in a boat and 
launched on the waters of the lake in the grounds of the Hojujiden, and as the opposing samurai 
shot arrows at this also, Shichijo-no-jiju Nobukiyo arid Kii-no-kami Norimitsu, who were with 
His Majesty, called out to them to stop lest the Emperor be harmed. On learning who it was they 
dismounted and did obeisance. Soon after His Majesty was accompanied to the Kanin Palace in 
Nijo, but, sad to relate, the Imperial Procession was of a pitiably attenuated kind. 

Now Gen-no-Kurando Nakakane was holding the western, gate of the Hojujiden with fifty 
horsemen, when Yamamoto-no-Kwanja Yoshitaka of the Omi Genji spurred up to him and 
shouted : " Who is it you are guarding here? The Ho-6 and the Emperor have both proceeded 
elsewhere." On hearing this Nakakane rode off and precipitated himself into the battle and fought 
hard until his force was reduced to eight in all. Among these was a certain warrior priest of the 
party of Kusaka named Kaga-bo, who was riding a cream coloured horse with a very hard mouth. 
" My horse's mouth is so hard that I can hardly manage him "; he cried, whereon Nakakane 
replied: ,v Take mine and give him to me instead; and mounted hirn on his own horse, a, chestnut 
with a white tail, Then they charged at full speed into a party of two hundred hostile samurai 
who were waiting at Kawarasaka under the command of Nenoi-no-Koyata. and fought until but 
five of the eight were left alive. Kaga-bo, although he was mounted on his master's horse, met his 
fate here and fell fighting at last. 


Now one of the retainers of Nakakane named Jiro Kurando Nakayori, seeing the chestnut 
horse with the white tail galloping wildly along riderless, asked his servant whether that was not 
the horse of his master, and on his answering that it was, he further enquired from what direction 
it had come. " As our master rode into the enemy at Kawarasaka," replied the man, " it is from 
that fight that his horse has come." Then Jiro Kurando, bursting into tears, exclaimed; " Ah 1 how 
wretched that he has fallen thus; ever since we played together as children we have pledged 

ourselves to die together, and now, unhappy, we must die separate." Taking farewell of his wife 
and children he rode off alone and dashed into the fight at Kawarasaka. Rising high in his stirrups, 
he shouted loudly: " I am Jiro Kurando Nakayori of Shinano, twenty seven years old, the second 
son of Shinano-no-kami Nakashige, and a descendant in the ninth generation of Atuzane Shinno; 
cornel anyone who thinks himself somebody and let us see 1 " And he swung his sword about him, 
cutting and slashing in all directions until at last he fell, borne down by the weight of numbers. 

His master Gen-no-Kurando, quite unaware of all this, had escaped and ridden off toward the 
south with his brother Kawachi-no-kami Nakanobu and another retainer. And it chanced that, as 
the Sessho Motomichi, taking fright at the war in the Capital, was on his way to take refuge at 
Uji, the two overtook him at Kobatayama. Dismounting from their horses they saluted him, and 
on his enquiring who they might be, they declared themselves as Nakanobu and Nakamichi. The 
Sessho was greatly rejoiced to hear this, for he had feared that they might be some of the Kiso 
samurai, and requested them to accompany him, which they did, and escorted him as far as the 
Fuke mansion at Uji. Thence they parted and the two fled to the province of Kawachi. 

On the next day, the twentieth, Kiso Sama-no-kami Yoshinaka proceeded to the Rokujo 
kawara to count and identify the heads of those who had been killed the day before, 


and which were there exposed to view, and behold, their number was six hundred and thirty; and 
among them were the heads of the Tendai Zasshu Meiun Dai-Sojo and Enkei-ho Shinno the 
Abbot of Miidera; and of those who looked on these there were none who did not shed tears. 
Then Kiss Sama-no-kami, ordering his seven thousand men to turn their horse's heads toward the 
east, bade them shout their war cry three times, whereat the heaven echoed and the earth 
trembled. At this there was a great uproar in the city, but it was only a shout of joy. 

Now the Saisho Naganori, son of the late Shonagon Nyudo Shinsai, went to visit the Ho-6 at 
the Gojo Palace, but was refused admission by the soldiers on guard at the gate. Stepping aside 
into a small house near by that he knew, he cut off his hair and put on a black koromo and 
hakama, after which he demanded admission, again, pleading that in such a habit there could be 
on objection, upon which the samurai gave way and admitted him. Weeping bitterly he entered 
the Imperial presence, and when he told the Ho-6 of all those who had been done to death in the 
fighting, His Majesty burst into tears also, saying: " Ah that Mei-un should have been thus 
innocently put to death; it seems a s though he had sacrificed his life for mine." 

On the twenty third day Sanjo-no-Chunagon Tomokata-no-Kyo and forty nine other 
Courtiers beneath him were removed from their offices and put in prison. Under the rule of the 
Heike forty three had been dismissed at once, but this present treatment was worse than their 's 
for the number was greater. Having also taken the daughter of the Kwampaku Motofusa and 
made her his wife, he assembled his retainers and gave his opinion thus: " I, Yoshinaka, have 
confronted the Sovereign Lord of this Empire in battle and have conquered. If I would, I might 
become Emperor or I might become Ho-6 : but I don't want to become Ho-6, for I must become 
a shaven priest; and how can I become Emperor, for I should 


have to be a child. Very well then, I will become Kwampaku." At this his official scribe, Taiyu- 
bo Kakumei, stood up and said : " A Kwampaku must be of the princely house of Fujiwara, of 
the stock and lineage of the great Kamatari; Your Excellency is of the Genji line, and therefore 
cannot hold such office." So it ended by Kiso consoling himself with the title of Groom of the 
Stables to the Retired Emperor, and appropriating the province of Tanba as his fief. That a 
Retired Emperor was called Ho-6 if he became a monk, and that the Emperor looked like a child 
because he had not yet peformed Gempuku, were things that unfortunately Yoshinaka did not 

Now the former Uhyoye-no-suke Yoritomo of Kamakura had ordered his brothers Nori-yori 
and Yoshitsune with an army of sixty thousand men to march against Kiso and subdue him, and 
they had already started, but when they heard that war had broken out in the Capital, and that 
the Palaces of the Emperor and the Retired Emperor had been burnt, and the whole country was 
plunged in gloom, they thought it inadvisable to begin more fighting at present, and halted their 
men near Atsuta in the province of Owari. Then Kunai Hangwan Kintomo and Tonai Hangwan 
Tokinari, members of the bodyguard of the Retired Emperor, came down to Owari to report all 
that had happened in the Capital, and when Noriyori and Yoshitsune heard their tidings, they 
advised them thus: " It were better that Kintomo should go down to Kamakura to report the 
matter direct to Yoritomo, for with a messenger, who does not know all the details of the matter, 
trouble is likely to arise." 

As all his retainers had been killed in the recent fighting and he had none else left, Kintomo 
hastened down to Kamakura accompanied by his young heir Kunaidokoro Kinnari, a boy of 
fifteen. " This is all owing to the folly of Tsuzumi Hangwan; ' pronounced Yoritomo, " and it is 
through him that the Emperor has been thus grieved, and. so many venerable priests have been 
put to death. If such worthless 


fellows as this are employed as messengers, disturbances will never cease in the Empire." When 
this was reported to Tomoyasu, he hurried to Kamakura with the utmost speed, and argued his 
case most persistently with Kajiwara Heizo Kagetoki, begging him to intercede with Yoritomo; 
but Yoritomo refused to see him, however often he begged an audience, so that at last he 
returned in disgrace to Miyako, where, somewhat in danger of his life, he lived in obscurity 
somewhere near Inari. Kiso Yoshinaka, thus at open war with Yoritomo, immediately sent 
messengers to the Western Provinces inviting the Heike to return again to the Capital, that both 
together might make common cause against Kamakura. On hearing this both Munemori and all 
the Heike were much rejoiced, but Shin-Chunagon Tomomori gave his opinion to the contrary: " 
Even when things have come to such a pass," he said, "how are we to join with Kiso Yoshinaka? 
If we should return to the Capital with our Emperor and the Three Sacred Treasures, should we 
not have to lay down our arms and make humble surrender? " So Munemori rejected the 
advances of Yoshinaka, but Kiso, on his part, did not believe it final. 

One day the Kwampaku Motofusa called Yoshinaka and said to him: " Kiyomori Nyudo was a 
man of evil conduct, it is true, but in him there was at the same time some extraordinary virtue, 
through which he was enabled to govern the Empire peaceably for twenty years. Bad conduct 
alone cannot rule the Empire, so it would be well if you were to pardon those Courtiers whom 
you have put in prison." Yoshinaka, even though he was savage Eastern Barbarian, saw the 

wisdom of this and acted accordingly. 

Motofusa's son Moroie, who was at that time only Chunagon of the lower third rank, was, by 
the plan of Yoshinaka, made Daijin and Sessho, but, as at that time there was no office of Daijin 
vacant, he borrowed the rank fromTokudaiji-dono, who was Naidaijin and Sadaisho, in conse- 


quence of which people called the new Sessho, 'Kari-no-Daijin' or ' the Minister of Borrowed 
Rank.' On the tenth day of the twelfth month the Ho-6 left the Gojo Palace and proceeded to the 
residence of Daizen-no-taiyu Naritada in Rokujo. On the thirteenth day a recital of the Shingon 
Sutras was held in the Palace, and on that day also an appointment of officials was held, the 
nominations being made entirely at the will of Kiso. So the Heike held the Western Provinces 
and the Genji the Eastern, while Kiso lorded it in the Capital; just as Omo seized the supremacy 
and ruled the country for eighteen years between the former and latter dynasties of Kan in China. 

As all the barriers were closed no taxes could be paid, and as their yearly revenues were cut 
off, everyone in Miyako was as uncomfortable as a fish in shallow water. And so the year ended 
in anxiety, and the third year of Ju-ei began. 


p. in 

On the first day of the New Year of the third year of Ju ei the customary reception of the 
Retired Emperor and Audience of the Emperor were not held, for the mansion of Daizen-no-aiyu 
Naritada, which the Ho-6 was using as his temporary Palace, was not considered suitable. The 
Heike also welcomed the New Year by the shore of Yashima in Sanuki, but though the Emperor 
was present, the Festival of the Setchie was not held, nor the Imperial Worship of Heaven and 
Earth. No envoys brought the tribute of fish from Tsukushi, nor did the time honoured 
messengers arrive from Yoshino. All the Courtiers lamented the disorder of the times, declaring 
that in the Capital, however, things could not be so bad. Spring had now come, and though the 
sea breezes blew softly and the sunshine was warm and genial, the Heike Nobles still shivered 
like tropical birds amid the ice. Thus they spent the long drawn tedious hours in talk and 
reminiscence of their pleasant life in Miyako; of the times of the blossoming and fading of the 
various trees and flowers, of the cherry blooms and the moonlight nights, of their verses and 
music and games of foot ball and archery, the competitions of painting and writing stanzes on fans, 
and all their elegant diversions with insects and grasses; and as they lingered over the recollections 
of all these lost delights their hearts were filled with sadness. 


On the eleventh day of the first month Kiso-Sama no-kami Yoshinaka proceeded to the Palace 
of the Ho-6 and announced 

p. 112 

that he was about to start for the Western Provinces to subdue the Heiki, and on the thirteenth 
day he was just setting forth from the Capital when word was brought to him that Uhyohe-no- 
suke Yoritomo had despatched a large force of many myriads of horsemen under the command of 
Noriyori and Yoshitsune to chastize him for h s outrageous conduct, and that they had already 
reached the provinces of Mino and Ise. Much astonished at this news, Kiso at once ordered the 
bridges at Seta and Uji to be destroyed and his forces to be divided to meet the foe. Since he had 
not many men left by this time, he sent eight hundred horsemen under Imai-no-Shiro Kanehira to 
the bridge at Seta as his main army, while a smaller force of five hundred under Nishina, 
Takanashi, and Yamada-no-Jiro was ordered to march to that at Uji. His uncle Shida-no-Saburo 
Yoshinori also rode off to Imoarai with three hundred men. 

Now the main body of the Eastern forces was under the command of Kaba-no-Onzoshi 
Noriyori, while the lesser army was led by Kuro Onzoshi Yoshitsune, while ranking after these 
were thirty six great Nobles, the whole army numbering some sixty thousand horsemen. 
Yoritomo had at this time two famous horses named Ikezuki and Surusumi, and KajiwaraGenda 
Kagesue greatly coveted Ikezuki and asked that it might be given him for this campaign, but 
Yoritomo answered that he was keeping it in case he might wish to ride it himself, and presented 
him with Surusumi instead. A little while afterwards Sasaki Shiro Takatsuna of the province of 
Omi came to bid him farewell, acid Yoshitomo gave Ikezuki to him, saying: " Remember that 
'there are many who desire this horse, so look well to him." Sasaki bowed low in obeisance and 
replied: " On this horse 1 will be the first to cross the Ujikawa; , if you hear that I am dead, you 
will know that someone else has crossed before me, but if you learn that I still live, then rest 
certain that Takatsuna has crossed before all the rest." " These are strong words ", muttered all the 


both great and small, who were in attendance, as Sasaki retired. 

So, leaving Kamakura behind, this great host started for the West, some crossing over Ashigara 
and some over Hakone, according to the will of their leaders, and Kajiwara Genda Kagesue, 
drawing aside a little, ascended to a high place at Ukishima ga hara in the province of Suruga, and 
viewed all their horses as they passed by, each with its varying saddle and trappings, both in 
profile and head-on. As he thus scrutinized' the seemingly endless procession of steeds Kajiwara 
was greatly pleased that he saw none that could compare with his own mount Surusumi, when 
his eye fell on a splendid horse that he recognised at once as Ikezuki. His saddle was inlaid with 
gold and his crupper gaily decorated with many tassels, and he foamed at the mouth as he 

champed the bright polished bit. He had many grooms to lead him, but even so his mettle could 
not be entirely curbed, for he reared and caracolled as he advanced. Kajiwara came forward and 
asked the attendants whose horse he was. " It is the horse of Sasaki dono "; they replied" Which 
Sasaki does it belong to ", he continued; "Saburo or Shiro ? " " It is the steed of Shiro Dono "; 
answered the attendants as they passed on. At this Kagesue felt bitter resentment, for it was most 
mortifying to be thus passed over in favour of his fellow retainer Sasaki. First he thought he 
would rush on to the Capital and engage in mortal combat with Kiso's Four Deva Kings, Imai, 
Higuchi, Tate and Nenoi, or else die fighting with one of the famous champions of the Heike in 
the Western Provinces, but this seemed, on second thoughts, a vain revenge, and so, he stood 
muttering and raging and waiting for Sasaki, pondering the while what a loss it would be to 
Yoritomo should two of his stoutest retainers thus fall on each other and do each other to death. 
Meanwhile Sasaki himself came along quite unsuspecting, and Kajiwara, uncertain whether to 
ride at him headlong or to come up alongside and grapple, thus addressed him : " How is it, 


Sasaki Dono, that our lord has come to present you with Ikezuki ? " Whereupon Sasaki, 
perceiving that Kagesue too had coveted the horse, replied thus: " When I set out on this 
campaign I felt quite sure that the enemy would destroy the bridges at Seta and Uji, and that I 
should want a good horse to swim the river; but as I had not such an one, I greatly desired 
Ikezuki. Hearing, however, that you had asked for him and been refused, I knew that a fellow 
like myself would have no chance, and so, in spite of the risk of our lord's anger afterwards, I won 
over the grooms and stole his precious steed. What do you think of that, Kajiwara Dono ? " 
Disarmed by this retort, Kajiwara burst into a laugh and replied : " Ah, I See, I too ought to have 
stolen him." Now this horse that Takatsuna had received was of large and powerful build, four 
shaku eight sun in height, and its colour was a dark chestnut, and as it was fierce and would bite 
anyone, man or horse, who came near it, it had been named Ikezuki (Quick-biter). Kajiwara's 
horse was also large and strong, no whit inferior to the other, and on account of its very black 
colour had been named Surusumi (Ink-black) . 

From the province of Owari the army was divided into, its two parts, and the larger body, 
consisting of some thirty five thousand horsemen under Noriyori, pitched their camp at Noji 
Shinohara in Omi. With Noriyori were also Takeda noTaro, Kagami-no-Jiro, Ichijo-no-Jiro, 
Itagaki-no- Saburo Inamo-no-Saburo , Hangai-no-Jiro, Kumagai-no Jird, and Inomata-no- 
Koheiroku. The smaller force of twenty five thousand men under Yoshitsune, with whom were 
also Yasuda-no-Saburo, Ouchi-no-Taro, Hatakeyama-no-Shoji Jiro, Kajiwara Genda, Sasaki Shiro, 
Kasuya-no-Toda, Shibuya-no-Uma-no-suke and Hirayama-no-Mushadokoro, passed through the 
province of Iga and pressed upon the bridge at Uji. Now after destroying the bridges at Seta and 
Uji, the enemy had planted sharp stakes in the riverbed and made fast a great hawser in the 
stream together with a floating boom of tree trunks to obstruct the crossing. It was 


now the twentieth day of the first month and the snow had melted on the slopes of Mount Hira 
and Shiga, while the ice of the valleys below mingled with it and rushed down in torrents of 
water. The Ujikawa rose high in spate, and its white capped waves surged tumultuously as the 
boiling flood rushed down between its banks with a roar like a waterfall. As the chilly dawn 
broke the river mist hung heavy over the water, so that tone could clearly discern the colour 

either of the horses or the armour of their riders. Then the commander Yoshitsune rode up to the 
bank of the river, and wishing to try the courage of his men, with a glance at the foaming torrent, 
called out : " Shall we turn off to Yodo or Imoarai, or shall we go round by Kawachiji ? Or what 
do you think of waiting till the flood abates ? " Then Hatakeyama Shoji Shigetada of the province 
of Musashi, who was then but twenty-one years old, stood forth and said : " This river is one that 
we have often spoken of at Kamakura, and is no unknown stream to baffle us ; and moreover, as 
it flows out directly from the lake of Omi, its waters will not quickly subside, however long you 
may wait, and as for building a bridge, who is there who can do such a thing ? In the battle that 
was fought here in the era of Jisho, Ashikaga Matataro Tadatsuna crossed over, and he was but a 
youth of seventeen years, so here is no matter for god or devil. I, Shigetada will be the first in the 
flood. And as lie and his band of five hundred followers were pushing together into the waves, 
two warriors were seen to gallop forth from the point of Tachibana-no-kojima at the north-east 
of the Byodo-in : they were Kajiwara Genda Kagesue and Sasaki Shiro Takatsuna. Each had made 
up his mind to be the first across, though no sign of their determination was visible to the 
onlookers: Kajiwara was about three yards in front of Sasaki. " Kajiwara Dono 1 Your saddle girth 
seems to be loose; this is the greatest river in the Western Provinces, so you had better tighten it 
up." Thus warned, Kajiwara dropped the reins on to his horse's mane, kicked his feet from the 

p. 116 

and, leaning forward in the saddle, loosened the girth arid tightened it afresh. While he was thus 
engaged, however, Sasaki rode on past him and leapt his horse into the river. Kajiwara, thinking 
he had been tricked, immediately sprang in after him. " Ho 1 Sasaki Dono ", shouted Kajiwara, 
"take care if you want to be famous; there is a great hawser at the bottom of the river. Look out] 
" At this Sasaki drew his sword and cut through the rope as it caught his horse's feet, and in spite 
of the strength of the current, as he was mounted on the finest horse in the land, he rode straight 
through the river and leapt up on to the farther bank. Kajiwara's horse, Surusumi, however, was 
swept aside by the rush of the water, and his rider reached land some distance farther down- 
stream. Then Sasaki, rising high in his stirrups, shouted with a loud voice: " Sasaki Shiro 
Takatsuna, fourth son of Sasaki Saburo Yoshihide of Omi, descended in the ninth generation from 
Uda Tenno, is the first over the Ujikawa 1 " Hatakeyama, who was leading his five hundred men 
across, had not gone far when his horse was struck deep in the head by an arrow shot by Yamada- 
no-Jiro from the other bank, and reared violently, upon which, using his bow as a staff, he slid off 
into the stream, only to find the rushing waters sweep right over his head. Nothing daunted by 
this he vigorously breasted the current, and diving through the waves swam across; but just as he 
was about to scramble up the bank he felt someone drag at hint from behind. " Who is that? " he 
called. " Shigechika!" was the answer. " Ogushi ? " "The same." Now Hatakeyama had been 
sponsor at the Gempuku of Ogushi Jiro Shigechika. " The current is so strong that my horse has 
been washed away and I have no strength to go any farther." " Ah, I always have to help you 
fellows"; replied Hatakeyama, as he gripped Ogushi and flung him by main force it on to the bank. 
The young man, immediately recovering himself, sprang erect, and drawing his sword, laid it to 
his forehead, shouting loudly : " Ogushi-no-Jiro Shigechika of 


Musashi is the first to cross the Ujikawa on foot! " Whereat all who heard it, both friends and 
foes, burst out into a roar of laughter. Hatakeyama, mounting another horse, shouted his war cry 

and spurred fiercely against the ranks of the foe, when to meet him there came a single horseman 
clad in an embroidered hitatare and a suit of armour laced with scarlet, ling a dappled horse with 
a gold mounted saddle. In answer to Hatakeyama's challenge he gave his name title as Nagase-no- 
Hangwan-dai Shigetsuna, a retainer of Kiso Yoshinaka." 

" Thinking to make him the first sacrifice to the god battles that day, Hatakeyama rode up 
alongside him and grappled, pulling him from his horse and squeezing him against pommel of his 
saddle, where he twisted his head and cut it off without more ado, passing it over to Honda-no- 
Jird, who fastened it to the left side of his saddle. After this Kiso's men who were guarding the 
bridge kept up a defensive fight for a while, but when all the Eastern army had crossed over and 
advanced to the attack, they gave way and fled toward Kobatayama and Fushimi. At Seta also, by 
the strategy of Inamo-no-Saburo Shigenari, the other army passed over the river at the ford of 
Gugo at Tagami. 



After he had gained this victory, Yoshitsune at once sent messengers to Kamakura with an 

account of the battle, and as soon as they arrived in his presence Yoritomo put the question 

" How is it with Sasaki? " " He was the first across the Uji river; " was the answer: then unrolling 

his despatch the messenger read forth : " First across the Uji river, Sasaki Shiro Takatsuna; second, 

Kajiwara Genda Kagesue." 

When he saw that both these positions at Uji and Seta were lost, Kiso Yoshinaka rode off to the 

Ho-o's Palace at Rokujo to say farewell for the last time; but having arrived at 


the gate, he found that he had nothing particular to say, so he turned back again, and as a lady, 
with whom he had lately fallen in love, happened to live at Takakura in Rokujo, he went in to 
see her, and as he was very loath to part from her, he did not emerge at all quickly. Seeing this, a 
new retainer of his, named Echigo no Chuta Iemitsu, called out to his master: " Why does your 
Excellency thus deign to waste time in this dalliance when the august enemy is even now pressing 
on the river hard by? That way lies a dog's death; so hasten, I pray you." As his master still paid on 
heed to his warnings, however, Chuta at length made up his mind to put an end to his life, and 
cut open his belly there and died, with these words on his lips: " Since it must be, I, Iemitsu, will 
go on before, and on the Mountain of Shide will I await my master." 

Then Kiso, at last noticing that his faithful retainer had laid down his life to enforce his warning, 
tore himself away from his lady and left the house. At this time the whole force that he could 
muster consisted of not more than a hundred men under Naba no Taro Hirozumi, and as they 
rode out to the river by Rokujo to reconnotire, they saw about thirty horsemen of the enemy 
coming to meet them, with two warriors spurring forth in front. These two were Shioya-no-Goro 
Korehiro and Teshikawara-no-Gosaburo Arinao. Seeing them Shioya at once shouted: "Let us 
wait until the main body come up] " " By no means ", said Teshikawara, " when the front is 
broken the rest will soon give way; forward], " and so both parties rode at each other and the 
fight began, for the soldiers of Yoritomo aimed at enveloping Kiso in the midst of their ample 
forces, if he would stay and fight to the last. Yoshitsune himself, leaving the conduct of the battle 
to his subordinates, rode off with five or six retainers to the Palace of the Ho-o in Rokujo, to 
guard it against any further perils. Here Daizen-no-Taiyu Naritada had mounted up on to the 
eastern wall and was surveying the turmoil outside, his whole body shaking in the extremity of 
his terror, when he saw the 


small band approaching with their helmets hanging loose from the fight, their bow hand sleeves 
flying loose in the wind, and the white colours of the Genji displayed. " Alas] how terrible] " he 
shrieked, " it is Kiso who has come again] " Whereat all the Courtiers and Nobles and Ladies in 
waiting within, thinking that now at last their hour had come, ran about wringing their hands and 
making vows to every god and Buddha they could think of, when the voice of Naritada was heard 

again : " It may be the warriors of the East who are just entering the town, for the insignia they 
wear are different." Then the Eastern Commander Kuro Onzoshi Yoshitsune, rode up to the gate 
and knocked, shouting loudly: Kuro Yoshitsune, younger brother of the former Uhyoye-no-suke 
Yoritomo, who has broken through the enemy at Uji, has arrived to protect the Palacel " When 
he heard this, Naritada was so overcome with excitement that, as he hastily scrambled down 
from the wall he slipt and hurt his back, but so great was his joy that he did not trouble about the 
pain, but went on limping into the Palace and reported the facts to the Ho-o, who was also 
overjoyed to hear it, and immediately ordered the gates to be opened. 

Yoshitsune was clad that day in a hitatare of red brocade, and armour of shot purple, while his 
helmet was surmounted by upstanding horns. By his side hung a gold mounted sword, and twenty 
four black and white arrows were stuck in his. quiver: the upper half of his bow was wound 
leftwise with a strip of paper about an inch wide, which was at this time the sign of a General 
Commanding. Then the Ho o went out to the middle gate, and viewed them through a lattice 
window, exclaiming: " Ah, what a brave show they makel Let us hear their names and titles." 

Then the six captains declared themselves; Tai Shogun Kuro Yoshitsune, Yasuda Saburo 
Yoshisada, Hatakeyama Shoji Jiro Shigetada, Kajiwara Genda Kagesue, Sasaki Shiro Takatsuna, 
Shibuya Umanosuke; and through they may have 

p. 120 

differed in their armour and trappings, in bearing and courage none was inferior to the others. 
Then, after a low obeisance Yoshitsune spoke as follows: "In order to punish the lawless conduct 
of Kiso, the former Uhyoye no suke Yoritomo of Kamakura has sent out an army of sixty 
thousand men under the command of Noriyori and myself, but as Noriyori is advancing by way 
of Seta, as yet none of his men have entered the Capital. I, having overcome the forces of the 
enemy at Uji, have straitway hastened to protect this Palace, while my men are even now 
engaged with Kiso to cut him off as he is trying to flee up the river, and I doubt not have already 
seized him." At these straightforward and informal words the Ho-o was much gratified and 
relieved " See that you guard this Palace well ", he directed, " lest Kiso return again and commit 
more violence." Yoshitsune bent low in assent, and ere long his men had come up to the number 
of ten thousand horsemen, who were drawn up to keep watch on all four sides of the Palace. 

Meanwhile Kiso with twenty of his stoutest followers was waiting for an opportunity to seize the 
Ho-o and flee with him to the West to join the Heike, but when he saw that his designs had been 
anticipated by the strict guard that Yoshitsune had placed round the Palace, he started off up the 
river Kamo to escape, and between Rokujo and Sanjo he was many times almost surrounded and 
slain. Then the tears ran down his cheeks as he exclaimed: " Ah, if I had only known this, I would 
never have sent Imai to Seta, for from our earliest days when we played together as children we 
swore that when we came to die it should be together; and now, alasl it seems we are to fall 
separated from one another." So riding up the river to see if he could hear any tidings of Imai, the 
enemy rolled down on them like the evening mists, and five or six times did Kiso and his little 
band fling them back between Rokujo and Sanjo until at last he cut through them and reached 
Matsusaka at Awataguchi. Last year he rode forth from Shinano with 

p. 121 

fifty thousand horsemen, now he flees along the river bed with but six retainers, already half lost 
in the melancholy twilight where lies the nether world. 


Now Kiso had brought with him from Shinano two beautiful girls named Tomoe and 
Yamabuki, but Yamabuki had fallen sick and stayed behind in the Capital. Tomoe had long black 
hair and a fair complexion, and her face was very lovely; moreover she was a fearless rider whom 
neither the fiercest horse nor the roughest ground could dismay, and so dexterously did she 
handle sword and bow that she was a match for a thousand warriors, and fit to meet either god or 
devil. Many times had she taken the field, armed at all points, and won matchless renown in 
encounters with the bravest captains, and so in this last fight, when all the others had been slain 
or had fled, among the last seven there rode Tomoe. At first it was reported that Kiso had 
escaped to the North either through Nagasaka by the road to Tamba, or by the Ryuge pass, but 
actually he had turned back again and ridden off toward Seta, to see if he could hear aught of the 
fate of Imai Kanehira. Imai had long valiantly held his position at Seta ill the continued assaults of 
the enemy reduced his eight hundred men to but fifty, when he rolled up his banner and rode 
back to Miyako to ascertain the fate of his lord; and thus it happened that the two fell in with 
each other by the shore at Otsu. Recognizing each other when they were yet more than a 
hundred yards away, they spurred their horses and came together joyfully. 

Seizing Imai by the hand, Kiso burst forth: " I was so anxious about you that I did not stop to 
fight to the death in the Rokujo Kawara, but turned my back on a host of foes and hastened off 
here to find you." " How can I express my 

p. 122 

gratitude for my lord's consideration? " replied Imai; " I too would have died in the defence of 
Seta, but I feared for my lord's uncertain fate, and thus it was that I fled hither." " Then our 
ancient pledge will not be broken and we shall die together," said Kiso, " and now unfurl your 
banner, for a sign to our men who have scattered among these hills." So Imai unfurled the banner, 
and many of their men who had fled from the Capital and from Seta saw it and rallied again, so 
that they soon had a following of three hundred horse. " With this band our last fight will be a 
great one ", shouted Kiso joyfully, " who leads yon great array ? " " Kai-no-Ichijo Jiro, my lord." " 
And how many has he, do you think? " " About six thousand, it seems." " Well matched! " replied 
Yoshinaka, " if we must die, what death could be better than to fall outnumbered by valiant 
enemies? Forward then! " 

That day Kiso was arrayed in a hitatare of red brocade and a suit of armour laced with Chinese 
silk ; by his side hung a magnificent sword mounted in silver and gold, and his helmet was 
surmounted by long golden horns. Of his twenty four eagle feathered arrows, most had been shot 
away in the previous fighting, and only a few were left, drawn out high from the quiver, and he 
grasped his rattan bound bow by the middle as he sat his famous grey charger, fierce as a devil, on 
a saddle mounted in gold. Rising high in his stirrups he cried with a loud voice: " Kiso-no-Kwanja 
you have often heard of; now you see him before your eyes! Sama-no-kami and Iyo-no-kami, 
Asahi Shogun, Minamoto Yoshinaka am I ! Come ! Kai-no- Ichijo Jiro ! Take my head and show 
it to Hydye-no-suke Yoritomo ! " " Hear, men! " shouted Ichijo-no Jiro in response; " On to the 

attack! This is their great Captain! See that he does not escape you now! " And the whole force 
charged against Kiso to take him. Then Kiso and his three hundred fell upon their six thousand 
opponents in the death fury, cutting and slashing and swinging their blades in every direction 
until at last they broke through on the farther side, 


but with their little band depleted to only fifty horsemen, when Doi-no-Jiro Sanehira came up to 
support their foes with another force of two thousand. Flinging themselves on these they burst 
through them also, after which they successively penetrated several other smaller bands of a 
hundred or two who were following in reserve. But now they were reduced to but five survivors, 
and among these Tomoe still held her place. Calling her to him Kiso said: " As you are a woman, 
it were better that you now make your escape. I have made up my mind to die, either by the 
hand of the enemy or by mine own, and how would Yoshinaka be shamed if in his last fight he 
died with a woman? " Even at these strong words, however, Tomoe would not forsake him, but 
still feeling full of fight, she replied : " Ah, for some bold warrior to match with, that Kiso might 
see how fine a death I can die." And she drew aside her horse and waited. Presently Onda-no- 
Hachiro Moroshige of Musashi, a strong and valiant samurai, came riding up with thirty followers, 
and Tomoe, immediately dashing into them, flung herself upon Onda and grappling with him 
dragged him from his horse, pressed him calmly against the pommel of her saddle and cut off his 
head. Then stripping off her armour she fled away to the Eastern Provinces. Tezuka-no-Taro was 
killed and Tezuka-no-Betto took to flight, leaving Kiso alone with Imai-no-Shiro. " Ah ", 
exclaimed Yoshinaka, " my armour that I am never wont to feel at all seems heavy on me today." 
" But you are not yet tired, my lord, and your horse is still fresh, so why should your armour feel 
heavy? If it is because you are discouraged at having none of your retainers left, remember that I, 
Kanehira, am equal to a thousand horse-men, and I have yet seven or eight arrows left in my 
quiver . :.o let me hold back the foe while my lord escapes to that pine wood of Awazu that we 
see yonder, that there under the trees he may put an end to his life in peace." " Was it for this 
that I turned my back on my enemies in Rokujo-kawara and did not die then ? " returned 
Yoshinaka; " by no means will 


we part now, but meet our fate together." And he reined his horse up beside that of Imai towards 
the foe, when Kanehira, alighting from his horse, seized his master's bridle and burst into tears: " 
However great renown a warrior may have gained ", he pleaded, " an unworthy death is a lasting 
shame. My lord is weary and his charger also, and if, as may be, he meet his death at the hands of 
some low retainer, how disgraceful that it should be said that Kiso Dono, known through all 
Nippon as the 'Demon Warrior ' had been slain by some nameless fellow, so listen to reason, I 
pray you, and get away to the .pines over there." So Kiso, thus persuaded, rode off toward the 
pine wood of Awazu. Then Ima-no-Shiro, turning back, charged into a party of fifty horsemen, 
shouting: " I am Imai Shiro Kanehira, foster-brother of Kiso Dono, aged thirty -three. Even 
Yoritomo at Kamakura knows my name so take my head and show it to him, anyone who can! " 
And he quickly fitted the eight shafts he had left to his bow and sent them whirring into the 
enemy, bringing down eight of them from their horses, either dead or wounded. Then, drawing 
his sword, he set on at the rest, but none would face him in combat hand-to-hand: " Shoot him 
down! Shoot him down! " they cried as they let fly a hail of arrows at him, but so good was his 
armour that none could pierce it, and once more he escaped unwounded. 

Meanwhile Yoshinaka rode off alone toward Awazu, and it was the twenty third day of the 
first month. It was now nearly dark and all the land was coated with thin ice, so that none could 
distinguish the deep ricefields, and he had not gone far before his horse plunged heavily into the 
muddy ooze beneath. Right up to the neck it floundered, and though Kiso plied whip and spur 
with might and main, it was all to no purpose, for he could not stir it. Even in this plight he still 
thought of his retainer, and was turning to see how it fared with Imai, when Miura no Ishida Jiro 
Tamehisa of Sagami rode up and shot an arrow that struck him in the face under his 


helmet. Then as the stricken warrior fell forward in his saddle that his crest bowed over his 
horse's head, two of Ishida's retainers fell upon him and struck off his head. Holding it high on the 
point of a sword Ishida shouted loudly: " Kiso Yoshinaka, known through the length and breadth 
of Nippon as the 'Demon Warrior', has been killed by Miura-no-Ishida Jiro Tamehisa." Imai was 
still fighting when these words fell on his ears, but when he saw that his master was indeed slain 
cried out: " Alas, for whom now have I to fight? See, you fellows of the East Country, I will show 
you how the mightiest champion in Nippon can end his lifel " And he thrust the point of his 
sword in his mouth and flung himself headlong from his horse, so that he was pierced through 
and died. 



Imai's elder brother, Higuchi Jiro Kanemitsu, had gone to the stronghold of Nagano in 
Kawachi with five hundred horsemen to take Juro Kurando Yukiie and put him to death, but not 
finding him there, and hearing that he was at Nagusa in the province of Kii, he was following him 
to that province, when he learned of the fighting in the Capital and immediately retraced This 
steps thither. When he came to the bridge of Owatari at Yodo there met him one of the retainers 
of his brother Imai, who greeted him thus: " Whither then is it that your Excellency is going? 
There is war in the Capital and our lord has been slain. Imai also has fallen by his own hand." 
When Higuchi thus heard that all was lost, he burst into tears, and then turned and addressed his 
men: " Hearken to me, sirs! All of you who have a mind to repay the gratitude you owe our lord, 
make your escape to whatever place you may, and as begging pilgrims pray that he may 


obtain enlightenment in the world to come, As for me, I go to die in Miyako, and once more to 
attend our lord on the Dark Road, for it is my wish to be with Imai in that world." And with that 
he rode on again, and as his followers withdrew hither and thither by the way, his force of five 
hundred men melted away so that when he passed the south Toba gate, scarcely twenty were left. 
Now when the enemy heard that Higuchi Jiro Kanemitsu was just about to enter the city, all 
their great captains of noble lineage rode out with their men to Shichijo, Shujaku, Tsukurimichi 
and Yotsuzuka to meet him. Then one of Higuchi's men, Chigo-no-Taro Mitsuhiro, spurring his 
charger against a great mass of foemen who were waiting at Yotsuzuka, rose in his stirrups and 
shouted; " Are there any of the retainers of Ichijo Jiro Dono of Kai present among you ? " At this 
a great laugh rose from the other side. " Will you fight with none but the followers of Ichijo Jiro 
then ? " they returned; " take all corners! don't pick your menl " " It was not that I might choose 
my opponents that I spoke," replied Mitsuhiro, declaring his titles in answer to their laughter; " I 
am Chino-no-Taro Mitsuhiro, son of Chino-no-taiyu Mitsuie of Kaminomiya in Suwo of the 
province of Shinano, and I have left my two children behind me at home; and that they might be 
taught what a death their father died, whether good or ill, I wished to meet my fate before the 
eyes of my younger brother Shichiro who serves in the train of my lord Ichijo-Jiro of Kai. There is 
none that I fear! " And riding at one after another he cut down three men, and grappling with a 
fourth, both fell together and stabbed each other to death. 

Now Higuchi had many friends among the party of Kodama, and some of them came to him 
and persuaded him thus: " It is but natural that the friendships that we warriors bear to each 
other should at times result in our sparing one another's lives, and so now for the sake of our 
former intimacy we would save you from death. Though among Kiso's 


captains there are none to equal his Four Deval Kings Imai, Higuchi, Tate and Nenoi, yet take it 
not to heart that Kiso has been slain and Imai has taken his life, for if you will now give yourself 
up, as a reward for our recent prowess we can plead for your life." So, tempted by this promise, 
bold veteran as Higuchi was, in accordance with the decree of destiny and unmindful of the 
dictates of chivalry, he shamelessly surrendered to the Kodama clan. When this came to the ears 

of the Commanders Noriyori and Yoshitsune they forthwith sent a petition to the Ho-o on his 
behalf, but all the Courtiers and Nobles and Ladies in waiting even to the maidens of tender years 
opposed it with one accord, crying out that when Kiso had stormed the Houjiden and burnt it, thereby causing 
the death of many venerable priests of high rank, Imai and Higuchi were the names that they had heard 
shouted everywhere, and that it was a great mistake to spare the life of such a fellow. And as in face of this 
nothing more could be done. Higuchi was at last condemned to die. 

On the twenty second day the new Sessho was removed from office and the former one restored to his 
place : that he should have held the office for the transient period of but sixty days must have seemed like a 
dream from which he had not yet awakened; though in former days there was the case of the Kwampaku 
Michikane who was in office for but seven days before he died. Still, as during even this short period of sixty 
days both the Setchie Festival and also an Appointment of Officials had been held, he had something to think 
about in after years. 

On the twenty fourth day the heads of Kiso-Sama no-kami and four others were brought into the Capital and 
carried through the streets. Though Higuchi had yielded himself as a prisoner, yet as he begged to be allowed to 
accompany them, permission was given, and he escorted the heads of his companions clad in a dark blue 
hitatare and high eboshi. He was put to death on the next day, the twenty fifth; for though 


Noriyori and Yoshitsune many times interceded for his life, all felt that to spare one of Kiso's 
Four Deva Kings was as dangerous as keeping a tiger at large. We have heard how in China, when 
the power of Shin declined and all the Princes rose in rebellion like a swarm of bees, Haiko 
though he entered the Palace of Kanyo, did not waste his time in dalliance with the fair Court 
Ladies, or stop to seize gold or treasure, but calmly secured the pass of Kwankoku, after which he 
was able to destroy his enemies at leisure and thus become supreme in the Empire. So this Kiso 
Sama-no-kami, if he had obeyed the orders of Yoritomo after he entered the Capital, might have 
become no less powerful than Heike. 

Now the Heike had departed from the coast of Yashima in Sanuki the winter of the year 
before, and crossed over to the bay of Naniwa in Settsu and took up a position between Ichi-no- 
tani on the west, where they built a strong fortification, and the wood of Ikuta on the east, where 
the entrance to the fort was made. Between these points, at Fukuhara, Hyogo, Itayado and Suma 
were encamped all the forces of the eight provinces of the Sanyodo and the six provinces of the 
Nankaido, a total of a hundred thousand men in all. The position at Ichi-no-tani had a narrow 
entrance with cliffs on the north and the sea on the south, while within it was very spacious. The 
cliffs rose high and steep, perpendicular as a standing screen, and from them to the shallows of 
the beach a strong breastwork was erected of wood and stone, well protected by palisades, while 
beyond it, in the deep water rode their great galleys like a floating shield. In the towers of the 
breastwork were stationed the stout soldiery of Shikoku and Kyushu in full armour with bows 
and arrows in their hands, dense as the evening mists, while in front of the towers, ten or twelve 
deep, stood their horses, fully accoutred with saddle and trappings. Ceaseless was the roll of their 
war drums; the might of their bows was like the crescent moon, and the gleam of their blades 
was as the shimmer of the hoar frost in autumn, while their myriad 


red banners that flew aloft in the spring breezes rose to heaven like the flames of. a conflagration. 



But after the Heike crossed over to Ichi-no-tani the men of Shikoku became disaffected, and 
especially the subordinate officials in charge of Awa and Sanuki broke into open rebellion and 
wished to go over to the Genji, but as they had been on the side of the Heike right up to this 
time, they doubted whether the Genji would believe in their sudden change of face, and decided 
to prove their hostility to their former allies by a deliberate act of war. Learning therefore that 
Kadowaki-no-Hei Chunagon Norimori and his two sons Echizen-no-Sammi Michimori and 
Noto-no- kami Noritsune were at Shimotsue in the province of Bizen, they set sail thither with 
ten ships of war to attack them. Noritsune's wrath was great. "These are the fellows," he 
exclaimed, "who have been living on our pasture right up till yesterday, and now they have 
turned traitor 1 Kill them all, let none escape 1 " And he put to sea with his men in a number of 
small boats, and attacked them fiercely. Now the Shikoku men had only intended to shoot a few 
arrows at them, as a proof of their rebellion, and then retire, so when they found themselves 
attacked thus vigorously they at once gave way and beat a hasty retreat to the port of Fukura in 
Awaji. In this island of Awaji were two Genji chiefs; they were the youngest sons of the late 
Rokujo no Hangwan Tameyoshi, Kamo-no Kwanja Yoshitsugu and Awaji-no-Kwanja Yoshihisa, 
and under their leadership the rebels threw up a stronghold and awaited the foe. This availed 
nothing under the impetuous onslaught of Noritsune, and Kamo no Kwanja was killed and 
Awaji-no-Kwanja wounded and captured, while the remaining two hundred and thirty men who 
still resisted were taken and beheaded, their heads being 


labelled with the names of their captors and sent to Fukuhara, whither Kadowaki Norimori also 
proceeded. His two sons then crossed over to Shikoku to deal with one Kawano-no-Shiro of Iyo, 
who had not obeyed the Heike summons, the elder brother Michimori soon after arriving before 
the stronghold of Hanazono in Awa. 

Now when Kawano-no-Shiro Michinobu of Iyo heard that Noto-no-kami Noritsune had 
arrived at Yashima in Sanuki, he went over to the province of Aki to join his maternal uncle 
Nuta-no-Jiro who lived there, and as soon as Noritsune heard it he started from Yashima without 
delay, and reaching Minoshima .in Bingo the same day, on the next he was already before the 
fortress of Nuta. He immediately delivered a violent assault on the two rebels, with the result 
that Nuta laid down his arms and surrendered. Kawano, however, resisted stubbornly, and when 
his five hundred men had been reduced to fifty, he sallied forth from the walls to make his escape. 
Being surrounded by a band of two hundred men under Heihachi hyoye Tamehisa, one of 
Noritsune's samurai, he fought until but six of his men were left, and as they were retreating 
along a narrow path to gain the shore and evade their foes by boat, Sanuki-no-Shichiro Yoshinori, 
son of Heihachi-hyoye, a very fine archer, shot down another five so that only himself and one 
retainer remained. Then Yoshinori, taking the retainer for his lord, sprang upon him and grappled, 
with him and would have slain him, when his master turned, swept off his head as he bent over 
his retainer, and flung it into a ricefield. Then he shouted loudly: " I am Kwano-no- Shiro Ochi- 
no-Michinobu of Iyo, aged twenty one, and this is the way I fight. Stop me now, any of you who 
thinks himself someone! " And thus eluding them, he escaped with his retainer to Iyo. Noto-no- 
kami, though he had been unable to capture Kawano, then returned to Ichi-no-tani with his 

prisoner Nuta-no-Jiro. 

Ama no Rokuro Tadahisa of the province of Awa also 


rebelled and went over to the Genji, setting sail for the Capital with two large warships fully 
loaded with men and provisions. As soon as this came to the ears of Noto-no-kami in Fukuhara 
he set off in pursuit with many small and swift ships, and overtook Tadahisa off Nishinomiya. 
Ordering his men to let none escape, he attacked them fiercely, but Tadahisa, fearing destruction, 
fled to Fukehi in Izumi. Then Sonobe-no-Hyoye Tadayasu, who was not well disposed to the 
Heike, when he heard that Ama-no-Rokuro had been thus roughly handled by Noritsune and was 
in Fukehi, went thither and joined him with a hundred horsemen, and the two allies built a 
fortress there to resist attacks. Noritsune soon assaulted it, however, so seeing no chance of 
stemming his vehement onset, they made their escape to Miyako, leaving a hundred and thirty of 
their followers behind, whose heads were duly taken and sent to Fukuhara 

Soon after, Usuki-no-Jiro Koretaka and Ogata-no-Saburo Koreyoshi of the province of Bungo 
joined themselves with Kawano-no-Shiro Michinobu, and assembling two thousand fighting men, 
crossed over to Bizen and established themselves in the fortress of Imaki in that Province. News 
of this soon reached Noritsune at Fukuhara and filled him with wrath and apprehension, so that 
he was soon on the march to Bizen with three thousand horsemen. "The rascals are in some force 
there, so we must send a larger army," quoth he at Fukuhara, and when this speech was reported 
to the rebels, they thought that many tens of thousands of horsemen were being sent against 
them, and the soldiers in the fortress declared that, as they had already had their fill of fighting 
and won much fame and booty, it would be a shame if they were surrounded and annihilated by 
overwhelming numbers, so that it would be better to retire to some safer place and rest 
themselves awhile. Usuki-no-Jiro and Ogata no Saburo accordingly hastened back to Bungo, 
while Kawano recrossed the sea to Iyo, and Noto-no-kami, seeing that there was no longer any 
enemy to fight, 


made his way back to Fukuhara, to be greatly praised by Munemori and all the Heike Courtiers 
for his many successful expeditions. 


On the twenty ninth day of the first month Noriyori and Yoshitsune proceeded to the Palace of 
the Ho-6 to announce their intention of marching into the Western Provinces against the Heike; 
and after receiving the Imperial exhortation to restore to the Capital the Three Sacred Treasures, 
the Jewel, the Sword, and the Mirror, which have been handed down in the Imperial Family 
since the Age of the Gods, they made low obeisance and withdrew. 

On the fourth day of the second month, being the anniversary of the death of the Lay-priest 
Chancellor Kiyomori, the customary Buddhist services were performed at Fukuhara. Thus the 
days and months had passed in incessant fighting, and ere they were aware of it the preceding 
year had glided 'away and the ill-omened season of spring had begun. Under more happy 
circumstances there would have been a great erecting of Sotoba and lavish offerings to the priests 
and Budhas, but as it was the Courtiers and Ladies could only assemble for mourning and 
lamentation. Soon afterwards an Appointment of Officials was held at Fukuhara and both priests 
and laymen received promotion. Among them Kadowaki-no-Hei Chunagon Norimori-no Kyo 
was to be raised to Dainagon of the Upper Second Rank, but on receiving the intimation of his 
advancement from the Daijin Munemori he made this stanza: 

" Wondering still how it is I am spared from one day to another, 
This new honour seems as but a dream of a dream "; 

in consequence of which his appointment was cancelled. 


Suwo-no-suke Morozumi, the son of the Secretary of State Nakahara-no-Moronao was made 
Secretary of State, and Hyobu-no-Sho Masaakira became Kurando of the Fifth Rank, being 
therefore known as Kurando-no-Sho. In ancient days when Masakado conquered the eight 
provinces of the East and established his capital in the district of Soma in Shimosa, he gave 
himself the title of Hei Shinno, and created many officials, but among them a Master of the 
Records was not found. The present occasion, however, was by no means, the same; for though 
the Emperor had gone forth from the Ancient Capital, he yet held the Imperial Authority and 
the Three Sacred Treasures, and so there was nothing irregular in these appointments to rank and 

When they heard that the Heike had succeeded in fighting their way back to Fukuhara, their 
relatives who had been left behind in Miyako were filled with joy and encouragement, and Kajii- 
no-Miya, the Tendai Zasshu, often exchanged letters with his old friend Nii- no-Sozu Senshin, 
who was in the Heike camp, in which he declared his sympathy with his friend in exile, but 
informed him that things were not yet quiet in the Capital and so forth, and in one of these 
letters he sent this verse 

"All unknown to the world nay heart ever yearns for your friendship 
How I long to roam where the moon wanes in the west. " 

When the Sozu read this lie pressed it to his face and burst into tears. 

Meanwhile, as the days and years passed, the thoughts of Komatsu-no-Sammi Chujo Koremori 
dwelt ever on his wife and children whom he had left behind in the Capital and he was very sad. 
They could at tines send letters to each other by the hands of merchants, and when he heard of 
her lonely life in Miyako he felt much inclined to try to bring her to Fukuhara that they might be 
together, but when he reflected on the hard life they led there he could only refrain and abandon 
himself to his gloomy thoughts. 


The Genji had intended to begin their attack on Fukuhara on the fourth day of the second 
month, but when they heard that Buddhist rites were being performed on behalf of the departed 
Nyudoo they desisted, and as the fifth and sixth days were unlucky, it was not till the seventh day 
at six o'clock in the morning that the battle began on both the eastern and western entrances of 

On the fourth day, as it was a lucky one, they had divided their army into two parts, the main 
body being commanded by Kaba-no-Onzoshi Noriyori with whom rode the following captains : 
Takeda-no-Taro Nobuyoshi, Kagami-no-Jiro Tomitsu, Kagami-no-Kojiro Nagakiyo, Yamana-no- 
Jiro Noriyoshi, and. Yamana-no-Saburo Yoshiyuki, while in command of the samurai were 
Kajiwara Heizo Kagetoki, his eldest son Genda Kagesue, his second son Heiji Kagetaka, Kajiwara 
Saburo Kageie, Inage-no-Saburo Shigenari, Hangai-no-Goro Shigeyuki, Oyama-no-Koshiro 
Tomomasa, Naganuma-no-Goro Munemasa, Yuki-no-Shichiro Tomomitsu, Sanuki-no-Shirodaiyu 
Hirotsuna, Onodera-no-Zenji Taro Michitsuna, Soga-no-Taro Sakenobu, Nakamura Taro 
Tokitsune, Edo-no-Shiro Shigeharu, Okawazu-no-Taro Hiroyuki, Tamai-no-Shiro Sukekage, Sho- 
no-Saburo Tadaie, Sho-no- Shiro Takaie, Shodai-no-Hachiro Yukihira, Kuge Jiro Shigemitsu, 
Kawara-no-Taro Takanao, Kawara-no Jiro Morinao, and Fujita-no-Saburodaiyu Yukiyasu with a 
force of some fifty thousand horsemen under them. 

On the fourth day of the second month at eight o'clock in the morning they departed from 
the Capital, and about evening of the same day they arrived at Koyano in the province of Settsu 
and pitched their camp. 

The smaller body was under the command of Kuro Onzoshi Yoshitsune and with him were 
Yasuda-no-Saburo Yoshisada, Ouchi-no-Taro Koreyoshi, Murakami-no-Hangwan dai Yasukuni, 
and Tajiro-no-Kwanja Nobutsuna. The samurai of this army were commanded by Doi-no-Jiro 
Sanehira, his son Yataro Tohira, Miura-no-suke Yoshizumi, his son Heiroku 


Yoshimura, Hatakeyama-no-Shoji Jiro Shigetada, Hatakeyama-no-Nagano Saburo Shigekiyo, 
Sawara-no-Juro Yoshitsura, Wada-no-Kotaro Yoshimori, Wada-no-Jiro Yoshimochi, Saburo 
Munezane, Sasaki Shiro Takatsuna, Goro Yoshikiyo, Kumagai-no-Jiro Naozane, his son Kojiro 

Naoie, Hirayama-no-Mushadokoro Toshishige, Amano-no-Jiro Naotsune, Ogawa-no-Jiro 
Sukeyoshi, Hara-no-Saburo Kiyomasu, Tatara-no-Goro Yoshiharu, his son Taro Mitsuyoshi, 
Watariyanagi Yagoro Kiyotada, Beppu Kotaro Kiyoshige, Kaneko-no-Juro Ietada, Kaneko-no- 
Yoichi Chikanori, Gempachi Hirotsuna, Kataoka-no-Taro Tsuneharu, Ise-no-Saburo Yoshimori, 
Mutsu-no-Sato Saburo Tsuginobu, Sato Shiro Tadanobu, Eda-no-Genzo, Kumai no Taro and 
Musashi-bo Benkei, in all about ten thousand men. These also started from the Capital at the 
same time as the others, and taking the Tamba road, made a two days match in one, taking up 
their position at a place called Onohara on the eastern slope of Mikusayama, which is on the 
boundary of Tamba and Harima. 


The commanders on the Heike side were Komatsu-no-Shin-sammi Chujo Sukemori, Komatsu 
no Shosho Arimori, Tango no Jiju Tadafusa, and Bitchu no kami Moromori, while in command of 
the samurai were Iga-no-Heinaihyoye Kiyoie and Emi-n- Jiro Masakata with about three 
thousand horsemen, who took up their position on the western slope of Mikusayama. That night 
at about eight o'clock Yoshitsune summoned to him Doi-no-Jiro Sanehira, and said to him: "The 
Heike are only about three ri distant from us: they are encamped on the western slope of 
Mikusayama with a large force; shall we attack them by night or to-morrow? " The Tajiro- no- 
Kanja stood forth and said: " We have a great advantage, for our force numbers ten thousand men, 
whereas the Heike have only 

p. 136 

about three thousand. If we wait to fight to morrow their numbers will most likely have 
increased, so let us attack then; at once to night." " Excellently spoken, Tajiro Dono ", said Doi- 
no-Jiro, "that is what we all think; so let us make a night attack on them." When this order was 
given to the soldiers, however, they said each to his neighbour: " How dark it is what are we to 
do in this darkness? " " How about torches then ? " suggested Voshitsune. " So it must be"; replied 
Doi, and they set fire to all the houses of Onohara and then to all the trees and brushwood on the 
plain and on the mountain slopes, so that it became as bright as day, and so they crossed the hills 
for the distance of three ri without any hindrance. Now this Tajiro no Kwanja was the youngest 
son of the Chunagon Tametsuna, the former Governor of Izu, and was the issue of an amour that 
he had with the daughter of Kanono suke Shigemitsu, being brought up to the profession of arms 
by his maternal grandfather, so that he was a skilful warrior as well as of high lineage, being 
descended in the fifth generation from Sukebito Shinno, the third son of the Emperor Go-Sanjo. 

As the Heike never dreamed that they would be attacked that night, their leaders bade them 
sleep well till morning, for as they would have to fight on the morrow, they must by no means be 
drowsy, so, though the vanguard kept the usual watch, those in the rear lay stretched out in 
careless plumber with their heads pillowed on their helmets or quivers, or the sleeves of their 
armour, entirely heedless of any danger. Then suddenly, at about midnight, the ten thousand 
horsemen of the Genji came sweeping down with ringing shouts on the western slope of Mount 
Mikusa, and the Heike, taken completely by surprise, rose and fled in wild confusion, leaving 
their weapons behind them in their hurry and excitement, and scattering everywhere in their fear 
of being trampled under the horse-hoofs of the enemy. Then the Genji rode right through their 
ranks and pursued them and cut them down at their will, so that at the first onset five hundred 
men were slain outright, 

P- 137 

beside a large number who were wounded. The three commanders, Shin sammi Chujo Sukemori, 
Komatsu Shosho Arimori, and Tango-no-Jiju Tadafusa, overcome with shame at the rout of 
Mikusa, took ship from Takasago in Harima and crossed over to Yashima in Sanuki. Bitchu-no- 

kami alone, accompanied by Heinaihyoye and Emi-no-Jiro, somehow contrived to make his way 
back again to Ichi-no-tani. 



Forthwith the Daijin Munemori dispatched Aki-no-Umano suke Yoshiyuki with this message 
to all the chiefs of his house. " We hear that Kuro Yoshitsune has attacked and broken through 
our outpost at Mikusayama so that the hillside on our flank is threatened : can you come to our 
assistance ? " But they all declined. Then the Daijin called once more on Noto-no-kami Noritsune, 
saying: " Many times before have you aided us; may we reply on your help once more? " "War " 
replied Noritsune, "is just like fishing or any other sport; he who always chooses the comfortable 
positions and refuses the unfavourable ones will never win a victory. As for me, have no fear, for 
I am ever ready to hasten where the greatest danger threatens. Trust me to deal with the forces of 
Yoshitsune." When this was reported to Munemori, he was exceedingly glad, and at once put an 
army often thousand men, led by Etchu Zenji Moritoshi, at the disposal of Noritsune. 

Then Noritsune, taking with him his elder brother Echizentir-no-sammi Michimori, set out 
for the hills. And these were the hills that lay at the foot of the pass called Hiyodori-goe, behind 
Ichi-no-tani. Michimori, however, called his wife to the camp of Noritsune in order that he might 
take a tender farewell of tier before the expedition, and when this came to the ears of 
Noto-no-kami he was greatly enraged and rebuked him: " The position 'we are to hold in one of 
great peril", said he,' "and 

P . 138 

matters are now most critical, for if the enemy should succeed in descending on us over these 
hills, disaster stares us in the face. To take a bow and not lay an arrow on the string is bad enough, 
but to lay an arrow on the string and not to draw it is worse still; so what is the use of wasting 
time in this soft talk ? " Then Michimori, feeling the truth of his words, dismissed his wife and 
put on his armour, 

About dusk on the fifth day the Genii started from Koyano and pressed on to attack the wood 
at Ikuta, and as the Heike looked out over Suzume-no-matsubara, Mikage-no-matsu and Koyano, 
they could see them pitching their camps everywhere, while the glow of their thousand watch 
fires reddened the sky like the moon rising over the mountains. The fires that the Heike kindled 
also showed up the dark outline of the wood of Ikuta, and twinkled as they flared up like stars in 
the brightening sky; reminding them too of the glimmering fire-flies on the river bank, so often 
the subject of their verse in the happy days gone by. So, as they beheld the Genii thus 
deliberately pitching their camps here and there, and feeding and resting their horses, they 
watched and wondered when they would be attacked, their hearts filled with disquiet. 

At dawn on the sixth day Kuro Onzoshi Yoshitsune, dividing his ten thousand men into two 
companies, ordered Doi-no-Jiro Sanehira to make an attack on the western outlet of Ichi-no-tani 

with seven thousand, while he himself with the remaining three thousand horsemen went round 
by the Tango road to descend the pass of Hiyodori-goe to take them in the rear. At this his men 
began to murmur to each other: 

" Everyone knows the dangers of that place; if we must die, it were better to die facing the foe 
than to fall over a cliff and be killed. Does anyone know the way among these mountains ? " 

" I know these mountains very well "; exclaimed Hirayama-no-Mushadokoro of Musashi, in 
answer to these muttering. " But you were brought up in the Eastern Provinces, and this is the 
first time you have seen the mountains of the West ", 

P- 139 

objected Yoshitsune. " so how can you guide us? " " That may be even as your Excellency says", 
replied Hirayama, " but just as a poet knows the cherry-blossoms of Yoshino and Hatsuse 
without seeing them, so does a proper warrior know the way to the rear of an enemy's castle 1 " 
After this most audacious speech, a young samurai of eighteen years old named Beppu-no-Kotaro 
Kiyoshige of Musashi spoke up and said: " I have often been told by my father Yoshishige Hoshi, 
that whether you are hunting on the mountains or fighting an enemy, if you lose your way you 
must take an old horse, tie the reins and throw them on his neck, and then drive him on in front, 
and he will always find a path." "Well spoken", said Yoshitsune, " they say an old horse will find 
the road even when it is buried in snowl " So they took an old, grey horse, trapped him with a 
silver plated saddle and a well-polished bit, and tying the reins and throwing them on his neck, 
drove him on in front of them, and so plunged into the unknown mountains. 

As it was the beginning of the second month, the snow had melted here and there on the 
peaks and at times they thought they saw flowers, while at times they heard the notes of the 
Uguisu of the valleys, and were hidden from sight in the mist. As they ascended, the snow-clad 
peaks towered white and glistening on either side of them, and as they descended again into the 
valleys, the cliffs rose green on either hand. The pines hung down under their load of snow, and 
scarcely could they trace the narrow and mossy path: When a sudden gust blew down a cloud of 
snow flakes, they almost took them for the falling plum-blossom. Whipping up their steeds to 
their best pace they rode on some distance, until the falling dusk compelled them to bivouac for 
the night in the depth of the mountains. 

As they were thus halted, Musashi-bo Benkei suddenly appeared with an old man he had 
intercepted. In answer to the to the questions of Yoshitsune lie declared that he was a hunter 

p. 140 

who lived in these mountains, and that he knew all that country very well. " Then ", said 
Yoshitsune, " what do you think of my plan of riding down into Ichi-no-tani, the stronghold of 
the Heike ? " " Ah ", replied the old man, " that can hardly be done. The valley is a hundred yards 
deep, and of that about half is steep cliff where no one can go. Besides, the Heike will have dug 
pitfalls and spread caltrops inside the stronghold to make it impossible for your horses." "Indeed?" 
returned Yoshitsune, " but is it possible for a stag to pass there?" "That stags pass there is certain", 
replied the hunter, "for in the warm days of spring they come from Harima to seek the thick 
pasture of Tamba, and when the winter grows cold they go back towards Inamino in Harima 

where the snow lies lighter." " Forsooth 1 " ejaculated Yoshitsune, " then a horse can do it, for 
where a stag may pass, there a horse can go also. Will you then be our guide? " " I am an old man 
now; how can I go so far? " replied the hunter. " But you have a son? " " I have." And Kumao 
Maru, a youth of eighteen soon appeared before the Genji leader. Then Yoshitsune performed 
the ceremony of Gempuku for the young man, giving him the name of Washio Saburo Yoshihisa, 
the name of his father being Washio Shoji Takehisa, and he accompanied them, going on in front 
to guide them down into Ichi-no-tani. And after the Heike had been overthrown and the Genji 
obtained the supremacy, and his lord Yoshitsune fell into disfavour with his brother and fled to 
Mutsu and fell there, Washio Saburo Yoshihisa was one of those who followed him to the death. 


Until midnight of the sixth day Kumagai and Hirayama had ridden with the party of Yoshitsune, 
when Kumagai called his son Kojiro and said : " This party of ours is to attack on difficult ground, 
so there will be little chance of being the 

p. 141 

first in the onset. Let us join the army of Doi and see if we can be first in the assault on Ichi-no- 
tani. " That is a good plan ", replied Kojiro, " and I think there are others of the same opinion, so 
let us make haste." " That is true " answered Naozane, " there is Hirayama; he does not care to be 
one of the crowd; keep your eye on him "; he added to one of his men. As he had expected 
Hirayama soon showed signs of leaving the camp and was heard to mutter to himself : " I must 
get away unseen; it won't do for me to appear to run away." " This beast is a long time over its 
feed," exclaimed his groom, as he gave it a crack with the whip. "Let it alone "; said Hirayama, " 
for this night may be its last." Kumagai's retainer, hearing all this, hastened to tell it to his master, 
and he too left the camp with all speed. Kumagai was clad in a hitatare of dyed cloth and armour 
laced with red leather, with a red Horo, or arrow guard, on his back, and bestrode a splendid 
horse called Gondakurige. His son Kojiro Naoie wore a hitatare ornamented with a design of 
water plantains and armour laced with blue and white leather, and rode a cream coloured horse 
called Seiro. His standard-bearer wore a hitatare of light green with yellow designs, and armour 
laced with yellow and green leather; he bestrode a grey horse with dark yellow spots. Thus the 
three retraced their steps, and leaving the valley they were to descend to the left, they turned off 
to the right and rode along an old path, that had long been untrodden, called Tai-no-hata, which 
brought them out hard by the beach at Ichi-no-tani. 

Now Doi-no-jiro Sanehira had withdrawn to a place called Shioya near Ichi-no-tani to spend 
the night with his forces, and Kumagai, making a circuit round them, passed them by in the 
darkness and approached the western entrance of the Heike stronghold. It was yet dark and there 
was no sound from within the place. "This is a hard place to attack", said Kumagai to his son, "and 
you may be sure that there will be many who will strive to be first in the assault. Doubtless 

p. 142 

some are already here waiting for the dawn, so we must not suppose we are alone. I will 
challenge them with our name and titles " ' and riding close up to the enemy's breastwork, he 
shouted out with a loud voice: " Kumagai-no-Jiro Naozane of the province of Musashi, and his 
son Kojiro Naoie 1 First in the assault on Ichi-no-tani 1 " In answer to this the enemy were heard 
to shout within the barricade: " Pay no heed, let them tire out their horses and shoot away their 
arrows 1 " And so none came forth from the stronghold to meet them. After a while, hearing two 
horsemen come up behind them, Kumagai hailed them, enquiring who they were. " Hirayama 
Sueshige "; was the reply; " and who is it that calls ? " " Naozane." ', All. Kumagai Dono, how long 
have you been here ? " "All night." " I also should have been here before ", said Hirayama, " but I 
was tricked by that fellow Narita Goro, for he got me to take him with me on the plea that he 

had sworn to die with me, but on the way he persuaded me not to ride on so fast, saying that if 
we left all our own men a long way behind, and rode into the enemy alone to be killed, nothing 
much would be gained thereby, and I listened to his words and halted my horse on a little knoll 
from which I could see our men coming up, thinking that Narita was following me, but instead of 
that he rode on past me. When I saw I had been tricked, I whipped up my horse and rode on 
after him, and as he had only gone on about twenty yards, and his mount was rather tired, I soon 
caught him up, and after reproaching him for thus deceiving me, I rode on and left him behind so 
that he is not yet in sight." 

The dawn was now growing grey, and Kumagai and Hirayama with their retainers were still 
alone before the Heike Stronghold, and though Kumagai had already challenged the enemy once, 
as this was before Hirayama had come up, he bethought him to do so once more, so rising again 
in his stirrups he repeated his name and titles. At this there was a stir within the barricade, and 
thinking to take Kumagai and 

P- M3 

his son alive, Etchu-no-Jirohyoye Moritsugu, Kazusa-no-Gorohyoye Tadamitsu, Akushichihyoye 
Kagekiyo and Gotonai Sadatsune with twenty retainers issued forth from the entrance to give 
them battle. Then Hirayama also lifted up his voice find declared himself: " Hirayama-no- 
Mushadokoro Sueshige of Musashi, who has won great renown by his prowess in the fighting of 
Hogen and Heiji I " He was attired in a hitatare of patterned brocade and armour laced with 
scarlet, having at his back a Horo with two wide stripes, and rode a splendid horse that was 
dappled about the eyes. His standard-bearer was in armour laced with black leather, and rode a 
cream-coloured horse: his helmet was thrown back so as to expose his face. Thus the fight began, 
and Kumagai and Hirayama both bore themselves most valiantly, one charging forward when the 
other gave back, and neither yielding to the other in strength and boldness, hewing at the foe 
with loud shouts while thie sparks flew from their weapons, till at last the Heike retainers, 
wounded and battered by the fierce onslaughts of the two champions, retreated within their 
barricade and shut the enemy outside. 

Kumagai's horse had been shot in the belly, so he Dismounted and stood leaning on his bow, 
while his son Naoie, who was only eighteen years old, and had been ever foremost in the fighting, 
had received an arrow in the left forearm, and alighting also, stood beside him. " How is that, 
Kojiro, are you wounded ? " he asked. " Ah, you should shift your armour about well so that the 
arrows don't go through it. Keep your neck guard well sloped, and don't get shot in the face." 
Naozane then pulled out the arrows that were sticking in his own mail, and turned and glared 
fiercely at the Heike behind the wall. " When Naozane left Kamakura last winter ", he shouted, 
"he pledged his life to his lord Yoritomo, and swore that his bones should whiten on the sands of 
Ichi-no-tani. So much for Etchu-no-Jirohyoye, Kazusa-no-Gorohyoye, and Akushichihyoye, the 
famous victors of Muroyama and 

p. 144 

Mizushima 1 Is not Noto Dono within there? Here we stand, father and sonl Come forth and 
meet us, any who darel " At this defiance Etchu-no-Jirohyoye, Moritsugu glared at the pair and 
advanced towards them. He was clad in a hitatare of purple and a suit of armour with red lacing, 
and wore a helmet adorned with lofty horns. His sword was mounted in gold, and his saddle 

inlaid with the same metal, while on his back he carried a quiver of arrows with black and white 
feathers. His black lacquered bow was bound with rattan, and he rode a horse of dappled gray. 
Side by side, without yielding a pace, the two Kumagai met him, and drawing their blades pressed 
on him without shifting either to the right or left. At this bold front Etchiu-jiro felt his courage 
fail him, and straightway retreated whence he had come. " What ", shouted Naozane, " does 
Etchu-no-Jirohyoye refuse our challenge? In what do we fail him? On to the attack 1 " But 
Jirohyoye refused to be enticed and continued his progress toward the stronghold. " How 
cowardly is the conduct of you fellows ", cried Akushichihyoye when he perceived this , retreat, 
"there is none who dares to close with them or come to grips!" And he was riding out to attack 
them himself, when Jirohyoye seized the sleeve of his armour and held him back saying: "Your 
life is too precious to risk it here; forbear 1 forbear 1 " And being thus restrained he did not 

Then Kumagai, mounting a fresh horse, again rode to the assault, and Hirayama, who had 
rested his charger while Kumagai was fighting, now came on to his support. Seeing this the Heike 
drew their bows with might and main and rained their arrows on the little band, but so crowded 
were they and so small was their mark that none of their shafts took effect, and when they tried 
to charge them, as the Heike steeds were badly fed. and over-ridden, and had been long cooped 
up on shipboard, they would by no means obey the hand of their masters; whereas the horses of 
Kumagai and Hirayama were stout and well fed animals that in the shock of battle would 

p. 145 

overthrow and trample down both horse and rider, so that one of the Heike were found willing 
to face them. Just then it happened that Hirayama's standard-bearer, for whom he would have 
given his life, was slain, and his master, driven to desperation at his loss, made a rush into the 
stronghold and cut off the head of the enemy who had killed him, emerging again safely once 
more. Kumagai. had taken much spoil and had been the first to arrive before the entrance, but as 
the gate was shut he was unable to enter, whereas Hirayama, who had come up later, charged 
within the gate when it was opened, so that it was difficult to decide which had the honour of 
being the foremost. 



Meanwhile Narita Goro had come up also, and the seven thousand men of Doi no-Jiro Sanehira, 
shouting their warcries, came on to the attack under the banners of their different leaders. Now 
among the fifty thousand horsemen of the main force of the Genji; who were besetting the other 
entrance at Ikuta, were two brothers, Kawara Taro and Kawara Jiro, of Musashi; and the elder of 
these, Kawara Taro, called to the younger and said to him: " Though a Daimyo may win renown 
without fighting himself, through the deeds of his retainers, that reputation is not one that I covet, 
for I cannot bear to take no part in the battle. To wait here with the enemy before our eyes 
without drawing bow on him makes the courage fail, so I have determined to get within the 
defenses and let fly at them there. As I am not likely to come forth alive, do you stay here to bear 
witness to my posterity." Bursting into tears the younger brother replied: " For two brothers like 
ourselves how inglorious is it that one should die thus and the other still survive? Let us not then 
die separately but fall together in one place " : and calling their retainers and 

p. 146 

bidding them bear the tidings of their end to their wives and children, they dismounted and put 
on straw sandals, and then carrying their bows only, they climbed over the barricade under cover 
of darkness. Standing within the stronghold, though the colour of their armour could not be 
distinguished in the star light, they shouted loudly : " Kawara Taro Kisaichi Takanao, and his 
brother Jiro Masanao, first in the attack on Ikuta-no-mori 1 "Hearing this the Heike within were 
astonished and said to one another " : How terrible are these warriors of the Eastl See how these 
two brothers have ventured alone into the midst of our great host! " Tis a pity to touch them." 
And for a while none lifted a hand against them. But the two brothers were both exceedingly 
skilful archers, and now they drew their bows and let fly their shafts with the greatest rapidity, so 
that the Heike cried out to spare them no longer but to cut them down. Now among the 
Western samurai there were two brothers also who were archers of renown, men of Bitchu, 
Manabe-no-Shiro and Manabe-no-Goro by name, and the elder brother Shiro was with the force 
at Ichi-no-tani, while Goro the younger was posted at Ikuta. Coming forward he drew his bow to 
the arrowhead, and taking careful aim, let fly his shaft at Kawara-no-Taro, who staggered forward 
pierced through the breastplate. As he tried to support his failing strength on his bow, his brother 
Jir5 ran up, and taking him on his back, made to climb the barricade once more, when Manabe, 
fitting a second arrow to the string, shot him under the skirts of his armour, so that both brothers 
fell dead together. His retainers then ran up and cut off both their heads, which they brought and 
showed to the commando Shin-Chunagon Tomomori." Ah, the pity of it, " said he, that two such 
valiant men at arms should die. Would that their lives could have been spared, for they were each 
worth a thousand men." 

Then the retainers of Kawara hasted and told Kajiwara Heizo that the two brothers had scaled 
the walls of the strong 

p. 147 

hold and had died within it. " That the two brothers Kawara have fallen is indeed a dire loss for 
the Kisaichi clan ", said Kajiwara, " but the time is now ripe for the attack, so let us advance," So 
the five hundred men under Kajiwara swept forward to the defences to fight their way into the 
stronghold. Then Kajiwara Heizo, seeing that his second son Heiji had already far outstripped his 
men, sent a retainer after him saying : " Those who ride on so that their men cannot follow will 
be held culpable. It is the order of the Commander." When this was communicated to Heiji he 
drew in his horse a space while he made the following verse 

"If the warrior's bow be once well bent for the arrow, 
Who is the foolish wight who will unbend it again? " 

After which he rode on again, shouting loudly. " See that Heiji is not killed 1 After him, all of you! 
" cried his father, as, with his eldest son Genda and his third son Saburo, he led his force in a 
charge into the Heike ranks, where, cutting and slashing in all directions they bowed a way for 
themselves, and then turned and as quickly withdrew. His son Genda, however, did not emerge 
with the rest, and in answer to his father's question the retainers declared that they had not seen 
him for some time, and imagined him to have penetrated too deeply, so that he had been 
surrounded and slain. " Ah! " exclaimed Heizo, bursting into tears, " it was to save my son that I 
made this charge, and now to think that Genda is dead and I, his father, am still alive! Back again! 
At them once more! " And he rose in his stirrups and shouted loudly: " Ho! I am Kajiwara Heizo 
Kagetoki, descended in the fifth generation from Gongoro Kagemasa of Kamakura, renowned 
warrior of the East Country, a match for any thousand men! At the age of sixteen I rode in the 
van of the array of Hachimantaro Yoshiie at the siege of the fortress of Sembuku Kanazawa in 
Dewa, and receiving an arrow in my left eye through the helmet, I plucked it forth and with it 
shot down the marksman who sent it, thereby gaining honours and leaving 

p. 148 

a name to posterity! Come on now, all you who think yourselves somebody, and we will see! " 
At this proud defiance the defenders shouted : " This is one of the greatest warriors of the East! 
Strike him down! Don't let him escape! " and they rushed upon him from all sides to cut him 
down. Heizo, caring nothing for his life, dashed through their midst looking everywhere for signs 
of his son Genda, and soon found him, as he expected, dismounted and fighting on foot, for his 
horse had been shot under him, with his helmet struck off from his head and his long hair flying 
in the wind, his back against a rock twenty feet high, and two of his retainers on his left and right, 
fighting desperately with five soldiers of the Heike. As Genda was thus fighting, as he thought, his 
last fight, his father, overjoyed at finding him still alive, sprang from his horse and shouted: " Ho! 
Genda ! Kagetoki is here! Let us die together and not show our backs to the foe! " Then, after 
they had killed three of the enemy and wounded the other two, Heizo exclaimed : " Warriors 
advance or retreat according to circumstances. Come Genda ! " And they made good their escape. 
Thus was the second assault made by Kajiwara. 


Thereafter the battle became general and the various clans of the Gen and Hei surged over each 
other in mixed and furious combat. The men of the Miura, Kamakura, Chichibu, Ashikaga, 
Noiyo, Yokoyama, Inomata, Kodama, Nishi, Tsuzuki and Kisaichi clans charged against each 
other with a roar like thunder, while the hills re-echoed to the sound of their war-cries, and the 
shafts they shot at each other fell like rain. Some were wounded slightly and fought on, some 
grappled and stabbed each other to death, while others bore down their adversaries and cut off 
their heads : everywhere the fight rolled 

P- M9 

forward and backward, so that none could tell who were victors or vanquished. 

Thus it did not appear that the main body of the Genji lead been successful in their attack, when 
at dawn on the seventh day Kuro Onzoshi Yoshitsune with his force of three thousand horsemen, 
having climbed to the top of the Hiyodori-goe was resting his horses before the descent. Just then, 
startled by the movements of his men, two stags and a doe rushed out and fled over the cliff 
straight into the camp of the Heike. "That is strange ", exclaimed the Heike men-at-arms, for the 
deer of this part ought to be frightened at our noise and run away to the mountains. Aha 1 it must 
be the enemy who is preparing to drop on us from above!" And they began to run about in 
confusion, when forth strode Takechi-no-Mushadokoro of the province of Iyo, and drawing his 
bow transfixed the two stags, though letting the doe escape. Thus ", he cried, " will we deal with 
any who try that road and none are likely to pass it alive 1 " "What useless shooting of stags is this? 
" said Etchu Zenji Moritoshi when he saw it; " one of those arrows might have stopped ten of the 
enemy, so why waste them in that fashion ? " 

Then Yoshitsune, looking down on the Heike position from the top of the cliff, ordered some 
horses to be driven down the declivity, and of these, though some missed their footing half-way, 
and breaking their legs, fell to the bottom and were killed, three saddled horses scrambled down 
safely and stood, trembling in every limb, before the residence of Etchu Zenji. " If they have riders 
to guide them", said Yoshitsune, "the horses will get down without damage, so let us descend, and 
I will show you the way "; and he rode over the cliff at the head of his thirty retainers, seeing 
which the whole force of three thousand followed on after him. For more than a hundred yards 
the slope was sandy with small pebbles, so that they slid straight down it and landed on a level 
place, from which they could survey the rest 

p. 150 

of the descent. From thence downwards it was all great mossy boulders, but steep as a well, and 
some fifty yards to the bottom. It seemed impossible to go on any further, neither could they 
now retrace their steps, and the soldiers were recoiling in horror, thinking that their end had 
come, when Miura-no-Sahara Juro Yoshitsura sprang forward and shouted: " In my part we ride 
down places like this any day to catch a bird; the Miura would make a re-course of this "; and 

down he went, followed by all the rest. So steep was the descent that the stirrups of the hinder 
man struck against the helmet or armour of the one in front of him, and so dangerous did it look 
that they averted their eyes as they went down. " Ei 1 Ei 1 " they ejaculated under their breath as 
they steadied their horses, and their daring seemed rather that of demons than of men. So they 
reached the bottom, and as soon as they found themselves safely down they burst forth with a 
mighty shout, which echoed along the cliffs so that it sounded rather like the battlecry of ten 
thousand men than of three. 

Then Murakami no Hangwan-dai Yasukuni seized a torch and fired the houses and huts of the 
Heike so that they went up in smoke in a few moments, and when their men saw the clouds of 
black smoke rising they at once made a rush toward the sea, if hopefully they might find a way of 
escape. There was no lack of ships drawn up by the beach, but in their panic four or five hundred 
men in full armour and even a thousand all crowded into one ship, so that when they had rowed 
out not more than fifty or sixty yards from the shore, three large ships turned over and sank 
before their eyes. Moreover those in the ships would only take on board those warriors who were 
of high rank, and thrust away the common soldiers, slashing at them with their swords and 
halberds, but even though they saw this, rather than stay and be cut down by the enemy, they 
clung to the ships and strove to drag themselves on board, so that their hands and arms were cut 
off and they fell back into the sea, which quickly reddened with their blood. Thus, both 

p. 151 

on the main front and on the sea shore did the young warriors of Musashi and Sagami strain every 
nerve in the fight, caring nothing for their lives as they rushed desperately to the attack. What 
must have been the feelings of Noto-no-kami Noritsune, who in all his many battles has never 
been vanquished until now ? Mounting his charger Usuzumi, he galloped away toward the West, 
and taking ship from Takasago in Harima, crossed over to Yashima in Sanuki. 


Now Shin-Chunagon Tomomori-no-Kyo was in command of the Heike at Ikuta-no-mori, and as 
all his mind was bent on the eastward, a messenger from the Kodama clan came riding up to him. 
" Your lordship was Governor of Musashi last year," said he, "and because of that connexion the 
Kodama clan has sent me to warn you. Look to your rear! " Then the retainers of Tomomori 
turned and saw the clouds of black smoke ascending behind them, and crying out that all was lost 
and the western army had given way, they were stricken with panic and broke and fled in wild 

Etchu Zenji Moritoshi was the leader of the samurai on the cliff side, and when he saw all the 
others take to flight, disdaining to follow them, he reined in his charger to await the foe, when 
Inomata no Koheiroku Noritsuna, rejoicing to meet so redoutable an antagonist, urged on his 
horse and bore down upon him. Rushing upon each other, they grappled fiercely so that both fell 
from their horses, and though Inomata was famous for his great strength in all the eight provinces 
of the East, and was said to have tern oft the upper branches of a stag horn with ease, Etchu Zenji 
had the strength of twenty or thirty ordinary men, and indeed so powerful were his limbs that he 
could haul up or down a heavy ship that it took sixty or seventy men to move, and so he gripped 
his adversary and 

page 152 

pinned him down so that he could not rise. Thus prostrate beneath his foe, try how he would to 
shift him or draw his sword, he could not so much as stir a finger to the hilt, and even when he 
strove to speak, so great was the pressure that no word would come forth. Spite of all this, 
however, he was yet undaunted, and after a short breathing space he managed to ejaculate : " 
When a samurai takes the head of an enemy it is the custom that he first enquire his name and 
also declare his own. It is great merit to take a head, but of what value is one without a name?" 
Thinking this most reasonable, Moritoshi then declared himself: " I am Etchu Zenji Moritoshi, 
formerly a Courtier of the Heike house, but now only worthy to be an ordinary samurai. I pray 
you tell me your name also." " I am Inomata-no-Koheiroku Noritsuna ", replied the other faintly, 
" and if you will spare my life I will obtain yours as a reward for my share in the victory, and so 
you may escape the doom of your house." " What disgraceful speech is this ? " cried Moritoshi in 
great wrath. " Unworthy though I may be, I am yet a Taira, and never will I stoop to ask or grant 
favours to any of Genji bloodl " And he was just about to cut off his head when Inomata pleaded 
again: " Who is so unchivalrous as to cut off the head of a surrendered foe ?" Whereupon 
Moritoshi relented and spared his life. 

Now the place where they had fought was solid ground in front, but behind them lay deep and 
swampy ricefields, and on a narrow path between these the two sat down to rest and recover 
their breath, when a single horseman rode up, clad in scarlet armour and mounted on a cream 
coloured horse with saddle decorated with gold. Moritoshi glared at him suspiciously. "That is 
Hitomi Shiro, a friend of Inomata; he has come to see what has happened, but I will deal with 
him too "; and he sprang up and prepared to grapple with him as soon as he came near enough. 

Now Etchu Zenji kept an eye on both his foes at first, but as the other drew nearer, his attention 
became more fixed on him, which Inomata perceiving, 

page 153 

he suddenly sprang up from the ground and dealt Moritoshi a heavy blow on the breast plate 
with his closed fist. Losing his balance at this unexpected attack, Moritoshi fell over backwards, 
when Inomata immediately leapt upon him, snatched his dagger from his side, and pulling up the 
skirt of his armour, stabbed him so deeply thrice that the hilt and fist went in after the blade. 
Having thus dispatched him he cut off his head, and as Hitomi Shiro had come up by then, and at 
such times disputes about heads were apt to arise, he stuck it on the point of his sword and held 
it aloft, at the same time shouting loudly: " The head of Etchu Zenji Moritoshi, the famous 
demon-warrior of the Heike, slain by Inomata-no-Koheiroku Noritsuna of the province of 
Musashi 1 " And on the roll of those who died valiantly that day the name of Inomata stood first. 



Satsuma-no-kami Tadanori the Commander of the western army, clad in a dark-blue hitatare and 
a suit of armour with black silk lacing, and mounted on a great black horse with a saddle enriched 
with lacquer of powdered gold, was calmly withdrawing with his following of a hundred 
horsemen, when Okabe-on-Rokuyata Tadazumi of Musashi espied him and pursued at full gallop, 
eager to bring down so noble a prize. " This must be some great leader! " he cried. " Shameful 1 to 
turn your back to the foe] " Tadanori turned in the saddle; " We are friends] We are friends] " he 
replied, as he continued on his way. As he had turned, however, Tadazumi had caught a glimpse 
of his face and noticed that his teeth were blackened. " There are none of our side who have 
blackened teeth ", he said, " this must be one of the Heike Courtiers." And overtaking him, he 
ranged up to him to grapple. When his hundred followers saw this, since they were hired 
retainers drawn from various provinces, they 

p. 154 

scattered and fled in all directions, leaving their leader to his fate. But Satsuma-no-kami, who had 
been brought up at Kumano, was famous for his strength, and was extremely active and agile 
besides, so clutching Tadazumi he pulled him from his horse, dealing him two stabs with his dirk 
while he was yet in the saddle, and following them with another as he was falling. The first two 
blows fell on his armour and failed to pierce it, while the third wounded him in the face but was 
not mortal, and as Tadanori sprang down upon him to cut off his head, Tadazumi's page, who had 
been riding behind him, slipped from his horse and with a blow of his sword cut off Tadanori's 
arm above the elbow, Satsuma-no-kami, seeing that all was over and wishing to have a short 
space to say the death-prayer, flung Tadazumi away from him so that he fell about a bow's length 
away. Then turning toward the west he repeated: " Komyo Henjo Jippo Sekai, Nembutsu Shujo 
Sesshu Fusha; O Amida Nyorai, who sheddest the light of Thy Presence through the ten quarters 
of the world, gather into Thy Radiant Heaven all who call upon Thy Name] " And just as his 
prayer was finished, Tadazumi from behind swept off his head. 

Not doubting that he had taken the head of a noble foe, but quite unaware who he might be, he 
was searching his armour when he came across a piece of paper fastened to his quiver, on which 
was written a verse with this title; " The Traveller's Host, a Flower." 

" Seeking where I may lodge a on my weary way, in the evening 
Under a tree I lie; now is any host but a flower. " 

Wherefore he knew that it could be none but Satsuma-no-kami. 

Then he lifted up the head on his sword's point and shouted with a loud voice: " Satsuma-no- 
kami Dono, the demon-warrior of Nippon, slain by Okabe-no-Rokuyata Tadazumi of Musashi ! " 
And when they heard it, all, friends and foes alike, moistened the sleeves of their armour with 

p- 155 

tears, exclaiming: "Alasl what a great captain has passed awayl Warrior and artist and poet; in all 
things he was preeminent." 



Hon-sammi Chujo Shigehira was second in command at Ikuta-no-mori, and he was attired that 
day in a hitatare of dark-blue cloth on which a pattern of rocks and seabirds was embroidered in 
light yellow silk, and armour with purple lacing deepening in its hue toward the skirts. On his 
head was a helmet with tall golden horns, and his sword also was mounted in gold. His arrows 
were feathered with black and White falcon plumes, and in his hand he carried a 'Shigeto ' bow. 
He was mounted on a renowned war horse called Doji-kage, whose trappings were resplendent 
with ornaments of gold. With him was his foster-brother Goto Hyoye Masanaga in a hitatare of 
dyed brocade and a suit of armour with scarlet lacing, and he too was mounted on a splendid 
cream-coloured charger named Yome-nashi As they were riding along the shore to take ship and 
escape, Sho-no-Shiro Takaie and Kajiwara Genda Kagesue, thinking they looked a fine prize, 
spurred on their horses and bore down upon them. Now there were many ships ranged along the 
shore, but the enemy pressed on them so hard from behind that there was no Opportunity to 
embark, so the two, crossing the Minatogawa and the Karumogawa, and leaving Hasu-no-ike on 
the right and Koma-no-hayashi on the left, rode hard through Itayado and Suma and endeavoured 
to make their escape to the west. As Sammi Chujo was mounted on such a famous charger as. 
Doji-kage it seemed unlikely that any ordinary horse would overhaul him, and the pursuers 
mounts were already weakening, when Kajiwara drew his bow to the head sent an arrow 
whizzing after then. Though a long venture the shaft flew 

p. 156 

true to its mark, and buried itself deeply in the hind-leg of the Chujo's steed, just above the root 
of the tail. Seeing its pace slacken his foster-brother Morinaga, thinking that the Chujo might 
demand his mount, whipped it up and made good his escape. " Ahl " exclaimed the Chujo, " why 
do you desert me thus? Have you forgotten all your promises? " But he paid no heed, and tearing 
off the red badge from his armour, thought of nothing but saving himself by flight. Then the 
Chujo, seeing that his horse could go no farther, plunged headlong into the sea to die by drowning, 
but the water was so shallow that there was no time, and as he started to cut himself open, Sho 
no Shiro Takaie rode up, and springing from his horse, called out to him: "Desist I pray you; allow 
me to take you with me." And placing him on his own horse, he bound him to the pommel of his 
saddle and escorted him back to the Genii camp. 

The Chujo's foster-brother Morinaga, who had ridden away and deserted him, fled to seek refuge 
with Onaka Hokyo, one of the priests of Kumano, but after his death returned again to the 
Capital with his widow, when she came up on account of a lawsuit that she had. There he was 
recognised by many of his associates who had know him in past times, and they pointed the 
finger of scorn at him saying: "How disgraceful! There is Goto Hyoye Morinaga, who deserted the 
Chujo in his need and refused to aid him. He has come back again with the widow of the 
Hokyo." And Morinaga, when he heard it was so ashamed that he hid his face with his fan. 



Now when the Heike were routed at Ichi-no-tani, and their Nobles and Courtiers were fleeing to 
the shore to escape in their ships, Kumagai Jiro Naozane came riding along a narrow path on to 
the beach, with the intention of intercepting one of 

P- 157 

their great captain' s. Just then his eye fell on a single horseman who was attempting to reach one 
of the ships in the offing, and had swum his horse out some twenty yards from the water's edge. 
He was richly attired in a silk hitatare embroidered with storks, and the lacing of his armour was 
shaded green; his helmet was surmounted by lofty horns, and the sword he wore was gay with 
gold. His twenty four arrows had black and white feathers, and he carried a black-lacquered bow 
bound with rattan. The horse he rode was dappled grey, and its saddle glittered with gold 
mounting, Not doubting that he was one of the chief captains, Kumagai beckoned to him with 
his war fan,, crying out: " Shameful! to show an enemy your back. Returnl Return! " Then the 
warrior turned his horse and rode him back to the beach, where Kumagai at once engaged him in 
mortal combat. Quickly hurling him to the ground, he sprang upon him and tore off his helmet to 
cut off his head, when he beheld the face of a youth of sixteen or seventeen, delicately powdered 
and with blackened teeth, just about the age of his own son, and with features of great beauty. " 
Who are you? " he enquired; "Tell me your name, for I would spare your life." "Nay, first say who 
you are"; replied the young man. " I am Kumagai Jiro Naozane of Musashi, a person of no 
particular importance." " Then you have made a good capture "; said the youth. " Take my head 
and show it to some of my side and they will tell you who I am." " Though he is one of their 
leaders ", mused Kumagai, "if I slay him it will not turn defeat into victory, and if I spare him, it 
will not turn victory into defeat. When my son Kojiro was but slightly wounded at Ichi-no-tani, 
did it not make my heart bleed ? How pitiful then to put this youth to death." And so he was 
about to set him free, when, looking behind him, he saw Doi and Kajiwara coming up with fifty 
horsemen. "Alas ! look there ", he exclaimed, the tears running down his face ", though I would 
spare your life, the whole country side swarms with our men, 

P . 158 

and you cannot escape them. If you must die, let it be by my hand, and I will see that prayers are 
said for your re-birth in bliss." " Indeed it must be so ", said the young warrior, " so take off my 
head at once." Then Kumagai, weeping bitterly, and so overcome by his compassion for the fair 
youth that his eyes swam and his hand trembled so that he could scarcely wield his blade, hardly 
knowing what he did, at last cut off his head. " Alas! " he cried, " what life is so hard as that of a 
soldier? Only because I was born of a warrior family must I suffer this affliction! How lamentable 
it is to do such cruel deeds! " And he pressed his face to the sleeve of his armour and wept 
bitterly. Then, wrapping up the head, he was stripping off the young man's armour, when he 
discovered a flute in a brocade bag that he was carrying in his girdle. " Ah ", he exclaimed, " it was 
this youth and his friends who were amusing themselves with music within the walls this 
morning. Among all our men of the Eastern Provinces I doubt if there is any who has brought a 

flute with him. What esthetes are these Courtiers of the Heike 1 " And when he brought them 
and showed them to the Commander, all who saw them were moved to tears; and he then 
discovered that the youth was Taiyu Atsumori, the youngest son of Shuri-no-taiyu Tsunemori, 
aged seventeen years. From this time the mind of Kumagai was turned toward the religious life 
and he eventually became a recluse. 

The flute of Atsumori was one which his grandfather Tadamori, who was a famous player, had 
received as a present from the Emperor Toba, and had handed down to his father Tsunemori, 
who has given it to Atsumori because of his skill on the instrument. It was called 'Saeda'.* 
Concerning this story of Kumagai we may quote the saying that "even in* the most droll and 
flippant farce there is the germ of a Buddhist Psalm." 

Saeda. ' Little Branch'. 

even in, etc. i.e. how much more does a serious incident, like this turn the mind to religion. 



Kurando-no-taiyu Narimori, the youngest son of Kadowaki Dono was slain by Tsuchiya-no-Goro 
Shigeyuki of Hitachi, and Kogo-gu-no-suke Tsunemasa also fell by the hand of Kawagoe-no- 
Kotaro Shigefusa of Musashi, while Owari-no-kami Kiyosada, Awaji-no-kami Kiyofusa, and 
Wakasa-no-kami Tsunetoshi charged headlong into the midst of the foe, and after fighting 
valiantly for a while, at last fell gloriously together. 

Shin-Chunagon Tomomori-no-Kyo, who was in command at Ikuta no mori, after all his men had 
either fled or been slain, rode off toward the beach with his son Musashi-no-kami Tomoakira and 
a faithful retainer named Kenmotsu Taro Yorikata, when ten horsemen of the Kodama clan, 
carrying a fan as their standard, put their steeds to a gallop and gave chase. Kenmotsu Tard, a 
famous archer, turned and let fly an arrow at the standard-bearer who rode in front, and pierced 
him through neck and backbone so that he fell dead from his horse. Then the leader of the band 
bore down on Tomomori to come to close quarters, but his son Tomoakira, anxious to save his 
father, sprang in between them and grappled with the enemy, throwing him to the ground and 
then springing down on him and cutting off his head. No sooner had he done this, however, than 
his opponent's page sprang down also, and taking him at a disadvantage, succeeded in despatching 
him. Then Kenmotsu Taro, falling in his turn on the retainer who had slain Musashi-no-kami, 
killed him also, after which, having shot away all his arrows, he drew his sword to continue the 
conflict, but, after being severely wounded in the left knee' by an arrow, unable to stand up any 
longer, he was overcome and killed. 

Shin-Chunagon Tomomori, taking advantage of the confusion of the fighting, spurred on his horse 
and escaped, 

p. 160 

and, plunging into the sea, after swimming his horse, which was renowned for its long wind, more 
than a mile, he managed to reach the ship of the Daijin Munemori. As the ship was crowded with 
men, there was no room to bring the horse on board, and so they drove it off back to the shore. 
Then Awa-no-Mimbu Shigeyoshi took an arrow in his hand, saying; "Let me shoot it so that it 
may not fall into the enemy's hands "; But Tomomori forbade him. " That must not be ", he said, 
" for it has just saved my life." So Shigeyoshi did not shoot. The horse was very loath to leave its 
master, and kept close to the ship for a while, swimming right out into the offing, and it was not 
until it was at some distance from the shore that it reluctantly turned round and swam back to 
the beach, and even then, as soon as its feet touched the ground, it turned again and looked after 
the ship, neighing loudly three times. 

Afterwards, as it was resting on the shore, Kawagoe-no-Kotaro Shigefusa caught it and brought it 
to the Ho-6. It had originally been the most prized animal in the Ho-6's stables, and had been 
presented to Munemori the year before on the occasion of his becoming Naidaijin, and he had 
given it to Tomomori, and so much did he prize it that he had prayers offered to Taisanfukun, 
the god of longevity, on its behalf on the first day of every month. And that is why it was so long 

winded, and was enabled to save its master on this occasion. It was reared in the province of 
Shinano at a place called Inoue, and so was called Inoueguro, but now, as Kawagoe had caught it, 
its name was changed to Kawagoeguro. 

Then Tomomori entered the presence of the Daijin Munemori, and with tears running down his 
face, spoke thus: 

" How sad am I to be alive when my son Musashi-no-kami is gone, and my retainer Kenmotsu is 
slain also. What is to be thought of a father like me, who cannot help his son when he turns the 
attack of the enemy on to himself to rescue his father, but leaves him to his fate and saves himself 
thus? In the 

p. 161 

case of another I should think that he grudged his life, and now in my own what shame must I 
feel to merit a like reproach? " And he hid his face in the sleeve of his armour and sobbed aloud. " 
Indeed it was a splendid thing that Musashi-no-kami thus gave his life for his father; skilled in 
fight and valiant of heart, how great a captain he wasl He was even now the same age as 
Kiyomune here; just sixteen this year." And looking at his own, son Uemon-no-kami Kiyomune, 
he too burst into tears. And none of those present, even the most hard-hearted, could refrain 
from moistening the sleeves of their armour. 


Bitchu-no-kami Moromori, the youngest son of Komatsu Shigemori, had just embarked in a small 
boat with six of his retainers, when one of the samurai of Tomomori, Seieimon Kinnaga by name, 
galloped down to the water's edge and begged them to take him on board, so they backed a little 
way to take him in. Hastily he jumped in from his horse's back, and as he was a heavy man and in 
full armour, and the boat was small, it rolled over with the shock and capsized. Bitchu-no-kami 
was thrown into the water, and as he was struggling in the waves, Honda-no-Jiro Chikatsune, one 
of the retainers of Hatakeyama, rode up with thirteen of his men, and quickly dismounting, 
dragged him from the water with an iron rake and decapitated him on the spot. He was then 
fourteen years of age. 

Echizen-no-sammi Michimori-no-Kyo was also in command by the hillside, and when all his men 
had either fallen or fled, and he was cut off from the main body, since his younger brother Noto 
no kami Noritsune had already escaped and left him behind, lie determined to put an end to 
himself in peace. .As he was turning to retire to the eastward for this 

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purpose, however, he was suddenly surrounded by Sasaki-no-Kimura Saburo Naritsuna of Omi 
and Tamii-no-Shiro Sukekage of Musashi with five others, who quickly slew him and cut off his 
head. He had with him one retainer only, but when the end came he too deserted him and 

Thus as the day wore on both Genji and Heike fell in great numbers at the eastern and western 
barriers, and before the towers and beneath the barricades the bodies of men and horses lay in 
heaps, while the green grass of Ichi-no-tani and Osasahara was turned to crimson. Countless were 
those who fell by arrow and sword at Ichi-no-tani and Ikuta-no-mori, by the hillside and by the 
strand of the sea. Two thousand heads did the Genji take in this battle, and of the Courtiers of 
the Heike, Echizen-no-Sammi Michimori, his younger brother Kurando-no-Taiyu Narimori, 
Satsuma-no-kami Tadanori, Musashi-no-kami Tomoakira, Bitchu-no-kami Moromori, Owarino- 
kami-Kiyosada, Awaji-no-kami Kiyofusa, Kogo-gu-no-suke Tsunemasa the eldest son of 
Tsunernori, his younger brother Wakasa no kami Tsunetoshi, and his younger brother Taiyu 
Atsumori, beside ten others, all fell at Ichi-no-tani. 

When their stronghold was thus captured, the Heike were compelled to put to sea once more, 
taking the child Emperor with them. Some of their vessels were driven by wind and tide toward 
the province of Kii, while others rowed out and tossed about, buffeted by the waves, in the offing 
of Ashiya. Some rocked on the billows off Suma and Akashi, steering aimlessly hither and thither, 
their crews weary and dispirited as they turned on their hard plank couches, and viewed the 
moon of spring mistily through their tear-dimmed eyes. Some crossed the straits of Awaji and 
drifted along by Ejima-ga-Iso, likening their lot to the sad sea birds that fly there seeking by 
twilight the mate they have lost, while others still lay off Ichi-no-tani uncertain where to steer. 
Yesterday, with a host of a hundred thousand, feared and obeyed by fourteen provinces, they lay 

with high hopes but one day's journey 
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from the Capital, and now, after the defeat of Ichi-no-tani they were scattered and, dispersed 
along the coast, each unaware of the fate of his friend. 


Now Kenda Takiguchi Tokikazu, a retainer of Echizenon-Sammi Michimori, fled in haste to the 
ship in which was then wife of Michmori, and said to her : " This morning my lord was 
surrounded by seven horsemen at the Minatogawa and fell fighting, and among them were Sasaki- 
no Kimura Saburo Naritsuna of Omi, and Tamai-no-Shiro Sukekage of Musashi. I too would have 
stayed with him to the end and died, but he had strictly charged me before, saying that if 
anything should happen to him I must at all costs escape to look after my mistress ; and so it is 
that I have saved my worthless life and come to you." On hearing these tidings his mistress 
uttered no word, but covered her face and fell prostrate. Though she had already heard that he 
was dead, she had not at first believed it, but for two or three days had waited as for one who had 
gone out for a short time and would soon come back, but when four or five days had passed, her 
confidence was shaken and she fell into deep melancholy. Her feelings were shared by her foster- 
mother who alone accompanied her and shared the same pillow. 

From the seventh day, on which the news was brought to her, until the evening of the thirteenth 
she did not rise from her bed. At dawn on the fourteenth day the Heike were starting to cross 
again to Yashima, and until the evening before she still lay on her couch. Then as night drew on 
and all was quiet in the ship, she turned to her foster-mother and said: 

"Though I had been told it, until this morning I did not realize that my husband was dead, but 
now; this evening, I know it is true. Everyone says he was killed at the 

p. 164 

Minatogawa, and after that there is none who says he has seen him alive. And what grieves me 
most is that when I saw him for a short while on the night before the battle he was sad and said 
to me : " I am certain to be slain in tomorrow's battle, and I wonder what will become of you 
after I am gone." As there have been so many battles I did not pay any special heed to it, but if I 
had thought that it was the last time indeed, I would have promised to follow him to the after 
world. Then, fearing that he might think me too reserved, I told him what I had up till that time 
concealed, that I was 'not-alone.' He was extremely pleased to hear it and said : " Ah, I have 
reached thirty years of age without having any children; I hope you will make it a boy if you can, 
for that will be a good memento of myself to leave behind in this fleeting world." Then he went 
on to ask me how many months it was, and how I felt, and bade me keep as quiet as was possibl